sustainability-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Topical Collection "Adaptive Cities: Urban Planning and Design Contribution for Achieving Climate Resilient Cities"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Francesco Musco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Arts [DCP]; urban and regional planner & Director of Planning Climate Change Lab, IUAV University of Venice, 30135 Venezia, Italy
Interests: urban planning and sustainability; urban resilience; climate change and strategies of mitigations and adaptions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Eugenio Morello
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Urban Simulation laboratory (Fausto Curti), Department of Architecture and Urban Studies (DASTU), Polytechnic University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: urban sustainability; climate planning; urban planning and design; co-creation; urban greening
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Specific policies to reduce global impacts of climate change represent urgent and controversial issues in the contemporary debate at the international level. At the same time, the role of cities and territories in implementing mitigation and adaptation policies at the local level has been often underestimated by international agreements on climate and carbon emission reduction, despite the fact that most externalities affecting climate change are produced within the urban environment, or by urban facilities; in fact, cities are the main places suffering from the specific impacts of climate variabilities with a specific attention to phenomena connected to two main categories: Extreme precipitation events and flooding and heating waves and warming.

From a global perspective, how national, regional and local authorities are producing strategies to reduce potential local impacts of climate events (in the short and medium term); at the same time, the real impacts on the innovation and updating of urban planning techniques and procedures are still limited. For instance, the gap is very evident looking at the majority of the national adaptation plans, which usually present strategies and solutions that are problematic to be implemented, even when included and integrated as a part of spatial planning policies and tools at the local scale.

This Special Issue aims to open a debate on the modalities to operatively implement adaptation strategies and measures within the urban planning and design domains, including adaptation-oriented urban policies, the presentation of case studies of cities and territories around the world that are experimenting, evaluating, and linking adaption design to local urban planning systems in order to increase resilience (e.g., local adaption plans, resilience strategies, etc.). At the same time, experiences of climate-oriented policies to support the transition from mitigation to adaptation (e.g., in the EU perspective of the global mayor adapt initiatives) in local planning procedures are welcome.

Dr. Francesco Musco
Dr. Eugenio Morello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable urban planning and design
  • urban resilience
  • adaptation
  • climate design
  • adaptive urban systems

Published Papers (14 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020, 2019, 2018

Article
Eco-Hammam: The Complexity of Accelerating the Ecological Transition of a Key Social Heritage Sector in Morocco
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9935; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179935 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 404
Abstract
Hammams are key providers of affordable hygiene and wellbeing services for the less wealthy in the Maghreb region. However, the UN climate change conference COP22, held in Marrakech in 2016, highlighted hammams are major contributors to air pollution, deforestation, loss of ecosystems, water [...] Read more.
Hammams are key providers of affordable hygiene and wellbeing services for the less wealthy in the Maghreb region. However, the UN climate change conference COP22, held in Marrakech in 2016, highlighted hammams are major contributors to air pollution, deforestation, loss of ecosystems, water overconsumption and wastage in Morocco. This paper analyses the complexity of advancing their energy transition from the viewpoint of key stakeholders engaged in two half-day virtual forums focusing on the water–energy nexus; organised as part of the AHRC funded project “Eco-Hammam: engaging key stakeholders with bespoke low-carbon technologies for lighting, heating, and water recycling to sustain a Moroccan heritage”. Results reveal that the Moroccan hammam sector could benefit greatly from stakeholders’ networking and collaboration to accelerate the uptake of low-carbon technologies and ecological practices. Key stakeholders’ priorities and barriers (economic, policy-induced or governance related) are presented and show that the lack of coordination between governmental and non-governmental organisations is perceived as contributing to the slow pace of the hammam energy transition. Although managers seem fully aware of available energy transition technologies for their furnaces, energy and water are treated independently and disconnected in their governance. Finally, Marrakech is identified as a potential hammam sustainability hub. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Quantification of the Outdoor Thermal Comfort within Different Oases Urban Fabrics
Sustainability 2021, 13(6), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063051 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 740
Abstract
Oases settlements are common entities of human agglomerations throughout desert regions. Oases settlements face several environmental challenges such as climate change, which can render them insufferably hot and unlivable within decades. Therefore, this study aims to assess the outdoor thermal comfort variation within [...] Read more.
Oases settlements are common entities of human agglomerations throughout desert regions. Oases settlements face several environmental challenges such as climate change, which can render them insufferably hot and unlivable within decades. Therefore, this study aims to assess the outdoor thermal comfort variation within three different oases urban fabrics of Tolga Oases Complex in Algeria. The overarching aim is to quantify thermal comfort and guide landscape, and urban designers improve outdoor thermal comfort. The methodology relies on microclimatic measurements and weather datasets (TMY2, TMY3, TMYx), combining observations and numerical simulations. A total of 648 Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) values were calculated in three different urban fabrics in Tolga Oases Complex, Algeria. Between 2003 and 2017, a remarkable microclimatic change was found, causing a high and accelerated heat stress level of 76%. The study results inform architects, urban planners and climatologists about climate change effects and urban sprawl impact on the oases lands. Moreover, urban strategies should seek mitigation and adaptation benefiting from the existing green infrastructure of palm groves. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Sea Level Rise and Coastal Impacts: Innovation and Improvement of the Local Urban Plan for a Climate-Proof Adaptation Strategy
Sustainability 2021, 13(3), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031565 - 02 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 978
Abstract
In recent years, the territorial impacts connected to sea level rise have prompted a reflection on the responsibilities of policy makers in transposing these issues into urban agendas. The need also emerged to both broaden and update the skills of urban planners and [...] Read more.
In recent years, the territorial impacts connected to sea level rise have prompted a reflection on the responsibilities of policy makers in transposing these issues into urban agendas. The need also emerged to both broaden and update the skills of urban planners and to improve territorial governance tools, with the aim of developing feasible regeneration and resilience strategies to face climate change. In this paper, a methodology for the production of Flood Risk Maps is presented, as applied to the Municipality of Ravenna, Italy, by only considering the static component of inundation hazard, i.e., the projected Mean Sea Level Rise, as a first step towards increased preparedness. The resulting Flood Risk Maps represent, in fact, an innovation with respect to the current cognitive framework that supports local urban planning, by providing information on a potential risk that has so far been overlooked. The method combines sea level rise projections under the pessimistic RCP8.5 scenario with georeferenced territorial data, aiming to identify the physical consistency of the urban-structure components which are potentially at risk. For successive time horizons (2030, 2050 and 2100), our results show the progressive impairment and potential degradation of extensive urban areas that are disregarded in the urban planning regulations currently in force. This preliminary evaluation phase is aimed at prompting and supporting the necessary updating of the planning tools and regulations adopted by the public bodies responsible for territorial governance, by identifying priority areas for intervention, and helping define mitigation and adaptation actions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2020

Jump to: 2021, 2019, 2018

Article
Policies and Architectures for the Unthinkable Era: New Resilient Landscapes in Fragile Areas of Sardinia
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8714; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208714 - 21 Oct 2020
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The culture of urban space design is not separate from the uncanny nature of climate change, even though this latter now appears more threatening than the production of risks or new vulnerabilities. Environmental disasters and cities’ high degree of exposure to these risks [...] Read more.
The culture of urban space design is not separate from the uncanny nature of climate change, even though this latter now appears more threatening than the production of risks or new vulnerabilities. Environmental disasters and cities’ high degree of exposure to these risks are well known. What is apparent is the close relationship between these disasters and the urban transformations generated by approaches which, quoting the writer Amitav Gohsh, can be defined as outcomes of the Great Derangement Era. Through our research and design project; we have outlined the need to break free from the uncanny feeling caused by the specific phenomena which make territories more fragile and vulnerable to extreme weather and climate events. The design process illustrated, which involved a small town in central-western Sardinia, is an example of how the construction of a new urban landscape and architecture can take place starting, not only from the contingent risks of emergency situations, but rather from the recognition of any potential risks. With the goal of setting up an open and sustainable territorial plan, the case study has been designed as an approach to climate adaptation even if in Sardinia the link between climate change and flood risk has not been studied in depth and no evidence of this link has yet emerged. The project scenarios of an urban plan for one of the local governments in Sardinia, highlighted in the paper, has been conceived as a path of coevolution between new urban transformations and ecological dynamics of the environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Enhancing Flood Resilience and Climate Adaptation: The State of the Art and New Directions for Spatial Planning
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 7864; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197864 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
The need to respond to increasing flood risk, climate change, and rapid urban development has shaped innovative policies and practices of spatial planning in many countries over recent decades. As an instrumental–technical intervention, planning is mainly used to improve the physical environment (through [...] Read more.
The need to respond to increasing flood risk, climate change, and rapid urban development has shaped innovative policies and practices of spatial planning in many countries over recent decades. As an instrumental–technical intervention, planning is mainly used to improve the physical environment (through concepts such as regulating waterproof facades of architecture, setting buffering zones, and designing green–blue corridors). However, the implementation of the proposed physical interventions is often challenging and necessitates assistance from practices such as climate assessment, policy disciplines, civil societies, and economic resources. These extensive perspectives have spawned many new research domains in the realm of spatial planning. This paper provides a review of the recent developments in flood resilience, risk management, and climate adaptation; based on this, it positions planning research and practice within these works of literature. Four clusters of thought are identified, mainly in the European and American scholarship of the last two decades. They are environmental concerns, disaster management concerns, socio-economic concerns, and institutional concerns. Current planning research concentrates on disaster management in the underlying belief that planning is functionally efficient. The attention to environmental concerns, socio-economic concerns, and institutional concerns of planning research remains insufficient but has been growing. This, in turn, enlarges the scope of planning research and indicates future directions for study. These new concerns relate to spatial planning’s ability to operate effectively in a multi-sectoral setting, despite limited resources and in the face of uncertain risk. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Application of the Integrated Design Process (IDP) Method to the Design of Riverside on the Example of Żmigród (Poland)
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12166684 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Today, natural resources of urban areas have been given the rank of a necessary tool for combating climate change. Many cities are trying to manage biologically active areas of great quality by applying a blue-green infrastructure (BGI) strategy. Designing areas such as riverside [...] Read more.
Today, natural resources of urban areas have been given the rank of a necessary tool for combating climate change. Many cities are trying to manage biologically active areas of great quality by applying a blue-green infrastructure (BGI) strategy. Designing areas such as riverside areas belonging to BGI is particularly challenging. On the one hand, they are environmentally valuable areas requiring protection. On the other hand, they form urban public spaces subject to requirements of urban continuity as well as social and cultural conditions. The authors of the article argue that the optimal way of shaping riverside areas in cities that responds to diverse conditions (environmental, economic, legal, social) can be achieved by applying an integrated system of cooperation between designers known as the integrated design process (IDP) in the design process. The study aimed to answer the question of whether the integrated design process (IDP) that combines both the expert and social approach at the first stage, in the pre-concept phase may be optimal when developing riverside areas as part of blue-green infrastructure (BGI). The method was originally applied to architectural design, therefore the authors analyzed to what extent its assumptions may be used in the waterfront design process. First, the authors’ study compares design processes (traditional and integrated) for use in these processes of expert and social perspective. As a result, the integrated design process (IDP) has been considered as an optimal design process to create such areas. Then, the authors analyze the waterfront design process in Żmigród. The authors wanted to see to what extent the process corresponds to the assumptions of the IDP method. The authors point out the stages that implement assumptions of the IDP method partially or not at all and indicate the reasons for such a situation. The authors evaluated the role of various stakeholders. The analysis and critique of Żmigród case study presented here provide conclusions regarding the possibilities and limitations of the IDP method when implementing blue-green infrastructure projects in a small town. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Building Consensus with Local Residents in Community-Based Adaptation Planning: The Case of Bansong Pilbongoreum Community in Busan, South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041559 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
Climate change adaptation is challenging in community planning because of the conflict between planners’ scientific knowledge and residents’ local knowledge. Focusing on the Bansong Pilbongoreum community in South Korea, we suggest a community-based adaption plan that uses local knowledge and builds consensus between [...] Read more.
Climate change adaptation is challenging in community planning because of the conflict between planners’ scientific knowledge and residents’ local knowledge. Focusing on the Bansong Pilbongoreum community in South Korea, we suggest a community-based adaption plan that uses local knowledge and builds consensus between local residents and planners by identifying problems and planning objectives. We applied this plan to our case study, using in-depth interviews, a community workshop, local knowledge, and scientific climate adaptation measures to identify the community’s problems and develop a plan. Planners and residents must communicate so that planners can incorporate local knowledge into effective planning objectives for community adaptation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Mapping Heat Stress Vulnerability and Risk Assessment at the Neighborhood Scale to Drive Urban Adaptation Planning
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031056 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1428
Abstract
Climate change is one of the most complex issues of the 21st century, and even though there is general consensus about the urgency of taking action at the city level, the planning and implementation of adaptation measures is advancing slowly. The lack of [...] Read more.
Climate change is one of the most complex issues of the 21st century, and even though there is general consensus about the urgency of taking action at the city level, the planning and implementation of adaptation measures is advancing slowly. The lack of data and information to support the planning process is often mentioned as a factor hampering the adaptation processes in cities. In this paper, we developed and tested a methodology for heat stress vulnerability and risk assessment at the neighborhood scale to support designers, planners, and decision makers in developing and implementing adaptation strategies and measures at the local level. The methodology combines high-resolution spatial information and crowdsourcing geospatial data to develop sensitivity, adaptive capacity, vulnerability, exposure, and risk indicators. The methodology is then tested on the urban fabric of the city of Padova, Italy. Our results show that different vulnerability and risk values correspond to different typologies of urban areas. Furthermore, the possibility of combining high-resolution information provided by the indicators and land use categories is of great importance to support the adaptation planning process. We also argue that the methodology is flexible enough to be applied in different contexts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Impact of Residential Building Layouts on Microclimate in a High Temperature and High Humidity Region
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031046 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 882
Abstract
Microclimatic condition is a fundamental indicator for evaluating outdoor space livability and vitality. Research has shown that poorly designed building layouts can lead to discomfort; however, the mechanisms influencing outdoor microclimate based on residential building layout are unclear for high temperature and high [...] Read more.
Microclimatic condition is a fundamental indicator for evaluating outdoor space livability and vitality. Research has shown that poorly designed building layouts can lead to discomfort; however, the mechanisms influencing outdoor microclimate based on residential building layout are unclear for high temperature and high humidity regions. This study explores the relationship between residential building layouts and the outdoor wind and thermal environment at the pedestrian level in Wuhan, a city renowned for high temperatures and high humidity. Six typical residential building layouts were simulated, using the ENVI-met numerical model, to determine the spatial distribution of wind speed and air temperature. The Universal Thermal Climate Index was adopted as a comprehensive index with which to assess spatial and diurnal variations in microclimates surrounding each building layout. Results showed that parallel building layouts formed a ventilation corridor that increased wind speeds by approximately 0.3 m/s. A staggered building layout, in line with the prevailing wind direction, facilitated airflow in the ventilation corridor and further increased wind speeds. Windward buildings blocked high-temperature airflows and reduced air temperatures by approximately 1 ℃ in parallel layouts, and 1.4 ℃ in enclosed layouts. However, the cooling effect of windward buildings on high-temperature airflow was weaker than the warming effect caused by the wind shadow effect and direct sunlight. Additionally, the performance of the thermal comfort of the enclosed type layout was significantly better, for most of the day, than the parallel type layout. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Flood Resilient and Sustainable Urban Regeneration Using the Example of an Industrial Compound Conversion in Seoul, South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030918 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
The objective of this study was to illustrate the urban flood resilience and sustainability improvement potential by integration of decentralized water management systems in sustainable urban regeneration projects. This paper discusses sustainable and resilient urban regeneration potentials using the example of an industrial [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to illustrate the urban flood resilience and sustainability improvement potential by integration of decentralized water management systems in sustainable urban regeneration projects. This paper discusses sustainable and resilient urban regeneration potentials using the example of an industrial compound (ICs) conversion in Seoul, South Korea. Urban flood vulnerability has been a concern globally due to land use changes, limited capacity of existing stormwater management infrastructures and the effects of climate change. Due to their comparably low building density, ICs can effectively contribute to the separation and decentralized retention and infiltration of stormwater. However, no sustainable and resilient conversion examples of ICs have been realized in Seoul so far. After identification of a representative IC, its exemplary sustainable conversion with implementation of decentralized water management infrastructures were designed. The rainwater collection, retention and infiltration system was dimensioned in order to create a stormwater discharge-free property. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the improvement potentials before and after the conversion unveiled that this conversion contributes also to the improvement of the neighborhoods’ sustainability, spatial quality and resilience to disasters. The research results are transferable to other urban ICs and are a good practice example for sustainable and resilient regeneration of existing urban districts. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2019

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2018

Article
The Effects of Land Use Zoning and Densification on Changes in Land Surface Temperature in Seoul
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247056 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
This study investigated how changes in land surface temperature (LST) during 2004 and 2014 were attributable to zoning-based land use type in Seoul in association with the building coverage ratio (BCR), floor area ratio (FAR), and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We [...] Read more.
This study investigated how changes in land surface temperature (LST) during 2004 and 2014 were attributable to zoning-based land use type in Seoul in association with the building coverage ratio (BCR), floor area ratio (FAR), and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We retrieved LSTs and NDVI data from satellite images, Landsat TM 5 for 2004 and Landsat 8 TIRS for 2014 and combined them with parcel-based land use information, which contained data on BCR, FAR, and zoning-based land use type. The descriptive analysis results showed a rise in LST for the low- and medium-density residential land, whereas significant LST decreases were found in high-density residential, semi-residential, and commercial areas over the time period. Statistical results further supported these findings, yielding statistically significant negative coefficient values for all interaction variables between higher-density land use types and a year-based dummy variable. The findings appear to be related to residential densification involving the provision of more high-rise apartment complexes and government efforts to secure more parks and green spaces through urban redevelopment and renewal projects. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Comparison of Neighborhood-Scale Interventions to Alleviate Urban Heat in Doha, Qatar
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030730 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that many densely populated areas of the world will be uninhabitable in the coming century due to the depletion of resources, climate change, and increasing urbanization. This poses serious questions regarding the actions that require immediate attention, and opportunities to [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests that many densely populated areas of the world will be uninhabitable in the coming century due to the depletion of resources, climate change, and increasing urbanization. This poses serious questions regarding the actions that require immediate attention, and opportunities to stave off massive losses of infrastructure, populations, and financial investments. The present study utilizes microclimate modeling to examine the role of landscape features as they affect ambient temperatures in one of the fastest growing regions of the world: Doha, Qatar. By modeling three study sites around Doha—one highly urbanized, one newly urbanizing, and one coastal low-density urbanized—the research indicates that at the neighborhood scale, the most effective scenario was that of adding mature trees along the sides of roads. In the coastal study area, the model results estimated a maximum hourly air temperature reduction of 1.35 °C, and in the highly urbanized inland site, surface temperature reductions were up to 15 °C at 12:00. While other scenarios were effective at reducing air and surface temperatures, the mean radiant temperature was also increased or nearly neutral for most of the other scenarios. This result highlights the need to develop improved shading measures for pedestrian pathways and outdoor recreational areas, especially for highly urbanized inland areas in Doha and cities with similar climatic conditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2018

Jump to: 2021, 2020, 2019

Article
Morphological Indices as Urban Planning Tools in Northeastern Brazil
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4358; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124358 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1819
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to analyze urban form through the mapping of morphological indices, namely impervious surface fraction, building density, verticality, height/width ratio, roughness length, and porosity, to support urban planning in the city of João Pessoa, PB, in northeastern Brazil. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to analyze urban form through the mapping of morphological indices, namely impervious surface fraction, building density, verticality, height/width ratio, roughness length, and porosity, to support urban planning in the city of João Pessoa, PB, in northeastern Brazil. The application of this study identifies and calculates such significant indices for the city’s urban space from a Geographic Information System (GIS) model. The spatial indices play notable roles in climate at different scales, developing guidelines to maximize environmental quality, promote improvements to thermal comfort, minimize the urban heat island in the city of João Pessoa, and provide relevant data (considering microclimate aspects), guiding decisions related to the planning process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Spatial Zoning Strategy of Urbanization Based on Urban Climate Co-Movement: A Case Study in Shanghai Mainland Area
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082706 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Urbanization has brought with it large populations in cities, which has then led to changes in urban land use intensity and spatial patterns, resulting in changes in underlying surfaces and urban climate. The impacts of the early urbanization process and the rapid development [...] Read more.
Urbanization has brought with it large populations in cities, which has then led to changes in urban land use intensity and spatial patterns, resulting in changes in underlying surfaces and urban climate. The impacts of the early urbanization process and the rapid development of the international metropolis on the interactive development of spatial zoning, urban climate, and urbanization in the main region of Shanghai are studied. This study has important practical and methodological implications with respect to two major themes in the current urban planning area of China, specifically, the construction of new urbanization and the changes in urban climate adaptation. Through the experiences of the human activities model from ecology, factors are selected based on the effects of climate on four dimensions, namely, economy, urban construction, ecological, and environment, where the weight of each index is determined by the coefficient of the variation method and the important spatial factors influencing the climate effect are screened out. The four important influential factors are population density, road density, built-up areas, and the green coverage ratio of spatial distribution. A quantitative analysis determined that there exists a consistent relationship between urban climate factors and the four urbanization spatial factors. Based on urbanization classification that considered each factor evaluation along with integrated analyses and statistical correlation analyses of the spatial grid index using ArcGIS software, the urban space partition level is identified, and urban spatial zoning strategies based on the co-movement of urban climate system are put forward. Combined with the zoning study of land use and the urban heat island distribution pattern, the spatial zoning strategy of controlling urbanization intensity based on the urban climate system is proposed. This research will guide the integration of the urbanization spatial structure and urban climate system toward rational development in Shanghai city. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop