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An Authentic, Practice-Based Assessment as a Catalyst for Continuous Professional Development
Open AccessCase Report

Adaptive Expertise in Continuing Pharmacy Professional Development

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Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto; Toronto, ON M5S 3M2, Canada
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The Wilson Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto; Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010021
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 18 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Pharmacists are facing rapid changes and increasing complexity in the workplace. The astounding rate of both the evolution and the development of knowledge in pharmacy practice requires that we develop continuing professional development (CPD) to foster and support innovation, creativity, and flexibility, alongside procedural expertise. Adaptive expertise provides a conceptual framework for developing experts who can both perform professional tasks efficiently as well as creatively handle new and difficult-to-anticipate problems. This article approaches knowledge production in daily pharmacy practice and CPD through a cognitive psychology lens, and highlights three educational approaches to support the development of adaptive expertise in the workplace: (1) explaining not just what to do, but why you are doing it, (2) allowing and encouraging struggle, and (3) asking “what if” questions to encourage meaningful variation and reveal underlying core concepts. These three evidence-based strategies will cultivate long-term learning and will support pharmacists as we move into more complicated and ambiguous roles. Pharmacy CPD can be transformed to support the development of both procedural and conceptual knowledge in a local environment to support learning and innovation. View Full-Text
Keywords: continuing professional development; pharmacy education; adaptive expertise continuing professional development; pharmacy education; adaptive expertise
MDPI and ACS Style

Steenhof, N. Adaptive Expertise in Continuing Pharmacy Professional Development. Pharmacy 2020, 8, 21.

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