Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa—Biodiversity and Food Security under Climate Change Pressures

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 102551

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Special Issue Editors

Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences (DISSPA), University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari, Italy
Interests: soil water plant relations; abiotic stresses; agronomy; herbaceous crops; quinoa; amaranth
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. CIRAD, UMR SENS, F-34398 Montpellier, France
2. UMR SENS, CIRAD, IRD, Univ. Paul Valery Montpellier 3, Univ. Montpellier, 34090 Montpellier, France
Interests: agrobiodiversity; agroecology; plant genetic resources for food and agriculture; quinoa; neglected and underutilized species; cropping systems; food security; adaptation to climate change
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a herbaceous plant domesticated more than 5000 years BP in the Andean region. The crop is characterized by very high biodiversity, which allows it to adapt easily considering the very different pedoclimatic conditions it faces, as well as makes it resistant to abiotic stresses and climate change proof. Moreover, quinoa is distinguished by its exceptional nutritional characteristics, such as the content and quality of proteins, minerals, lipids, and tocopherols. These features have determined, since the 1990s, the growing interest for quinoa crop by the scientific community and international organizations. In 2013, the United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture (FAO) celebrated the “International Year of Quinoa” to valorize its biodiversity for fighting against food insecurity. Several experiments around the world have taken place in order to study the quinoa plant, thus evaluating the adaptability of different genotypes in new environments, and its response to various laboratory stimuli and cultivation best practices. This Special Issue aims at collecting the main recent studies developed on quinoa worldwide and at sharing further progress in the field.

Dr. Cataldo Pulvento
Dr. Didier Bazile
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • quinoa
  • biodiversity
  • food security
  • climate change
  • screening
  • best agronomic practices
  • soil–water–plant relations
  • environmental adaptability
  • ecophysiological traits

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 212 KiB  
Editorial
Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa—Biodiversity and Food Security under Climate Change Pressures: Advances and Perspectives
Plants 2023, 12(4), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12040868 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1323
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

20 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
Irrigation Regimes and Nitrogen Rates as the Contributing Factors in Quinoa Yield to Increase Water and Nitrogen Efficiencies
Plants 2022, 11(15), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11152048 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1506
Abstract
Sustainable field crop management has been considered to reach the food security issue due to global warming and water scarcity. The effect of deficit irrigation and nitrogen rates on quinoa yield is a challenging issue in those areas. In this regard, the interaction [...] Read more.
Sustainable field crop management has been considered to reach the food security issue due to global warming and water scarcity. The effect of deficit irrigation and nitrogen rates on quinoa yield is a challenging issue in those areas. In this regard, the interaction effects of different N rates (0, 125, 250, and 375 kg N ha−1) and irrigation regimes [full irrigation (FI) and deficit irrigation at 0.75 FI and 0.5 FI] on quinoa yield and water and nitrogen efficiencies were evaluated with a two-year field experiment. Increasing nitrogen fertilizer application levels from 250 to 375 kg N ha−1 under FI and deficit irrigation did not cause a significant difference in seed yield and the total dry matter of quinoa. Furthermore, 20% and 34% reductions were observed for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and nitrogen yield efficiency with the application of 375 kg N ha−1 compared with that obtained in 250 kg N ha−1 nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. Therefore, a Nitrogen application rate of 250 kg ha−1 and applying 0.75 FI is suggested as the optimum rate to reach the highest seed water use efficiency (0.7 kg m−3) and NUE (0.28 kg m−3) to gain 4.12 Mg ha−1 quinoa seed yield. Under non–limited water resource conditions, an FI and N application rate of 375 kg ha−1 could be used for higher seed yield; however, under water-deficit regimes, an N application rate of 250 kg ha−1 could be adequate. However, questions about which environmental factors impressively restricted the quinoa growth for optimizing the potential yield need further investigation. Full article
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13 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Phenotypic Diversity in the USDA Collection of Quinoa Links Genotypic Adaptation to Germplasm Origin
Plants 2022, 11(6), 738; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11060738 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2364
Abstract
Quinoa’s germplasm evaluation is the first step towards determining its suitability under new environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to introduce suitable germplasm to the lowland areas of the Faisalabad Plain that could then be used to introduce quinoa more effectively [...] Read more.
Quinoa’s germplasm evaluation is the first step towards determining its suitability under new environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to introduce suitable germplasm to the lowland areas of the Faisalabad Plain that could then be used to introduce quinoa more effectively to that region. A set of 117 quinoa genotypes belonging to the USDA quinoa collection was evaluated for 11 phenotypic quantitative traits (grain yield (Y), its biological and numerical components plus phenological variables) in a RCBD during two consecutive growing seasons at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan under mid-autumn sowings. Genotypic performance changed across the years, however most phenotypic traits showed high heritability, from 0.75 for Harvest Index (HI) to 0.97 for aerial biomass (B) and Y. Ordination and cluster analyses differentiated four groups dominated by genotypes from: Peru and the Bolivian Highlands (G1); the Bolivian Highlands (G2); the Ballón collection (regarded as a cross between Bolivian and Sea Level (Chilean) genotypes) plus Bolivian Highlands (G3); and Ballón plus Sea Level (G4), this latter group being the most differentiated one. This genetic structure shared similarities with previous groups identified using SSR markers and G×E data from an international quinoa test. G4 genotypes showed the highest Y associated with higher B and seed numbers (SN), while HI made a significant contribution to yield determination in G2 and seed weight (SW) in G3. G1 and G2 showed the lowest Y associated with a lower B and SN. Moreover, SW showed a strongly negative association with SN in G2. Accordingly, G4 followed by G3 are better suited to the lowland areas of Faisalabad plain and the physiological traits underlying yield determination among genotypic groups should be considered in future breeding programs. Full article
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13 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Enriching Urea with Nitrogen Inhibitors Improves Growth, N Uptake and Seed Yield in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) Affecting Photochemical Efficiency and Nitrate Reductase Activity
Plants 2022, 11(3), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030371 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2600
Abstract
Quinoa is a climate resilience potential crop for food security due to high nutritive value. However, crop variable response to nitrogen (N) use efficiency may lead to affect grain quality and yield. This study compared the performance of contrasting quinoa genotypes (UAF Q-7, [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a climate resilience potential crop for food security due to high nutritive value. However, crop variable response to nitrogen (N) use efficiency may lead to affect grain quality and yield. This study compared the performance of contrasting quinoa genotypes (UAF Q-7, EMS-line and JQH1) to fertilizer urea enriched with urease and nitrification inhibitors (NIs; 1% (w/w) thiourea + boric acid + sodium thiosulphate), ordinary urea and with no N as control. Application of NIs-enriched urea improved plant growth, N uptake and chlorophyll values in quinoa genotype UAF-Q7 and JHQ1, however, highest nitrate reductase (NR) activity was observed in EMS-line. Quinoa plants supplied with NIs-enriched urea also completed true and multiple leaf stage, bud formation, flowering, and maturity stages earlier than ordinary urea and control, nevertheless, all quinoa genotypes reached true and multiple leaf stage, flowering and maturity stages at same time. Among photosynthetic efficiency traits, application of NIs-enriched urea expressed highest photosynthetic active radiations (PAR), electron transport rate (ETR), current fluorescence (Ft) and reduced quantum yield (Y) in EMS line. Nitrogen treatments had no significant difference for panicle length, however, among genotypes, UAF-Q7 showed highest length of panicle followed by others. Among yield attributes, NIs-enriched urea expressed maximum 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in JQH-1 hybrid and EMS-line. Likely, an increase in quinoa grain protein contents was observed in JQH-1 hybrid for NIs-enriched urea. In conclusion, NIs-enriched urea with urease and nitrification inhibitors simultaneously can be used to improve the N uptake, seed yield and grain protein contents in quinoa, however, better crop response was attributed to enhanced plant growth and photosynthetic efficiency. Full article
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25 pages, 11618 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Physiological Traits Associated with Yield under Reduced Irrigation in Chilean Coastal Lowland Quinoa
Plants 2022, 11(3), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030323 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a genetically diverse crop that has gained popularity in recent years due to its high nutritional content and ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought. Varieties from the coastal lowland ecotype are of particular [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a genetically diverse crop that has gained popularity in recent years due to its high nutritional content and ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought. Varieties from the coastal lowland ecotype are of particular interest due to their insensitivity to photoperiod and their potential to be cultivated in higher latitudes. We performed a field experiment in the southern Atacama Desert in Chile to investigate the responses to reduced irrigation of nine previously selected coastal lowland self-pollinated (CLS) lines and the commercial cultivar Regalona. We found that several lines exhibited a yield and seed size superior to Regalona, also under reduced irrigation. Plant productivity data were analyzed together with morphological and physiological traits measured at the visible inflorescence stage to estimate the contribution of these traits to differences between the CLS lines and Regalona under full and reduced irrigation. We applied proximal sensing methods and found that thermal imaging provided a promising means to estimate variation in plant water use relating to yield, whereas hyperspectral imaging separated lines in a different way, potentially related to photosynthesis as well as water use. Full article
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18 pages, 4717 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical Characterization of Thirteen Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Varieties Grown in North-West Europe—Part II
Plants 2022, 11(3), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11030265 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Quinoa cultivation has gained increasing interest in Europe but more research on the characteristics of European varieties is required to help determine their end use applications. A comparative study was performed on 13 quinoa varieties cultivated under North-West European field conditions during three [...] Read more.
Quinoa cultivation has gained increasing interest in Europe but more research on the characteristics of European varieties is required to help determine their end use applications. A comparative study was performed on 13 quinoa varieties cultivated under North-West European field conditions during three consecutive growing seasons (2017–2019). The seeds were milled to wholemeal flour (WMF) to evaluate the physicochemical properties. The WMFs of 2019 were characterized by the highest water absorption capacity (1.46–2.06 g/g), while the water absorption index (WAI) between 55 °C (2.04–3.80 g/g) and 85 °C (4.04–7.82 g/g) increased over the years. The WMFs of 2018 had the highest WAI at 95 °C (6.48–9.48 g/g). The pasting profiles were characterized by a high viscosity peak (1696–2560 mPa.s) and strong breakdown (−78–643 mPa.s) in 2017. The peak viscosity decreased in 2018 and 2019 (823–2492 mPa.s), while breakdown (−364–555 mPa.s) and setback (19–1037 mPa.s) increased. Jessie, Summer Red, Rouge Marie, Vikinga, and Zwarte WMFs were characterized by low WAIs and high shear resistance. Bastille WMF developed high viscosities and, along with Faro WMF, showed a high breakdown. The wide variation in physicochemical properties suggests that the potential food applications of WMFs depend on the variety and growing conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 1816 KiB  
Article
Biogeographical Patterns of Herbivore Arthropods Associated with Chenopodium quinoa Grown along the Latitudinal Gradient of Chile
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122811 - 19 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Identifying the particular guilds of herbivore arthropods that affect the production of crops is key to developing sustainable pest-management strategies; however, there is incomplete information about the identity of herbivore arthropods that could potentially damage the production of both highland and lowland quinoa [...] Read more.
Identifying the particular guilds of herbivore arthropods that affect the production of crops is key to developing sustainable pest-management strategies; however, there is incomplete information about the identity of herbivore arthropods that could potentially damage the production of both highland and lowland quinoa landraces grown in Chile. By both reviewing the literature and conducting field collections across a large latitudinal gradient, we generated an updated list of 43 herbivore arthropods associated with quinoa production in Chile. In general, most species are polyphagous feeders, and only seven are specialists. The number and identity of species varied in relation with the latitude, such that four distinctive assemblages of herbivores were identified, each containing 32, 27, 34, and 22 species between latitudes 18–26, 26–32, 32–40, and 40–44° S, respectively. The most northern production area (18–26° S) is affected by nine unique species, including the major quinoa pest Eurysacca quinoae Povolný (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Similarly, the central area (32–40° S) contains four unique species, including Eurysacca media Povolný (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Orthotylus flavosparsus (Sahlberg) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The particular species assemblages described here will help further development of local pest-management practices. Full article
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25 pages, 4450 KiB  
Article
Yield and Nutritional Characterization of Thirteen Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Varieties Grown in North-West Europe—Part I
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2689; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122689 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3111
Abstract
The cultivation of quinoa has gained increasing interest in Europe. Different European varieties exist, but more research is required to understand the individual variety characteristics for end-use applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the agronomic performance of 13 quinoa varieties [...] Read more.
The cultivation of quinoa has gained increasing interest in Europe. Different European varieties exist, but more research is required to understand the individual variety characteristics for end-use applications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the agronomic performance of 13 quinoa varieties under North-West European field conditions during three growing seasons (2017–2019). Furthermore, seeds were qualitatively characterized based on characteristics and composition. Yield differed among varieties and growing seasons (0.47–3.42 ton/ha), with lower yields obtained for late-maturing varieties. The saponin content varied from sweet to very bitter. The seeds contained high protein levels (12.1–18.8 g/100 g dry matter), whereas varieties had a similar essential amino acid profile. The main fatty acids were linoleic (53.0–59.8%), α-linolenic (4.7–8.2%), and oleic acid (15.5–22.7%), indicating a high degree of unsaturation. The clustering of varieties/years revealed subtle differences between growing seasons but also reflected the significant interaction effects of variety and year. Most varieties perform well under North-West European conditions, and their nutritional content is well within the values previously described for other cultivation areas. However, optimal yield and quality traits were not combined in one variety, illustrating the importance of breeding for adapted quinoa varieties. Full article
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15 pages, 2449 KiB  
Article
Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Capacity of Quinoa Cultivars Using Techniques of FT-MIR and UHPLC/ESI-Orbitrap MS Spectroscopy
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2159; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102159 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2572
Abstract
The existence of more of 16,000 varieties of quinoa accessions around the world has caused a disregard on their structural and phytochemical characteristics. Most of such accessions belong to cultivars settled in Colombia. The goal of this research was to evaluate the structural [...] Read more.
The existence of more of 16,000 varieties of quinoa accessions around the world has caused a disregard on their structural and phytochemical characteristics. Most of such accessions belong to cultivars settled in Colombia. The goal of this research was to evaluate the structural attributes and antioxidant capacities from six quinoa cultivars with high productive potential from central regions in Colombia. This study used middle-range infrared spectroscopy (IR-MIR) to determine the proteins, starch and lipids distinctive to quinoa grains. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization Orbitrap, along with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI-Orbitrap MS), were also used to identify the existence of polyphenols in cultivars. The antioxidant capacity was determined through DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The spectrums exhibited significant variances on the transmittance bands associated with 2922 cm−1, 1016 cm−1 and 1633 cm−1. Moreover, the intensity variations on the peaks from the secondary protein structure were identified, mainly on the bands associated with β-Sheet-1 and -2, random coil α elice and β-turns-2 and -3. Changes found in the ratios 996 cm−1/1014 cm−1 and 1041 cm−1/1014 cm−1 were associated with the crystalline/amorphous affinity. Regarding the antioxidant capacity, great differences were identified (p < 0.001) mainly through FRAP methods, while the phenolic acids and flavonoids were determined by UHPLC/ESI-Orbitrap MS techniques. The presence of apigenin and pinocembrin on grains was reported for the first time. Titicaca and Nariño were the most phytochemically diverse quinoa seeds. Full article
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22 pages, 4951 KiB  
Article
Genotype-Dependent Variation of Nutritional Quality-Related Traits in Quinoa Seeds
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102128 - 07 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
Exploiting the relationship between the nutritional properties of seeds and the genetic background constitutes an essential analysis, which contributes to broadening our knowledge regarding the control of the nutritional quality of seeds or any other edible plant structure. This is an important aspect [...] Read more.
Exploiting the relationship between the nutritional properties of seeds and the genetic background constitutes an essential analysis, which contributes to broadening our knowledge regarding the control of the nutritional quality of seeds or any other edible plant structure. This is an important aspect when aiming at improving the nutritional characteristics of crops, including those of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), which has the potential to contribute to food security worldwide. Previous works have already described changes in the nutritional properties of quinoa seeds due to the influence of the environment, the genotype, or their interaction. However, there is an important limitation in the analyses carried out, including the outcomes that can be translated into agronomical practices and their effect on seed quality. In the present study, several seed nutritional-related parameters were analyzed in 15 quinoa cultivars grown in a particular environmental context. Important agronomical and nutritional differences were found among cultivars, such as variations in mineral or protein contents and seed viability. More importantly, our analyses revealed key correlations between seed quality-related traits in some cultivars, including those that relate yield and antioxidants or yield and the germination rate. These results highlight the importance of considering the genotypic variation in quinoa when selecting improved quinoa varieties with the best nutritional characteristics for new cultivation environments. Full article
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20 pages, 3046 KiB  
Article
Phytopathological Threats Associated with Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Cultivation and Seed Production in an Area of Central Italy
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1933; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091933 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2900
Abstract
In 2017, in a new Chenopodium quinoa cultivation area (Central Italy), emergence failures of the Titicaca, Rio Bamba, and Real varieties, whose seeds were obtained the previous year (2016) in the same location, were observed. Moreover, leaf disease symptoms on the Regalona variety, [...] Read more.
In 2017, in a new Chenopodium quinoa cultivation area (Central Italy), emergence failures of the Titicaca, Rio Bamba, and Real varieties, whose seeds were obtained the previous year (2016) in the same location, were observed. Moreover, leaf disease symptoms on the Regalona variety, whose seeds came from Chile, were detected. Visual and microscopic analyses showed the presence of browning/necrotic symptoms on the seeds of the three varieties whose emergence in the field had failed. In addition, their in vitro germination rates were strongly compromised. Fusarium spp. was isolated with high incidence from Titicaca, Rio Bamba, and Real seeds. Among the detected Fusarium species, in the phylogenetic analysis, the dominant one clustered in the sub-clade Equiseti of the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti (FIESC) species complex. Instead, the pathogen associated with Regalona leaf symptoms was identified, by morphological and molecular features, as Peronospora variabilis, the causal agents of downy mildew. This is the first report of both P. variabilis and F. equiseti on C. quinoa in Italy. Species-specific primers also detected P. variabilis in Regalona seeds. These results underline the importance of pathogen monitoring in new quinoa distribution areas, as well as of healthy seed production and import for successful cultivation. Full article
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18 pages, 1048 KiB  
Article
Field Evaluation of Cypermethrin, Imidacloprid, Teflubenzuron and Emamectin Benzoate against Pests of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Their Side Effects on Non-Target Species
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1788; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091788 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3265
Abstract
During the last few years, quinoa, a traditional Andean crop, has been cultivated at low elevations where pest pressure is high and farmers resort to intensive use of insecticides. This field study investigated the impact of four insecticides (cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin [...] Read more.
During the last few years, quinoa, a traditional Andean crop, has been cultivated at low elevations where pest pressure is high and farmers resort to intensive use of insecticides. This field study investigated the impact of four insecticides (cypermethrin, imidacloprid, teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate) on insect pests of quinoa and their side effects on the arthropod community at the coastal level of Peru, by analysing the species composition, species diversity and population density. The arthropod community was examined with pitfall traps (for ground dwelling species), plant samplings (for pests and their natural enemies that inhabit the crop), and yellow pan traps (to catch flying insects). The results demonstrated that Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Frankliniella occidentalis and Spoladea recurvalis were efficiently controlled by cypermethrin and imidacloprid; the latter compound also showed long-term effects on Nysius simulans. Teflubenzuron and emamectin benzoate proved to be efficient to control S. recurvalis. Imidacloprid had the strongest adverse effects on the arthropod community in terms of species diversity, species composition and natural enemy density as compared to the other insecticides. Findings of this study may assist farmers intending to grow quinoa at the coastal level in selecting the most appropriate insecticides under an integrated pest management approach. Full article
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17 pages, 901 KiB  
Article
Quinoa for the Brazilian Cerrado: Agronomic Characteristics of Elite Genotypes under Different Water Regimes
Plants 2021, 10(8), 1591; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10081591 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2631
Abstract
Quinoa stands out as an excellent crop in the Cerrado region for cultivation in the off-season or irrigated winter season. Here, we tested the effects of different water regimes on the agronomic characteristics, physiology, and grain quality of different elite quinoa genotypes under [...] Read more.
Quinoa stands out as an excellent crop in the Cerrado region for cultivation in the off-season or irrigated winter season. Here, we tested the effects of different water regimes on the agronomic characteristics, physiology, and grain quality of different elite quinoa genotypes under field conditions. The experiment was conducted under field conditions at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina, DF, Brazil). The experimental design was in randomized blocks, in a split-plot scheme, with four replications. The plots were composed of 18 quinoa genotypes and modified BRS Piabiru (the currently used genotype), and the split-plots were divided into 4 different water regimes. The following variables were evaluated: productivity and productivity per unit of applied water (PUAA), plant height, flavonoids, anthocyanins, gas exchange, chlorophyll, leaf proline, and relative water content. Our results showed that water regimes between 309 and 389 mm can be recommended for quinoa in the Cerrado region. CPAC6 and CPAC13 presented the highest yield and PUAA under high and intermediate WRs, and hence were the most suitable for winter growth under irrigation. CPAC17 is most suitable for off-season growth under rainfed conditions, as it presented the highest PUAA under the low WRs (247 and 150). CPAC9 stood out in terms of accumulation of flavonoids and anthocyanins in all WRs. Physiological analyses revealed different responses of the genotypes to water restriction, together with symptoms of stress under lower water regimes. Our study reinforces the importance of detailed analyses of the relationship between productivity, physiology, and water use when choosing genotypes for planting and harvest in different seasons. Full article
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16 pages, 3479 KiB  
Article
Phenotypic Characterization of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for the Selection of Promising Materials for Breeding Programs
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071339 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2853
Abstract
Quinoa is an ancestral crop in the Andean region, characterized by its adaptability to different agroclimatic conditions, great nutritional value, and broad genetic variability. A preliminary approach for understanding the genetics of quinoa materials entails a morphologic characterization, which can provide the basis [...] Read more.
Quinoa is an ancestral crop in the Andean region, characterized by its adaptability to different agroclimatic conditions, great nutritional value, and broad genetic variability. A preliminary approach for understanding the genetics of quinoa materials entails a morphologic characterization, which can provide the basis for the selection of materials that satisfy the needs of farmers and consumers. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics of thirty genetic C. quinoa accessions for the selection of outstanding accessions in terms of yield and grain quality. A randomized complete block design was used, with nine replications for each accession under greenhouse conditions. Nine quantitative and twelve qualitative descriptors were evaluated with descriptive analysis, Spearman correlation variance, and multivariate and cluster analysis. The results showed that the accessions with heights greater than the average (>176.72 cm) and long panicles (>57.94 cm) presented lower yields and smaller seed sizes, thus decreasing the grain quality. The multivariate and cluster analyses established groups of accessions with good yields (>62.02 g of seeds per plant) and stable morphological characteristics. The proposed selection index, based on yield components and morphological descriptors, indicated four accessions as potential parents for quinoa breeding programs in Colombia. Full article
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22 pages, 34682 KiB  
Article
How Does Mechanical Pearling Affect Quinoa Nutrients and Saponin Contents?
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061133 - 03 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4432
Abstract
Agriculture is facing many challenges, such as climate change, drought, and salinity, which call for urgent interventions for fast adaptation and crop diversification. The introduction of high-value and stress tolerant crops such as quinoa would be a judicious solution to overcome constraints related [...] Read more.
Agriculture is facing many challenges, such as climate change, drought, and salinity, which call for urgent interventions for fast adaptation and crop diversification. The introduction of high-value and stress tolerant crops such as quinoa would be a judicious solution to overcome constraints related to abiotic stress and to increase land productivity and farmers’ incomes. The implementation of quinoa in Morocco has not been supported by a full valorization program to control the quality of quinoa seeds. The novelty of this work is to assess the pearling operation as an efficient method of saponins removal as well as the determination of total residual saponins. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of several pearling durations on nutrient and saponin content of quinoa seeds of three tested varieties (Puno, Titicaca, and ICBA-Q5). Five pearling durations were tested (0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 min) using a locally manufactured pearling machine. The results indicated that a pearling duration of two minutes was enough to reduce total saponin content from 0.49% to 0.09% for Puno variety, from 0.37% to 0.07% for Titicaca variety, and from 0.57% to 0.1% for ICBA-Q5 variety. Our results showed that pearling slightly reduced protein, total fat, and moisture contents for all varieties except for Puno, where total fat content slightly increased with the pearling. Puno variety had the highest seed content in terms of protein and total fat; the ICBA-Q5 variety had the lowest. Titicaca had the highest bran content in terms of protein and total fat, ICBA-Q5 had the highest bran content in terms of ash and the lowest bran content in terms of protein and total fat, and Puno had the lowest bran content in terms of ash. Pearling had no significant effect on macronutrient contents in the processed seed, but it resulted in a very highly significant difference for most of them in the bran except for Mg and S. Regarding seed content in terms of micro-nutrients, statistical analysis showed significant differences between varieties in terms of Zn, Cu, and Mn contents, but no significant difference was recorded for Fe or B. Pearling had no significant effect on seed micronutrient contents. Therefore, to retain maximum nutritional content in the quinoa and maintain quinoa integrity, it is necessary to limit the pearling duration of quinoa to two minutes, which is enough to reduce saponin content below the Codex Standard threshold (0.12%). Full article
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15 pages, 1837 KiB  
Article
Free and Conjugated Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity in Quinoa Seeds and Their Relationship with Genotype and Environment
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061046 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2423
Abstract
The nutraceutical interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds is associated with the presence of macronutrients, micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and polyphenols. In particular, polyphenols contribute to the health-promoting effects of this food crop, and their levels are influenced by environmental conditions. Production [...] Read more.
The nutraceutical interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds is associated with the presence of macronutrients, micronutrients, minerals, vitamins, and polyphenols. In particular, polyphenols contribute to the health-promoting effects of this food crop, and their levels are influenced by environmental conditions. Production of quinoa is recently being explored in temperate climate areas, including Italy. The aim of this research was to assess the profile of bioactive compounds in seeds of two quinoa varieties, Regalona-Baer and Titicaca, grown in northern Italy, compared to that of seeds of those varieties grown in Chile and Denmark, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis of phenolic acid and flavonoid profiles, both in their free and soluble conjugated forms, showed that the main differences between Regalona grown in Chile and Italy were for the free vanillic acid and daidzein contents, while the two Titicaca samples mainly differed in quercetin derivative levels. The total phenolic index was comparable in Titicaca and Regalona, and only a slight decrease in this parameter was found in seeds of the two varieties grown in Italy. The in vitro antioxidant activity of seed extracts, evaluated by means of three different assays, indicated that it correlated with flavonol (quercetin derivative) levels. In conclusion, the results indicate that, although environmental conditions alter the polyphenolic profile and biological activities, it is possible to grow good-quality quinoa in northern Italy. Full article
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12 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Heat Stress Impact on Yield and Composition of Quinoa Straw under Mediterranean Field Conditions
Plants 2021, 10(5), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050955 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2398
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is receiving increasing attention globally due to the high nutritional value of its seeds, and the ability of this crop to cope with stress. In the current climate change scenario, valorization of crop byproducts is required to support [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is receiving increasing attention globally due to the high nutritional value of its seeds, and the ability of this crop to cope with stress. In the current climate change scenario, valorization of crop byproducts is required to support a climate-smart agriculture. Furthermore, research works characterizing and evaluating quinoa stems and their putative uses are scarce. In this work, straw yield and composition, and the relative feed value of five quinoa varieties, were analyzed in two consecutive years (2017–2018) under field conditions in Southwestern Europe. High temperatures were recorded during the 2017 growing season resulting in significantly decreased straw yield and improved feed value, associated with compositional changes under elevated temperatures. Crude protein, ash, phosphorus, and calcium contents were higher under high temperatures, whereas fiber contents decreased. The relative feed value was also higher in 2017 and differed among varieties. Differences among varieties were also found in straw yield, and contents of phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Overall, the results presented here support a sustainable quinoa productive system by encouraging straw valorization and shedding light on the mechanisms underlying heat-stress responses in this crop. Full article
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21 pages, 3406 KiB  
Article
The Importance of Non-Diffusional Factors in Determining Photosynthesis of Two Contrasting Quinoa Ecotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Subjected to Salinity Conditions
Plants 2021, 10(5), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10050927 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
The broad distribution of quinoa in saline and non-saline environments is reflected in variations in the photosynthesis-associated mechanisms of different ecotypes. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic response to high salinity (0.4 M NaCl) of two contrasting Chilean genotypes, [...] Read more.
The broad distribution of quinoa in saline and non-saline environments is reflected in variations in the photosynthesis-associated mechanisms of different ecotypes. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic response to high salinity (0.4 M NaCl) of two contrasting Chilean genotypes, Amarilla (salt-tolerant, salares ecotype) and Hueque (salt-sensitive, coastal ecotype). Our results show that saline stress induced a significant decrease in the K+/Na+ ratio in roots and an increase in glycine betaine in leaves, particularly in the sensitive genotype (Hueque). Measurement of the photosynthesis-related parameters showed that maximum CO2 assimilation (Amax) in control plants was comparable between genotypes (ca. 9–10 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1). However, salt treatment produced different responses, with Amax values decreasing by 65.1% in the sensitive ecotype and 37.7% in the tolerant one. Although both genotypes maintained mesophyll conductance when stomatal restrictions were removed, the biochemical components of Amarilla were impaired to a lesser extent under salt stress conditions: for example, the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO; Vcmax) was not as affected in Amarilla, revealing that this enzyme has a higher affinity for its substrate in this genotype and, thus, a better carboxylation efficiency. The present results show that the higher salinity tolerance of Amarilla was also due to its ability to control non-diffusional components, indicating its superior photosynthetic capacity compared to Hueque, particularly under salt stress conditions. Full article
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14 pages, 1113 KiB  
Article
Quinoa Productivity and Stability Evaluation through Varietal and Environmental Interaction
Plants 2021, 10(4), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10040714 - 07 Apr 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2891
Abstract
Chenopodium quinoa is a pseudocereal species identified as a potential crop to mitigate world food security. It has the ability to adapt to diverse agro-ecosystems ranging from sea level to over 4000 masl. Its cultivation in Morocco began in 1999, as it is [...] Read more.
Chenopodium quinoa is a pseudocereal species identified as a potential crop to mitigate world food security. It has the ability to adapt to diverse agro-ecosystems ranging from sea level to over 4000 masl. Its cultivation in Morocco began in 1999, as it is tolerance to drought, salinity, and frost, and it can grow on marginal soils. It has exceptional nutritional value, as it is rich in proteins, essential amino acids, mineral nutrients, trace elements, vitamins, and unsaturated fatty acids. The present study aims to evaluate the adaptation of 14 quinoa varieties and lines from four different origins through fourteen agro-morphological characters. The experimental trials were conducted at five contrasted agro-climatic sites across the central part of Morocco. The data analysis showed high variability among the tested varieties and between sites for all assessed traits. The Meknes (foot-hill plain) site was the most productive; its grain yield reached 78.6 qx/ha. At the Rabat (coastal land) and Berrechid (continental plain) sites, grain production was respectively 56.4 and 45.9 qx/ha. The SW2 Moroccan line produced the highest grain yield that reached 78.3 qx/ha across sites. The Danish variety Titicaca presented the best harvest index (HI = 0.69) as well as the best “thousand kernel weight” (TGW = 3.4 g). As the mildew infection evaluation, the Vikinga and Titicaca varieties ranked the most sensitive to Peronospora farinosa. The germination rates of the harvested seeds were prejudiced by the sites’ high temperatures and were low in Tinejdad (oases site) and El Kbab (mountain plateau). The best average germination rate across sites was that of the Puno variety (84.5%). According to the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis (AMMI), 23% of the grain yield variability is due to the genotype, while 32% is due to the site by the variety interaction contribution to the production variability. AMMI analysis also ranked the varieties according to their productivity and stability value. Accordingly, two varieties that have yielded above the overall average (42.7 qx/ha) are considered stable; those are Riobamba and W11, which is a local selected line. Titicaca, ILLPA, Atlas cultivars and the SW2 local line presented the best grain yield in one of the experimental sites but performed not as well on the others. Full article
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13 pages, 2637 KiB  
Article
A Long Journey of CICA-17 Quinoa Variety to Salinity Conditions in Egypt: Mineral Concentration in the Seeds
Plants 2021, 10(2), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020407 - 22 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2963
Abstract
Quinoa may be a promising alternative solution for arid regions, and it is necessary to test yield and mineral accumulation in grains under different soil types. Field experiments with Chenopodium quinoa (cv. CICA-17) were performed in Egypt in non-saline (electrical conductivity, 1.9 dS [...] Read more.
Quinoa may be a promising alternative solution for arid regions, and it is necessary to test yield and mineral accumulation in grains under different soil types. Field experiments with Chenopodium quinoa (cv. CICA-17) were performed in Egypt in non-saline (electrical conductivity, 1.9 dS m−1) and saline (20 dS m−1) soils. Thirty-four chemical elements were studied in these crops. Results show different yields and mineral accumulations in the grains. Potassium (K), P, Mg, Ca, Na, Mn, and Fe are the main elements occurring in the quinoa grains, but their concentrations change between both soil types. Besides, soil salinity induced changes in the mineral pattern distribution among the different grain organs. Sodium was detected in the pericarp but not in other tissues. Pericarp structure may be a shield to prevent sodium entry to the underlying tissues but not for chloride, increasing its content in saline conditions. Under saline conditions, yield decreased to near 47%, and grain sizes greater than 1.68 mm were unfavored. Quinoa may serve as a complementary crop in the marginal lands of Egypt. It has an excellent nutrition perspective due to its mineral content and has a high potential to adapt to semi-arid and arid environments. Full article
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26 pages, 4675 KiB  
Article
Development of Quinoa Value Chain to Improve Food and Nutritional Security in Rural Communities in Rehamna, Morocco: Lessons Learned and Perspectives
Plants 2021, 10(2), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020301 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4970
Abstract
Agricultural production in the Rehamna region, Morocco is limited with various challenges including drought and salinity. Introduction of climate resilient and rustic crops such as quinoa was an optimal solution to increase farmer’s income and improve food security. This study summarizes results obtained [...] Read more.
Agricultural production in the Rehamna region, Morocco is limited with various challenges including drought and salinity. Introduction of climate resilient and rustic crops such as quinoa was an optimal solution to increase farmer’s income and improve food security. This study summarizes results obtained from a research project aiming to develop quinoa value chain in Morocco. The study tackled several aspects including agronomic traits (yield and growth), transformation, quality (nutritional and antinutritional traits) and economic analysis and, finally, a strength–weaknesses–opportunities–threats analysis, lessons learned and development perspectives were presented. From an agronomic point of view, introduced new quinoa cultivars showed higher performance than locally cultivated seeds and, furthermore, the use of irrigation and organic amendment has tremendously improved seed yield by double and three times, respectively, compared to rainfed conditions. Nutritional analysis revealed that protein and phosphorus content remained stable after seed pearling while most of the micronutrients content decreased after seed pearling. However, saponins content was reduced by 68% using mechanical pearling compared to 57% using both traditional abrasion and washing. The economic analysis showed that production cost of quinoa seeds could be further decreased using mechanized intensive tools along with irrigation and organic amendment supply. This study revealed several lessons learned from the field experience and proposed several development actions for each value chain component that can be implemented within a national quinoa program. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

20 pages, 3134 KiB  
Review
Trends and Limits for Quinoa Production and Promotion in Pakistan
Plants 2022, 11(12), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11121603 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4381
Abstract
Quinoa is known as a super food due to its extraordinary nutritional qualities and has the potential to ensure future global food and nutritional security. As a model plant with halophytic behavior, quinoa has potential to meet the challenges of climate change and [...] Read more.
Quinoa is known as a super food due to its extraordinary nutritional qualities and has the potential to ensure future global food and nutritional security. As a model plant with halophytic behavior, quinoa has potential to meet the challenges of climate change and salinization due to its capabilities for survival in harsh climatic conditions. The quinoa crop has received worldwide attention due to its adoption and production expanded in countries out of the native Andean region. Quinoa was introduced to Pakistan in 2009 and it is still a new crop in Pakistan. The first quinoa variety was registered in 2019, then afterward, its cultivation started on a larger scale. Weed pressure, terminal heat stress, stem lodging, bold grain size, and an unstructured market are the major challenges in the production and promotion of the crop. The potential of superior features of quinoa has not been fully explored and utilized. Hence, there is a need to acquire more diverse quinoa germplasm and to establish a strong breeding program to develop new lines with higher productivity and improved crop features for the Pakistan market. Mechanized production, processing practices, and a structured market are needed for further scaling of quinoa production in Pakistan. To achieve these objectives, there is a dire need to create an enabling environment for quinoa production and promotion through the involvement of policymakers, research institutions, farmers associations, and the private sector. Full article
20 pages, 1991 KiB  
Review
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.) Seed Yield and Efficiency in Soils Deficient of Nitrogen in the Bolivian Altiplano: An Analytical Review
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2479; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112479 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3188
Abstract
Quinoa is a strategic crop due to its high N content and its adaptability to adverse conditions, where most of the soils are deficient of nitrogen (N). The central question in this review was the following: How can quinoa yield low levels of [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a strategic crop due to its high N content and its adaptability to adverse conditions, where most of the soils are deficient of nitrogen (N). The central question in this review was the following: How can quinoa yield low levels of nitrogen in the soils of Altiplano? This question was unraveled based on different factors: (1) fertilization effect on productivity, (2) fertilization limits, (3) uptake and assimilation of nitrogen parameters, (4) monoculture practice effect, and (5) possible sources and strategies. One hundred eleven articles of different scientific platforms were revised and data were collected. Information from articles was used to calculate the partial factor productivity for nitrogen (PFPN), the apparent use efficiency of N (APUEN), available nitrogen (AN), and nitrogen content harvested in grains (HarvN). Quinoa responds positively to fertilization, but differences in yield were found among irrigated and rainfed conditions. Quinoa can produce 1850 kg grains ha−1 with 50 kg N ha−1 under irrigated conditions, and 670 kg grains ha−1 with 15 kg N ha−1 in rainfed conditions. Quinoa increases seed yield and HarvN increases N fertilization, but decreases nitrogen efficiency. In Altiplano, without nitrogen fertilizer, the quinoa yield relies on between 500 and 1000 kg ha−1, which shows that in the soil, there are other nitrogen sources. Full article
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18 pages, 1170 KiB  
Review
Botany, Nutritional Value, Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Quinoa
Plants 2021, 10(11), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112258 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 4032
Abstract
Quinoa is a climate-resilient food grain crop that has gained significant importance in the last few years due to its nutritional composition, phytochemical properties and associated health benefits. Quinoa grain is enriched in amino acids, fiber, minerals, phenolics, saponins, phytosterols and vitamins. Quinoa [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a climate-resilient food grain crop that has gained significant importance in the last few years due to its nutritional composition, phytochemical properties and associated health benefits. Quinoa grain is enriched in amino acids, fiber, minerals, phenolics, saponins, phytosterols and vitamins. Quinoa possesses different human-health promoting biological substances and nutraceutical molecules. This review synthesizes and summarizes recent findings regarding the nutrition and phytochemical properties of quinoa grains and discusses the associated biological mechanisms. Quinoa grains and grain-based supplements are useful in treating different biological disorders of the human body. Quinoa is being promoted as an exceptionally healthy food and a gluten-free super grain. Quinoa could be used as a biomedicine due to the presence of functional compounds that may help to prevent various chronic diseases. Future research needs to explore the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical aspects of quinoa that might help to control different chronic diseases and to promote human health. Full article
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52 pages, 5676 KiB  
Review
Quinoa Phenotyping Methodologies: An International Consensus
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1759; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10091759 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 8594
Abstract
Quinoa is a crop originating in the Andes but grown more widely and with the genetic potential for significant further expansion. Due to the phenotypic plasticity of quinoa, varieties need to be assessed across years and multiple locations. To improve comparability among field [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a crop originating in the Andes but grown more widely and with the genetic potential for significant further expansion. Due to the phenotypic plasticity of quinoa, varieties need to be assessed across years and multiple locations. To improve comparability among field trials across the globe and to facilitate collaborations, components of the trials need to be kept consistent, including the type and methods of data collected. Here, an internationally open-access framework for phenotyping a wide range of quinoa features is proposed to facilitate the systematic agronomic, physiological and genetic characterization of quinoa for crop adaptation and improvement. Mature plant phenotyping is a central aspect of this paper, including detailed descriptions and the provision of phenotyping cards to facilitate consistency in data collection. High-throughput methods for multi-temporal phenotyping based on remote sensing technologies are described. Tools for higher-throughput post-harvest phenotyping of seeds are presented. A guideline for approaching quinoa field trials including the collection of environmental data and designing layouts with statistical robustness is suggested. To move towards developing resources for quinoa in line with major cereal crops, a database was created. The Quinoa Germinate Platform will serve as a central repository of data for quinoa researchers globally. Full article
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39 pages, 13808 KiB  
Review
A Review of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) Diseases—An Updated Perspective
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1228; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061228 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7277
Abstract
The journey of the Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to unfamiliar environments and the combination of higher temperatures, sudden changes in weather, intense precipitation, and reduced water in the soil has increased the risk of observing new and emerging diseases associated [...] Read more.
The journey of the Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to unfamiliar environments and the combination of higher temperatures, sudden changes in weather, intense precipitation, and reduced water in the soil has increased the risk of observing new and emerging diseases associated with this crop. Several diseases of quinoa have been reported in the last decade. These include Ascochyta caulina, Cercospora cf. chenopodii, Colletotrichum nigrum, C. truncatum, and Pseudomonas syringae. The taxonomy of other diseases remains unclear or is characterized primarily at the genus level. Symptoms, microscopy, and pathogenicity, supported by molecular tools, constitute accurate plant disease diagnostics in the 21st century. Scientists and farmers will benefit from an update on the phytopathological research regarding a crop that has been neglected for many years. This review aims to compile the existing information and make accurate associations between specific symptoms and causal agents of disease. In addition, we place an emphasis on downy mildew and its phenotyping, as it continues to be the most economically important and studied disease affecting quinoa worldwide. The information herein will allow for the appropriate execution of breeding programs and control measures. Full article
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14 pages, 1178 KiB  
Review
Seed Dormancy and Preharvest Sprouting in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)
Plants 2021, 10(3), 458; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10030458 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4022
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a culturally significant staple food source that has been grown for thousands of years in South America. Due to its natural drought and salinity tolerance, quinoa has emerged as an agronomically important crop for production in marginal [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a culturally significant staple food source that has been grown for thousands of years in South America. Due to its natural drought and salinity tolerance, quinoa has emerged as an agronomically important crop for production in marginal soils, in highly variable climates, and as part of diverse crop rotations. Primary areas of quinoa research have focused on improving resistance to abiotic stresses and disease, improving yields, and increasing nutrition. However, an evolving issue impacting quinoa seed end-use quality is preharvest sprouting (PHS), which is when seeds with little to no dormancy experience a rain event prior to harvest and sprout on the panicle. Far less is understood about the mechanisms that regulate quinoa seed dormancy and seed viability. This review will cover topics including seed dormancy, orthodox and unorthodox dormancy programs, desiccation sensitivity, environmental and hormonal mechanisms that regulate seed dormancy, and breeding and non-breeding strategies for enhancing resistance to PHS in quinoa. Full article
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22 pages, 2305 KiB  
Review
Quinoa in Ecuador: Recent Advances under Global Expansion
Plants 2021, 10(2), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020298 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6118
Abstract
Quinoa is a highly diverse crop domesticated in the Andean region of South America with broad adaptation to a wide range of marginal environments. Quinoa has garnered interest worldwide due to its nutritional and health benefits. Over the last decade, quinoa production has [...] Read more.
Quinoa is a highly diverse crop domesticated in the Andean region of South America with broad adaptation to a wide range of marginal environments. Quinoa has garnered interest worldwide due to its nutritional and health benefits. Over the last decade, quinoa production has expanded outside of the Andean region, prompting multiple studies investigating the potential for quinoa cultivation in novel environments. Currently, quinoa is grown in countries spanning five continents, including North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Here, we update the advances of quinoa research in Ecuador across different topics, including (a) current quinoa production situation with a focus on breeding progress, (b) traditional seed production, and (c) the impact of the work of the nongovernment organization “European Committee for Training and Agriculture” with quinoa farmers in Chimborazo province. Additionally, we discuss genetic diversity, primary pests and diseases, actions for adapting quinoa to tropical areas, and recent innovations in quinoa processing in Ecuador. Finally, we report a case study describing a participatory breeding project between Washington State University and the Association of Andean Seed and Nutritional Food Producers Mushuk Yuyay in the province of Cañar. Full article
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20 pages, 3812 KiB  
Review
Agronomic Practices and Performances of Quinoa under Field Conditions: A Systematic Review
Plants 2021, 10(1), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10010072 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 3652
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is one of the most popular emerging food crops in the Andean region. It is tolerant to environmental stresses and characterized by interesting nutritional traits. Thus, it has the potential to contribute to food and nutrition security in [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is one of the most popular emerging food crops in the Andean region. It is tolerant to environmental stresses and characterized by interesting nutritional traits. Thus, it has the potential to contribute to food and nutrition security in marginal environments. In this study, we conducted a systematic review integrated with a bibliometric analysis of cropping practices of quinoa under field conditions. The analysis is based on published data from the literature relating to the period 2000–2020. A total of 33 publications were identified, revealing that scientific research on the agronomic practices and performances of quinoa under field conditions is still limited. Africa, Asia, and Europe were the leading research production sites in this field and together provided over 81% of the total scientific production. There were no papers from the Australian continent. The number of papers screened dealing with tillage and weed control management was very limited. The keyword co-occurrence network analyses revealed that the main topics addressed in the scientific literature related to the effect of “variety” and “deficit irrigation”, followed by “water quality”, “fertilization”, and “sowing date” on seed yield. Results from this study will permit us to identify knowledge gaps and limited collaboration among authors and institutions from different countries. Salinity, sowing density, and sowing date were the agronomic interventions affecting productive response the most. Full article
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