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Article

Biogeographical Patterns of Herbivore Arthropods Associated with Chenopodium quinoa Grown along the Latitudinal Gradient of Chile

1
Departamento de Ciencias Vegetales, Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile
2
Sección Entomología, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Casilla 787, Santiago 7820436, Chile
3
USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Science and Technology, Identification Technology Program, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cataldo Pulvento and Didier Bazile
Plants 2021, 10(12), 2811; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122811
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 11 December 2021 / Accepted: 16 December 2021 / Published: 19 December 2021
Identifying the particular guilds of herbivore arthropods that affect the production of crops is key to developing sustainable pest-management strategies; however, there is incomplete information about the identity of herbivore arthropods that could potentially damage the production of both highland and lowland quinoa landraces grown in Chile. By both reviewing the literature and conducting field collections across a large latitudinal gradient, we generated an updated list of 43 herbivore arthropods associated with quinoa production in Chile. In general, most species are polyphagous feeders, and only seven are specialists. The number and identity of species varied in relation with the latitude, such that four distinctive assemblages of herbivores were identified, each containing 32, 27, 34, and 22 species between latitudes 18–26, 26–32, 32–40, and 40–44° S, respectively. The most northern production area (18–26° S) is affected by nine unique species, including the major quinoa pest Eurysacca quinoae Povolný (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Similarly, the central area (32–40° S) contains four unique species, including Eurysacca media Povolný (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Orthotylus flavosparsus (Sahlberg) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The particular species assemblages described here will help further development of local pest-management practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: insects; pests; quinoa; distribution; Chile insects; pests; quinoa; distribution; Chile
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chorbadjian, R.A.; Ahumada, M.I.; Urra, F.; Elgueta, M.; Gilligan, T.M. Biogeographical Patterns of Herbivore Arthropods Associated with Chenopodium quinoa Grown along the Latitudinal Gradient of Chile. Plants 2021, 10, 2811. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122811

AMA Style

Chorbadjian RA, Ahumada MI, Urra F, Elgueta M, Gilligan TM. Biogeographical Patterns of Herbivore Arthropods Associated with Chenopodium quinoa Grown along the Latitudinal Gradient of Chile. Plants. 2021; 10(12):2811. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122811

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chorbadjian, Rodrigo A., María I. Ahumada, Francisco Urra, Mario Elgueta, and Todd M. Gilligan. 2021. "Biogeographical Patterns of Herbivore Arthropods Associated with Chenopodium quinoa Grown along the Latitudinal Gradient of Chile" Plants 10, no. 12: 2811. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10122811

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