Next Article in Journal
Nested Shallow Geothermal Systems
Next Article in Special Issue
New Market Model with Social and Commercial Tiers for Improved Prosumer Trading in Microgrids
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluating Environmental Impact in Foundations and Structures through Disaggregated Models: Towards the Decarbonisation of the Construction Sector
Previous Article in Special Issue
Blockchain of Carbon Trading for UN Sustainable Development Goals
Open AccessArticle

Scheduling Charging of Electric Vehicles in a Secured Manner by Emphasizing Cost Minimization Using Blockchain Technology and IPFS

1
Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Traffic Safety Technologies Chair, Urban Planning Department, College of Architecture and Planning, King Saud University, Riyadh 11574, Saudi Arabia
3
Biomedical Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
4
College of Computer Science and Engineering (CCSE), University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21959, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Computer Science and IT, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
6
School of Systems and Technology, University of Management and Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 5151; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125151
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
In this work, Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charged using a new and improved charging mechanism called the Mobile-Vehicle-to-Vehicle (M2V) charging strategy. It is further compared with conventional Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) charging strategies. In the proposed work, the charging of vehicles is done in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) manner; the vehicles are charged using Charging Stations (CSs) or Mobile Vehicles (MVs) in the absence of a central entity. CSs are fixed entities situated at certain locations and act as charge suppliers, whereas MVs act as prosumers, which have the capability of charging themselves and also other vehicles. In the proposed system, blockchain technology is used to tackle the issues related with existing systems, such as privacy, security, lack of trust, etc., and also to promote transparency, data immutability, and a tamper-proof nature. Moreover, to store the data related to traffic, roads, and weather conditions, a centralized entity, i.e., Transport System Information Unit (TSIU), is used. It helps in reducing the road congestion and avoids roadside accidents. In the TSIU, an Inter-Planetary File System (IPFS) is used to store the data in a secured manner after removing the data’s redundancy through data filtration. Furthermore, four different types of costs are calculated mathematically, which ultimately contribute towards calculating the total charging cost. The shortest distance between a vehicle and the charging entities is calculated using the Great-Circle Distance formula. Moving on, both the time taken to traverse this shortest distance and the time to charge the vehicles are calculated using real-time data of four EVs. Location privacy is also proposed in this work to provide privacy to vehicle users. The power flow and the related energy losses for the above-mentioned charging strategies are also discussed in this work. An incentive provisioning mechanism is also proposed on the basis of timely delivery of credible messages, which further promotes users’ participation. In the end, simulations are performed and results are obtained that prove the efficiency of the proposed work, as compared to conventional techniques, in minimizing the EVs’ charging cost, time, and distance. View Full-Text
Keywords: blockchain; M2V; IPFS; charging scheduling; Great-Circle Distance blockchain; M2V; IPFS; charging scheduling; Great-Circle Distance
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Javed, M.U.; Javaid, N.; Aldegheishem, A.; Alrajeh, N.; Tahir, M.; Ramzan, M. Scheduling Charging of Electric Vehicles in a Secured Manner by Emphasizing Cost Minimization Using Blockchain Technology and IPFS. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5151. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125151

AMA Style

Javed MU, Javaid N, Aldegheishem A, Alrajeh N, Tahir M, Ramzan M. Scheduling Charging of Electric Vehicles in a Secured Manner by Emphasizing Cost Minimization Using Blockchain Technology and IPFS. Sustainability. 2020; 12(12):5151. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125151

Chicago/Turabian Style

Javed, Muhammad U.; Javaid, Nadeem; Aldegheishem, Abdulaziz; Alrajeh, Nabil; Tahir, Muhammad; Ramzan, Muhammad. 2020. "Scheduling Charging of Electric Vehicles in a Secured Manner by Emphasizing Cost Minimization Using Blockchain Technology and IPFS" Sustainability 12, no. 12: 5151. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12125151

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop