Special Issue "Adaptive Cities: Urban Planning and Design Contribution for Achieving Climate Resilient Cities"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Urban and Rural Development".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Francesco Musco
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Arts, Iuav University of Venice, Venice, Italy
Interests: climate proof cities; adaptation and urban planning; climate adaptation policies
Dr. Eugenio Morello
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, Polytechnic of Milan, Milano, Italy
Interests: urban simulation; spatial analysis; climate urban design; energy and urban planning
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Specific policies to reduce global impacts of climate change represent urgent and controversial issues in the contemporary debate at the international level. At the same time, the role of cities and territories in implementing mitigation and adaptation policies at the local level has been often underestimated by international agreements on climate and carbon emission reduction, despite the fact that most externalities affecting climate change are produced within the urban environment, or by urban facilities; in fact, cities are the main places suffering from the specific impacts of climate variabilities with a specific attention to phenomena connected to two main categories: Extreme precipitation events and flooding and heating waves and warming.

From a global perspective, how national, regional and local authorities are producing strategies to reduce potential local impacts of climate events (in the short and medium term); at the same time, the real impacts on the innovation and updating of urban planning techniques and procedures are still limited. For instance, the gap is very evident looking at the majority of the national adaptation plans, which usually present strategies and solutions that are problematic to be implemented, even when included and integrated as a part of spatial planning policies and tools at the local scale.

This Special Issue aims to open a debate on the modalities to operatively implement adaptation strategies and measures within the urban planning and design domains, including adaptation-oriented urban policies, the presentation of case studies of cities and territories around the world that are experimenting, evaluating, and linking adaption design to local urban planning systems in order to increase resilience (e.g., local adaption plans, resilience strategies, etc.). At the same time, experiences of climate-oriented policies to support the transition from mitigation to adaptation (e.g., in the EU perspective of the global mayor adapt initiatives) in local planning procedures are welcome.

Dr. Francesco Musco
Dr. Eugenio Morello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable urban planning and design
  • urban resilience
  • adaptation
  • climate design
  • adaptive urban systems

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Building Consensus with Local Residents in Community-Based Adaptation Planning: The Case of Bansong Pilbongoreum Community in Busan, South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(4), 1559; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041559 - 19 Feb 2020
Abstract
Climate change adaptation is challenging in community planning because of the conflict between planners’ scientific knowledge and residents’ local knowledge. Focusing on the Bansong Pilbongoreum community in South Korea, we suggest a community-based adaption plan that uses local knowledge and builds consensus between [...] Read more.
Climate change adaptation is challenging in community planning because of the conflict between planners’ scientific knowledge and residents’ local knowledge. Focusing on the Bansong Pilbongoreum community in South Korea, we suggest a community-based adaption plan that uses local knowledge and builds consensus between local residents and planners by identifying problems and planning objectives. We applied this plan to our case study, using in-depth interviews, a community workshop, local knowledge, and scientific climate adaptation measures to identify the community’s problems and develop a plan. Planners and residents must communicate so that planners can incorporate local knowledge into effective planning objectives for community adaptation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping Heat Stress Vulnerability and Risk Assessment at the Neighborhood Scale to Drive Urban Adaptation Planning
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031056 - 02 Feb 2020
Abstract
Climate change is one of the most complex issues of the 21st century, and even though there is general consensus about the urgency of taking action at the city level, the planning and implementation of adaptation measures is advancing slowly. The lack of [...] Read more.
Climate change is one of the most complex issues of the 21st century, and even though there is general consensus about the urgency of taking action at the city level, the planning and implementation of adaptation measures is advancing slowly. The lack of data and information to support the planning process is often mentioned as a factor hampering the adaptation processes in cities. In this paper, we developed and tested a methodology for heat stress vulnerability and risk assessment at the neighborhood scale to support designers, planners, and decision makers in developing and implementing adaptation strategies and measures at the local level. The methodology combines high-resolution spatial information and crowdsourcing geospatial data to develop sensitivity, adaptive capacity, vulnerability, exposure, and risk indicators. The methodology is then tested on the urban fabric of the city of Padova, Italy. Our results show that different vulnerability and risk values correspond to different typologies of urban areas. Furthermore, the possibility of combining high-resolution information provided by the indicators and land use categories is of great importance to support the adaptation planning process. We also argue that the methodology is flexible enough to be applied in different contexts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Residential Building Layouts on Microclimate in a High Temperature and High Humidity Region
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031046 - 02 Feb 2020
Abstract
Microclimatic condition is a fundamental indicator for evaluating outdoor space livability and vitality. Research has shown that poorly designed building layouts can lead to discomfort; however, the mechanisms influencing outdoor microclimate based on residential building layout are unclear for high temperature and high [...] Read more.
Microclimatic condition is a fundamental indicator for evaluating outdoor space livability and vitality. Research has shown that poorly designed building layouts can lead to discomfort; however, the mechanisms influencing outdoor microclimate based on residential building layout are unclear for high temperature and high humidity regions. This study explores the relationship between residential building layouts and the outdoor wind and thermal environment at the pedestrian level in Wuhan, a city renowned for high temperatures and high humidity. Six typical residential building layouts were simulated, using the ENVI-met numerical model, to determine the spatial distribution of wind speed and air temperature. The Universal Thermal Climate Index was adopted as a comprehensive index with which to assess spatial and diurnal variations in microclimates surrounding each building layout. Results showed that parallel building layouts formed a ventilation corridor that increased wind speeds by approximately 0.3 m/s. A staggered building layout, in line with the prevailing wind direction, facilitated airflow in the ventilation corridor and further increased wind speeds. Windward buildings blocked high-temperature airflows and reduced air temperatures by approximately 1 ℃ in parallel layouts, and 1.4 ℃ in enclosed layouts. However, the cooling effect of windward buildings on high-temperature airflow was weaker than the warming effect caused by the wind shadow effect and direct sunlight. Additionally, the performance of the thermal comfort of the enclosed type layout was significantly better, for most of the day, than the parallel type layout. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flood Resilient and Sustainable Urban Regeneration Using the Example of an Industrial Compound Conversion in Seoul, South Korea
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030918 - 27 Jan 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was to illustrate the urban flood resilience and sustainability improvement potential by integration of decentralized water management systems in sustainable urban regeneration projects. This paper discusses sustainable and resilient urban regeneration potentials using the example of an industrial [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to illustrate the urban flood resilience and sustainability improvement potential by integration of decentralized water management systems in sustainable urban regeneration projects. This paper discusses sustainable and resilient urban regeneration potentials using the example of an industrial compound (ICs) conversion in Seoul, South Korea. Urban flood vulnerability has been a concern globally due to land use changes, limited capacity of existing stormwater management infrastructures and the effects of climate change. Due to their comparably low building density, ICs can effectively contribute to the separation and decentralized retention and infiltration of stormwater. However, no sustainable and resilient conversion examples of ICs have been realized in Seoul so far. After identification of a representative IC, its exemplary sustainable conversion with implementation of decentralized water management infrastructures were designed. The rainwater collection, retention and infiltration system was dimensioned in order to create a stormwater discharge-free property. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the improvement potentials before and after the conversion unveiled that this conversion contributes also to the improvement of the neighborhoods’ sustainability, spatial quality and resilience to disasters. The research results are transferable to other urban ICs and are a good practice example for sustainable and resilient regeneration of existing urban districts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Land Use Zoning and Densification on Changes in Land Surface Temperature in Seoul
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7056; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247056 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study investigated how changes in land surface temperature (LST) during 2004 and 2014 were attributable to zoning-based land use type in Seoul in association with the building coverage ratio (BCR), floor area ratio (FAR), and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We [...] Read more.
This study investigated how changes in land surface temperature (LST) during 2004 and 2014 were attributable to zoning-based land use type in Seoul in association with the building coverage ratio (BCR), floor area ratio (FAR), and a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). We retrieved LSTs and NDVI data from satellite images, Landsat TM 5 for 2004 and Landsat 8 TIRS for 2014 and combined them with parcel-based land use information, which contained data on BCR, FAR, and zoning-based land use type. The descriptive analysis results showed a rise in LST for the low- and medium-density residential land, whereas significant LST decreases were found in high-density residential, semi-residential, and commercial areas over the time period. Statistical results further supported these findings, yielding statistically significant negative coefficient values for all interaction variables between higher-density land use types and a year-based dummy variable. The findings appear to be related to residential densification involving the provision of more high-rise apartment complexes and government efforts to secure more parks and green spaces through urban redevelopment and renewal projects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Neighborhood-Scale Interventions to Alleviate Urban Heat in Doha, Qatar
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030730 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that many densely populated areas of the world will be uninhabitable in the coming century due to the depletion of resources, climate change, and increasing urbanization. This poses serious questions regarding the actions that require immediate attention, and opportunities to [...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests that many densely populated areas of the world will be uninhabitable in the coming century due to the depletion of resources, climate change, and increasing urbanization. This poses serious questions regarding the actions that require immediate attention, and opportunities to stave off massive losses of infrastructure, populations, and financial investments. The present study utilizes microclimate modeling to examine the role of landscape features as they affect ambient temperatures in one of the fastest growing regions of the world: Doha, Qatar. By modeling three study sites around Doha—one highly urbanized, one newly urbanizing, and one coastal low-density urbanized—the research indicates that at the neighborhood scale, the most effective scenario was that of adding mature trees along the sides of roads. In the coastal study area, the model results estimated a maximum hourly air temperature reduction of 1.35 °C, and in the highly urbanized inland site, surface temperature reductions were up to 15 °C at 12:00. While other scenarios were effective at reducing air and surface temperatures, the mean radiant temperature was also increased or nearly neutral for most of the other scenarios. This result highlights the need to develop improved shading measures for pedestrian pathways and outdoor recreational areas, especially for highly urbanized inland areas in Doha and cities with similar climatic conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Morphological Indices as Urban Planning Tools in Northeastern Brazil
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4358; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124358 - 22 Nov 2018
Abstract
The purpose of this article is to analyze urban form through the mapping of morphological indices, namely impervious surface fraction, building density, verticality, height/width ratio, roughness length, and porosity, to support urban planning in the city of João Pessoa, PB, in northeastern Brazil. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this article is to analyze urban form through the mapping of morphological indices, namely impervious surface fraction, building density, verticality, height/width ratio, roughness length, and porosity, to support urban planning in the city of João Pessoa, PB, in northeastern Brazil. The application of this study identifies and calculates such significant indices for the city’s urban space from a Geographic Information System (GIS) model. The spatial indices play notable roles in climate at different scales, developing guidelines to maximize environmental quality, promote improvements to thermal comfort, minimize the urban heat island in the city of João Pessoa, and provide relevant data (considering microclimate aspects), guiding decisions related to the planning process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Spatial Zoning Strategy of Urbanization Based on Urban Climate Co-Movement: A Case Study in Shanghai Mainland Area
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082706 - 01 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urbanization has brought with it large populations in cities, which has then led to changes in urban land use intensity and spatial patterns, resulting in changes in underlying surfaces and urban climate. The impacts of the early urbanization process and the rapid development [...] Read more.
Urbanization has brought with it large populations in cities, which has then led to changes in urban land use intensity and spatial patterns, resulting in changes in underlying surfaces and urban climate. The impacts of the early urbanization process and the rapid development of the international metropolis on the interactive development of spatial zoning, urban climate, and urbanization in the main region of Shanghai are studied. This study has important practical and methodological implications with respect to two major themes in the current urban planning area of China, specifically, the construction of new urbanization and the changes in urban climate adaptation. Through the experiences of the human activities model from ecology, factors are selected based on the effects of climate on four dimensions, namely, economy, urban construction, ecological, and environment, where the weight of each index is determined by the coefficient of the variation method and the important spatial factors influencing the climate effect are screened out. The four important influential factors are population density, road density, built-up areas, and the green coverage ratio of spatial distribution. A quantitative analysis determined that there exists a consistent relationship between urban climate factors and the four urbanization spatial factors. Based on urbanization classification that considered each factor evaluation along with integrated analyses and statistical correlation analyses of the spatial grid index using ArcGIS software, the urban space partition level is identified, and urban spatial zoning strategies based on the co-movement of urban climate system are put forward. Combined with the zoning study of land use and the urban heat island distribution pattern, the spatial zoning strategy of controlling urbanization intensity based on the urban climate system is proposed. This research will guide the integration of the urbanization spatial structure and urban climate system toward rational development in Shanghai city. Full article
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