Advancing the Adoption of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the United States
2. The Evolution of the Practice of Pharmacy
3. Expanded Patient Care Roles for Pharmacists in the United States
4. Expanded Definition of Community-Based Practice in the United States
5. Regulation of Pharmacy Practice in the United States
6. Assuring the Professional Competency of Pharmacists
7. Health Care Practitioner Responsibilities for Ensuring Continuing Professional Competency
Transitioning from a Continuing Education Model to a Continuing Professional Development Model in the United States
- A workforce of knowledgeable health professionals is critical to the discovery and application of health care practices to prevent diseases and promote well-being
- The absence of a comprehensive and well-integrated system of continuing education in the health professions is an important factor of knowledge and performance deficiencies at the individual and system levels
- The new vision for continuing education will be based on an approach called CPD in which learning takes place over a lifetime and stretches beyond the classroom to the point of care
- The CPD system is a holistic approach that incorporates a broader variety of learning methods and theories than CE
- CPD is learner-driven and tailored to the individual learner’s needs; it includes concepts such as self-directed learning and practice-based learning and teaches how to identify problems and apply solutions
8. Advancing Continuing Professional Development in the Pharmacy Profession
- The CPD process is defined as “the responsibility of individual pharmacists for systematic maintenance, development and broadening of knowledge, skills and attitudes, to ensure continuing competence as a professional, throughout their careers”
- CE is an important part of a structured CPD program, personalized for each pharmacist
- The CPD process should be visible to ensure credibility with the public
- CPD must be actively managed and include all the components of the cyclical process
- CPD must be an on-going, cyclical process of continuing quality improvement by which pharmacists seek to maintain and enhance their competence in both current duties and anticipated future service developments
- Ensure that pharmacists maintain (at an appropriate level) their knowledge, skills, and competence to practice through their careers in their own specific (or current) areas of practice
- Improve the pharmacist’s personal performance (i.e., develop knowledge and skills)
- Enhance the pharmacist’s career progression
9. The Current U.S. Practice Environment
10. Challenges with the Adoption of CPD
- “The CPD approach to learning is embraced more by those with a mentor or colleague demonstrating use or those that incorporated a similar approach during their undergraduate education”
- “The flexibility of the CPD approach allows those with specialized practice to engage in learning that is most beneficial to their particular practice (e.g., non-pharmacy conferences, workplace learning, research, etc.)”
- “There is value in focusing on an outcome in practice (i.e., applying newly-acquired knowledge to practice)”
- “Pharmacists support the CPD process when the impact in practice is recognized”
- “The CPD cycle enables a continuous learning process and becomes a valuable platform to reinforce continuing competence within practice”
- “Application of the CPD cycle as an approach to lifelong learning in individual practice”
- “Changing the focus of CPD to meaningful learning rather than collecting CE points”
- “Developing the skills and knowledge to adopt the CPD process under a voluntary system”
- “Establishing adequate assessment methods and measures for a portfolio-based system”
- “Raising the awareness and recognition from the public on the skills and knowledge that pharmacists continuously develop”
- “Ensuring the qualitative assessment of CPD portfolios”
- “Lack of technical ‘know-how’ for implementing a robust online system to support the CPD process”
- “Ensuring pharmacists engage with the CPD cycle that includes reflection on their practice”
- “Minimizing cost constraints for pharmacists to undertake formal CPD programs”
- “Making the recording or documentation of learning less onerous”
- “Identifying those pharmacists who require additional mentoring or guidance to steer away from the hour or point collecting mentality”
- “Ensuring relevant support for pharmacists in non-traditional roles”
11. Technology Solutions to Support the Adoption of CPD
12. My CPD®
- Ensure that knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values are kept current
- Apply learning to improve practice and/or patient outcomes
- Direct career goals or support career advancements or changes
- Provide CV or interview templates
- Fulfill employment, regulatory and credentialing requirements
- Evaluate—Guides pharmacists through seven evaluation exercises to determine professional development needs
- Analyze—Helps pharmacists determine the meaning of the information provided in the Evaluate step and provides a framework to establish SMART planning goals
- Plan—Supports pharmacists by recommending activities and experiences customized to the individual, from which they can create a comprehensive professional development plan
- Do—Provides a framework to help pharmacists set priorities and deadlines for all selected activities, track accomplishments, and maintain a professional portfolio
- Apply—Prompts pharmacists to reflect on the activities they have completed, consider what they may want to focus on next, and make updates to the professional development plan
- Strengths—Leveraging personal strengths can help pharmacists better understand themselves, how they work, and how they contribute to a team.
- Professional Skills—Each individual has a unique set of professional skills shaped by past experiences, interests, and goals. Like many aspects of life, professional skills may change or grow over time. This assessment leverages the Entrustable Professional Activities and allows pharmacists to assess both their baseline and progress toward improving their skills.
- Personal Attributes—Personal attributes are associated with how an individual’s personality, emotions, and tendencies contribute to their behaviors. These attributes can significantly impact a professional’s ability to interact with others and function effectively.
- Interest Areas—Aligning an individual’s career with their interests increases the likelihood that they will achieve professional satisfaction and maximizes the impact of CPD.
- Growth and Development—The technology platform evaluates each user’s assessments and provides customized areas for growth and development focused on the improvement of professional skills and personal attributes.
- Licensure—Evaluating a summary of your licensure requirements supports pharmacists in designing a professional development plan that simultaneously keeps professional licenses active and individuals moving toward their goals.
- Well-Being—Pharmacist well-being is essential to personal and professional productivity, and understanding factors that create stress or support relaxation can positively impact both the personal and professional needs of pharmacists.
14. ADVANCE® Recognition
15. CPD Model Comparison
16. Supporting the Advancement of CPD in the United States
Conflicts of Interest
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|FIP MODEL||ACPE MODEL||ADVANCE® MODEL||FUNCTION|
|Self-Appraisal||Reflect||Evaluate Analyze||Completion of an annual self-evaluation—collect and analyze/assess relevant information and determine meaning|
|Personal Plan||Plan||Plan||Creation of a detailed action plan specifying activities and experiences associated with each area of CPD|
|Action Implement||Learn||Do||Engage in activities and experiences and track progress|
|Evaluation||Evaluate Apply||Apply||Implement what was learned and reflect on the impact. Routinely review and update information and make necessary modifications to plan.|
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Owen, J.A.; Skelton, J.B.; Maine, L.L. Advancing the Adoption of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the United States. Pharmacy 2020, 8, 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030157
Owen JA, Skelton JB, Maine LL. Advancing the Adoption of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the United States. Pharmacy. 2020; 8(3):157. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030157Chicago/Turabian Style
Owen, James A., Jann B. Skelton, and Lucinda L. Maine. 2020. "Advancing the Adoption of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the United States" Pharmacy 8, no. 3: 157. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030157