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Quinoa Phenotyping Methodologies: An International Consensus

Center for Desert Agriculture, Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
Plant Breeding Institute, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
Water Desalination and Reuse Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
Department Physiology of Yield Stability, Institute of Crop Science, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
Department of Plant Production, School of Agriculture, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1417DSE, Argentina
Robinson Research Institute, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark
Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Department of Information and Computational Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee AB15 8QH, UK
Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, 430 Lincoln Dr, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Biosciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Agriculture and Food, Kununurra, WA 6743, Australia
Department of Arid Land Agriculture, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Department of Vegetables, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt
Shanxi Jiaqi Agri-Tech Co., Ltd., Taiyuan 030006, China
CIRAD, UMR SENS, 34398 Montpellier, France
SENS, CIRAD, IRD, University Paul Valery Montpellier 3, 34090 Montpellier, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Quinoa Phenotyping Consortium: Abdalla Dao a, Abdelaziz Hirich b, Achim Präger c, Ada Luz Flores d, Alipio Canahua Murillo e, Amr S. Shams f, Andrés Zurita-Silva g, Arafet Manaa h, Cataldo Pulvento i, Christos Noulas j, David E. Jarvis k, Eric N. Jellen k, Ernesto J. Chura e, Hatem Ben Jouira h, J.A. González l, Karina B. Ruiz m, Karl Schmid c, Lavini Antonella n, Luis Erazzú o, Luz Gomez-Pando p, Malia A. Gehan q, Miguel García-Parra r, Mohamed Houssemeddine Sellami o, Olivia Eisner s, Peter J. Maughan k, Rakesh Kumar Singh t, Ritva Repo-Carrasco-Valencia p, Sergey Shabala u, Simone Graeff-Hönninger c, Sven-Erik Jacobsen v, Ursula Steinfort w, Walter Quadros Ribeiro Junior x., Yuanyuan Li ya Institut de l’Environnement et Recherches Agricoles (INERA), Burkina Faso; b African Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute (ASARI), Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P), Laayoune, Morocco; c University of Hohenheim, Faculty of Agriculture, Stuttgart, Germany; d Universidad Andina Néstor Cáceres Velásquez, Juliaca, Peru; e Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Peru; f Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt; g Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Intihuasi, Colina San Joaquín s/n, Casilla 36-B, La Serena, Chile; h Laboratory of Extremophile Plants, Centre of Biotechnology of Borj Cedria, Hammam Lif, Tunisia; I University of Bari, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science, Italy; jInstitute of Industrial and Forage Crops, Hellenic Agricultural Organization “Demeter”, Larissa, Greece; k Plant and Wildlife Sciences Department, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA; lFundación Miguel Lillo, Instituto de Ecología, Comportamiento y Conservación, Tucumán, Argentina; m Química y Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Arturo Prat, Iquique, Chile; n National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute for Agricultural and Forestry Systems in the Mediterranean (ISAFOM), Portici, NA, Italy; o National Institute of Agricultural Technology, INTA EEA Famaillá, Tucumán, Argentina; p Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru; q Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; r Department Agricultural Science, Cauca University, Research Group Agriculture, Organizations and Fruits AOF-JDC, Colombia; s Private Quinoa Founder, Argentina; t International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA), Dubai, UAE; u Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; v Quinoa Quality ApS, Regstrup, Denmark; w Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy and Forestry Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; x Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Cerrados, Brazil, y CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Academic Editor: Ioannis Ganopoulos
Plants 2021, 10(9), 1759;
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 9 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 24 August 2021
Quinoa is a crop originating in the Andes but grown more widely and with the genetic potential for significant further expansion. Due to the phenotypic plasticity of quinoa, varieties need to be assessed across years and multiple locations. To improve comparability among field trials across the globe and to facilitate collaborations, components of the trials need to be kept consistent, including the type and methods of data collected. Here, an internationally open-access framework for phenotyping a wide range of quinoa features is proposed to facilitate the systematic agronomic, physiological and genetic characterization of quinoa for crop adaptation and improvement. Mature plant phenotyping is a central aspect of this paper, including detailed descriptions and the provision of phenotyping cards to facilitate consistency in data collection. High-throughput methods for multi-temporal phenotyping based on remote sensing technologies are described. Tools for higher-throughput post-harvest phenotyping of seeds are presented. A guideline for approaching quinoa field trials including the collection of environmental data and designing layouts with statistical robustness is suggested. To move towards developing resources for quinoa in line with major cereal crops, a database was created. The Quinoa Germinate Platform will serve as a central repository of data for quinoa researchers globally. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chenopodium quinoa; descriptors; genetic diversity; scoring card; architecture; panicle; disease; high throughput seed phenotyping; remote sensing; database Chenopodium quinoa; descriptors; genetic diversity; scoring card; architecture; panicle; disease; high throughput seed phenotyping; remote sensing; database
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stanschewski, C.S.; Rey, E.; Fiene, G.; Craine, E.B.; Wellman, G.; Melino, V.J.; S. R. Patiranage, D.; Johansen, K.; Schmöckel, S.M.; Bertero, D.; Oakey, H.; Colque-Little, C.; Afzal, I.; Raubach, S.; Miller, N.; Streich, J.; Amby, D.B.; Emrani, N.; Warmington, M.; Mousa, M.A.A.; Wu, D.; Jacobson, D.; Andreasen, C.; Jung, C.; Murphy, K.; Bazile, D.; Tester, M.; on behalf of the Quinoa Phenotyping Consortium. Quinoa Phenotyping Methodologies: An International Consensus. Plants 2021, 10, 1759.

AMA Style

Stanschewski CS, Rey E, Fiene G, Craine EB, Wellman G, Melino VJ, S. R. Patiranage D, Johansen K, Schmöckel SM, Bertero D, Oakey H, Colque-Little C, Afzal I, Raubach S, Miller N, Streich J, Amby DB, Emrani N, Warmington M, Mousa MAA, Wu D, Jacobson D, Andreasen C, Jung C, Murphy K, Bazile D, Tester M, on behalf of the Quinoa Phenotyping Consortium. Quinoa Phenotyping Methodologies: An International Consensus. Plants. 2021; 10(9):1759.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stanschewski, Clara S., Elodie Rey, Gabriele Fiene, Evan B. Craine, Gordon Wellman, Vanessa J. Melino, Dilan S. R. Patiranage, Kasper Johansen, Sandra M. Schmöckel, Daniel Bertero, Helena Oakey, Carla Colque-Little, Irfan Afzal, Sebastian Raubach, Nathan Miller, Jared Streich, Daniel B. Amby, Nazgol Emrani, Mark Warmington, Magdi A.A. Mousa, David Wu, Daniel Jacobson, Christian Andreasen, Christian Jung, Kevin Murphy, Didier Bazile, Mark Tester, and on behalf of the Quinoa Phenotyping Consortium. 2021. "Quinoa Phenotyping Methodologies: An International Consensus" Plants 10, no. 9: 1759.

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