Special Issue "Drug Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics and Bioanalysis"

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2018).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Hye Suk Lee
E-Mail
Guest Editor
BK21 PLUS Team for Creative Leader Program for Pharmacomics-based Future Pharmacy and Drug Metabolism and Bioanalysis Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, 14462, Korea
Tel. 82-2-2164-4061
Interests: drug metabolism; pharmacokinetics; drug-drug interaction; forensic toxicology
Prof. Kwang-Hyeon Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehakro, Bukgu, Daegu 41566, Korea
Tel. +82-53-950-8567
Interests: drug metabolism; pharmacokinetics; metabolomics; lipidomics; drug-drug interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics and drug interaction studies have been extensively carried out in order to secure the druggability and safety of new chemical entities throughout the development of new drugs. Recently, drug metabolism and transport by phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, respectively, as well as phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, have been studied. A combination of biochemical advances in the function and regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and automated analytical technologies are revolutionizing drug metabolism research. There are also potential drug–drug interactions with co-administered drugs due to inhibition and/or induction of drug metabolic enzymes and drug transporters. In addition, drug interaction studies have been actively performed to develop substrate cocktails that do not interfere with each other and simultaneous analytical method of substrate drugs and their metabolites using a tandem mass spectrometer.

This Special Issue has the aim of highlighting current progress in drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics, drug interactions and bioanalysis.

Prof. Hye Suk Lee
Prof. Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Drug metabolism
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Drug transporter
  • Drug-drug interaction
  • Bioanalytical method
  • Mass spectrometry

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetic Properties of Acetyl Tributyl Citrate, a Pharmaceutical Excipient
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(4), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10040177 - 08 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) is an (the Food and Drug Administration) FDA-approved substance for use as a pharmaceutical excipient. It is used in pharmaceutical coating of solid oral dosage forms such as coated tablets or capsules. However, the information of ATBC on its [...] Read more.
Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) is an (the Food and Drug Administration) FDA-approved substance for use as a pharmaceutical excipient. It is used in pharmaceutical coating of solid oral dosage forms such as coated tablets or capsules. However, the information of ATBC on its pharmacokinetics is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ATBC using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS/MS) analysis. ATBC was rapidly absorbed and eliminated and the bioavailability was 27.4% in rats. The results of metabolic stability tests revealed that metabolic clearance may have accounted for a considerable portion of the total clearance of ATBC. These pharmacokinetic data would be useful in studies investigating the safety and toxicity of ATBC. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetics and Anti-Gastric Ulceration Activity of Oral Administration of Aceclofenac and Esomeprazole in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030152 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study examined the effects of esomeprazole on aceclofenac pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal complications in rats. Aceclofenac alone, or in combination with esomeprazole, was orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma concentrations of aceclofenac, its major metabolite diclofenac, and esomeprazole were simultaneously determined by [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of esomeprazole on aceclofenac pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal complications in rats. Aceclofenac alone, or in combination with esomeprazole, was orally administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma concentrations of aceclofenac, its major metabolite diclofenac, and esomeprazole were simultaneously determined by a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Gastrointestinal damage was determined by measuring ulcer area and ulcer lesion index of the stomach. Oral administration of aceclofenac induced significant gastric ulceration, which was inhibited by esomeprazole administration. Following concurrent administration of aceclofenac and esomeprazole, overall pharmacokinetic profiles of aceclofenac and metabolic conversion to diclofenac were unaffected by esomeprazole. Aceclofenac metabolism and pharmacokinetics were not subject to significant food effects, whereas bioavailability of esomeprazole decreased in fed compared to fasting conditions. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of aceclofenac and esomeprazole were significantly altered by different dosing vehicles. These results suggest that co-administration of esomeprazole with aceclofenac may reduce aceclofenac-induced gastrointestinal complications without significant pharmacokinetic interactions. The optimal combination and clinical significance of the benefits of the combination of aceclofenac and esomeprazole need to be further evaluated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Determination of Chlorogenic Acid Isomers and Metabolites in Rat Plasma Using LC-MS/MS and Its Application to A Pharmacokinetic Study Following Oral Administration of Stauntonia Hexaphylla Leaf Extract (YRA-1909) to Rats
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030143 - 02 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Stauntonia hexaphylla leaf extract (YRA-1909), which is widely used for the antirheumatic properties, has been under phase 2 clinical trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis since April 2017. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method while using liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was validated for [...] Read more.
Stauntonia hexaphylla leaf extract (YRA-1909), which is widely used for the antirheumatic properties, has been under phase 2 clinical trials in patients with rheumatoid arthritis since April 2017. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method while using liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was validated for the simultaneous determination of the major active components of YRA-1909, including chlorogenic acid (CGA), neochlorogenic acid (NCGA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CCGA), and their metabolites (i.e., caffeic acid (CA), caffeic acid 3-O-glucuronide (CA-3-G), caffeic acid 4-O-glucuronide (CA-4-G), and ferulic acid (FA)) in rat plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study of YRA-1909 in rats. Seven analytes were separated on Halo C18 while using gradient elution of formic acid and methanol, and then quantified in selected reaction monitoring mode whle using negative electrospray ionization. Following oral administration of YRA-1909 at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats, CGA, NCGA, and CCGA were rapidly absorbed and metabolized to CA, CA-3-G, and CA-4-G. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUClast) of CGA, NCGA, CCGA, and three metabolites linearly increased as the YRA-1909 dose increased. Other pharmacokinetic parameters were comparable among three doses studied. AUClast values for CA, CA-3-G, and CA-4-G exceeded those for CGA, NCGA, and CCGA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of CYPs and UGTs Involved in Human Liver Microsomal Metabolism of Osthenol
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030141 - 30 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Osthenol is a prenylated coumarin isolated from the root of Angelica koreana and Angelica dahurica, and is an O-demethylated metabolite of osthole in vivo. Its various pharmacological effects have been reported previously. The metabolic pathway of osthenol was partially confirmed in [...] Read more.
Osthenol is a prenylated coumarin isolated from the root of Angelica koreana and Angelica dahurica, and is an O-demethylated metabolite of osthole in vivo. Its various pharmacological effects have been reported previously. The metabolic pathway of osthenol was partially confirmed in rat osthole studies, and 11 metabolic products were identified in rat urine. However, the metabolic pathway of osthenol in human liver microsomes (HLM) has not been reported. In this study, we elucidated the structure of generated metabolites using a high-resolution quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer (HR-MS/MS) and characterized the major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes involved in osthenol metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs). We identified seven metabolites (M1-M7) in HLMs after incubation in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA). As a result, we demonstrated that osthenol is metabolized to five mono-hydroxyl metabolites (M1-M5) by CYP2D6, 1A2, and 3A4, respectively, a 7-O-glucuronide conjugate (M6) by UGT1A9, and a hydroxyl-glucuronide (M7) from M5 by UGT1A3 in HLMs. We also found that glucuronidation is the dominant metabolic pathway of osthenol in HLMs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetics and Brain Distribution of the Active Components of DA-9805, Saikosaponin A, Paeonol and Imperatorin in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030133 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
DA-9805 is a botanical anti-Parkinson’s drug candidate formulated from ethanol extracts of the root of Bupleurum falcatum, the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa, and the root of Angelica dahurica. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and brain distribution of active/representative ingredients of DA-9805, [...] Read more.
DA-9805 is a botanical anti-Parkinson’s drug candidate formulated from ethanol extracts of the root of Bupleurum falcatum, the root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa, and the root of Angelica dahurica. The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and brain distribution of active/representative ingredients of DA-9805, Saikosaponin a (SSa; 1.1–4.6 mg/kg), Paeonol (PA; 14.8–59.2 mg/kg), and Imperatorin (IMP; 1.4–11.5 mg/kg) were evaluated following the intravenous or oral administration of each pure component and the equivalent dose of DA-9805 in rats. All three components had greater dose-normalized areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and slower clearance with higher doses, following intravenous administration. By contrast, dose-proportional AUC values of SSa, PA, and IMP were observed following the oral administration of each pure component (with the exception of IMP at the highest dose) or DA-9805. Compared to oral administration of each pure compound, DA-9805 administration showed an increase in the AUC of SSa (by 96.1–163%) and PA (by 155–164%), possibly due to inhibition of their metabolism by IMP or other component(s) in DA-9805. A delay in the absorption of PA and IMP was observed when they were administered as DA-9805. All three components of DA-9805 showed greater binding values in brain homogenates than in plasma, possibly explaining why the brain-to-plasma ratios were greater than unity following multiple oral administrations of DA-9805. By contrast, their levels in cerebrospinal fluid were negligible. Our results further our understanding of the comprehensive PK characteristics of SSa, PA, and IMP in rats and the comparative PKs between each pure component and DA-9805. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction and Responsible Mechanism between Memantine and Cimetidine
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030119 - 06 Aug 2018
Abstract
A sensitive and simple chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to evaluate memantine in rat plasma. Memantine and propranolol (internal standard) in rat plasma was extracted using a methanol precipitation method. The standard curve value was 0.2–1000 ng/mL and selectivity, linearity, inter-day [...] Read more.
A sensitive and simple chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to evaluate memantine in rat plasma. Memantine and propranolol (internal standard) in rat plasma was extracted using a methanol precipitation method. The standard curve value was 0.2–1000 ng/mL and selectivity, linearity, inter-day and intra-day accuracy and precision were within acceptance criteria. Using this validated method, drug-drug interactions between memantine and cimetidine was measured following co-administration of memantine and cimetidine intravenously and orally. Plasma exposure of memantine was increased by 1.6- and 3.0-fold by co-medication with cimetidine intravenously and orally, respectively. It suggested that the drug interaction occurred during the gut absorption process, which was consistent with the results showing that the intestinal permeability of memantine in the presence of cimetidine was 3.2-fold greater than that of memantine alone. Inhibition of cimetidine on hepatic elimination of memantine rather than renal excretion was also attributed to the drug-drug interaction between memantine and cimetidine, which explained the decreased clearance of memantine by co-medication with cimetidine. In conclusion, the newly developed simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS analytical method was applied to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions of memantine. Plasma exposure of memantine by co-administration with cimetidine was increased because of its enhanced intestinal permeability and the decreased metabolic activity of memantine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Metabolism of Loxoprofen in Liver Microsomes: The Role of Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase in Its Biotransformation
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030112 - 02 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Loxoprofen, a propionic acid derivative, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is a prodrug that is reduced to its active metabolite, trans-alcohol form (Trans-OH) by carbonyl reductase enzyme in the liver. Previous studies demonstrated the hydroxylation and glucuronidation of loxoprofen. However, the specific enzymes catalyzing [...] Read more.
Loxoprofen, a propionic acid derivative, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is a prodrug that is reduced to its active metabolite, trans-alcohol form (Trans-OH) by carbonyl reductase enzyme in the liver. Previous studies demonstrated the hydroxylation and glucuronidation of loxoprofen. However, the specific enzymes catalyzing its metabolism have yet to be identified. In the present study, we investigated metabolic enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), which are involved in the metabolism of loxoprofen. Eight microsomal metabolites of loxoprofen were identified, including two alcohol metabolites (M1 and M2), two mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3 and M4), and four glucuronide conjugates (M5, M6, M7, and M8). Based on the results for the formation of metabolites when incubated in dexamethasone-induced microsomes, incubation with ketoconazole, and human recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450s, we identified CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 as the major CYP isoforms involved in the hydroxylation of loxoprofen (M3 and M4). Moreover, we identified that UGT2B7 is the major UGT isoform catalyzing the glucuronidation of loxoprofen and its alcoholic metabolites. Further experimental studies should be carried out to determine the potency and toxicity of these identified metabolites of loxoprofen, in order to fully understand of mechanism of loxoprofen toxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple and Sensitive Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Anthraquinone Glycosides and Their Aglycones in Rat Plasma: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study of Rumex acetosa Extract
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030100 - 20 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Rumex acetosa (R. acetosa) has been used in folk remedies for gastrointestinal disorders and cutaneous diseases. Rumex species, in particular, contain abundant anthraquinones. Anthraquinone glycosides and aglycones show different bioactive effects. However, information on the pharmacokinetics of anthraquinone glycosides is limited, [...] Read more.
Rumex acetosa (R. acetosa) has been used in folk remedies for gastrointestinal disorders and cutaneous diseases. Rumex species, in particular, contain abundant anthraquinones. Anthraquinone glycosides and aglycones show different bioactive effects. However, information on the pharmacokinetics of anthraquinone glycosides is limited, and methods to quantify anthraquinone glycosides in plasma are rarely available. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric bioanalytical method for the simultaneous determination of both anthraquinone glycosides and their aglycones, including emodin, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucoside, chrysophanol, chrysophanol-8-O-β-d-glucoside, physcion, and physcion-8-O-β-d-glucoside , in a low volume of rat plasma (20 µL) was established. A simple and rapid sample preparation was employed using methanol as a precipitating agent with appropriate sensitivity. Chromatographic separation was performed on HPLC by using a biphenyl column with a gradient elution using 2 mM ammonium formate (pH 6) in water and 2 mM ammonium formate (pH 6) in methanol within a run time of 13 min. The anthraquinones were detected on triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode using multiple-reaction monitoring. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability. The values of the lower limit of quantitation of anthraquinones were 1–20 ng/mL. The intra-batch and inter-batch accuracies were 96.7–111.9% and the precision was within the acceptable limits. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of R. acetosa 70% ethanol extract to rats at a dose of 2 g/kg. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability of Eurycomanone in Its Pure Form and in a Standardised Eurycoma longifolia Water Extract
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030090 - 11 Jul 2018
Abstract
Eurycoma longifolia is one of the commonly consumed herbal preparations and its major chemical compound, eurycomanone, has been described to have antimalarial, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, and cytotoxic activities. Today, the consumption of E. longifolia is popular through the incorporation of its extract in food [...] Read more.
Eurycoma longifolia is one of the commonly consumed herbal preparations and its major chemical compound, eurycomanone, has been described to have antimalarial, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, and cytotoxic activities. Today, the consumption of E. longifolia is popular through the incorporation of its extract in food items, most frequently in drinks such as tea and coffee. In the current study, the characterisation of the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic (PK) attributes of eurycomanone were conducted via a series of in vitro and in vivo studies in rats and mice. The solubility and chemical stability of eurycomanone under the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract environment were determined. The permeability of eurycomanone was investigated by determining its distribution coefficient in aqueous and organic environments and its permeability using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay system and Caco-2 cultured cells. Eurycomanone’s stability in plasma and its protein-binding ability were measured by using an equilibrium dialysis method. Its stability in liver microsomes across species (mice, rat, dog, monkey, and human) and rat liver hepatocytes was also investigated. Along with the PK evaluations of eurycomanone in mice and rats, the PK parameters for the Malaysian Standard (MS: 2409:201) standardised water extract of E. longifolia were also evaluated in rats. Both rodent models showed that eurycomanone in both the compound form and extract form had a half-life of 0.30 h. The differences in the bioavailability of eurycomanone in the compound form between the rats (11.8%) and mice (54.9%) suggests that the PK parameters cannot be directly extrapolated to humans. The results also suggest that eurycomanone is not readily absorbed across biological membranes. However, once absorbed, the compound is not easily metabolised (is stable), hence retaining its bioactive properties, which may be responsible for the various reported biological activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Column-Switching HPLC-MS/MS Method and Clinical Application for Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair in Conjunction with AUDIT for Detecting High-Risk Alcohol Consumption
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030084 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is critical to assess the severity of alcohol consumption in certain diseases such as alcohol liver disease and alcohol addiction. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a highly stable metabolite of ethanol in hair; thus, it was proposed as a long-term monitoring marker for [...] Read more.
It is critical to assess the severity of alcohol consumption in certain diseases such as alcohol liver disease and alcohol addiction. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a highly stable metabolite of ethanol in hair; thus, it was proposed as a long-term monitoring marker for alcohol consumption. Therefore, an HPLC-MS/MS method for EtG in hair was developed and applied to a clinical setting to assess the relevance of the EtG concentration and/or the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score to high-risk alcohol consumption. EtG was extracted from 10 mg of hair using water and analyzed using on-line sample purification coupled to HPLC-MS/MS. The diagnostic performances of the EtG concentration and/or the AUDIT score for detecting high-risk alcohol consumption were statistically evaluated between alcohol addicts (n = 44) and average alcohol users (n = 19). The on-line sample purification resulted in labor-saving with smaller sample amount. Both the EtG concentrations (4.0–587.4 pg/mg vs. 12.9–74.9 pg/mg) and the AUDIT scores (4–40 vs. 5–28) obtained from the alcohol addicts were significantly higher than those from the average alcohol users. The performance evaluation demonstrated that the integration score of the EtG concentration and the AUDIT score increased diagnostic performance for high-risk alcohol consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Red Ginseng Extract on the Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of Metformin in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030080 - 03 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of red ginseng extract on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of metformin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The diabetes mellitus rat model was established by intraperitoneally administering multiple doses of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, twice [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of red ginseng extract on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy of metformin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The diabetes mellitus rat model was established by intraperitoneally administering multiple doses of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, twice on day 1 and 8), and diabetic rats received metformin 50 mg/kg with or without single or multiple administration of Korean red ginseng extract (RGE, 2 g/kg/day, once or for 1 week). RGE administration did not affect the plasma concentration and renal excretion of metformin. Further, diabetic rats were administered metformin (50 mg/kg) and RGE (2 g/kg) alone or concomitantly for 5 weeks, and both regimens decreased the fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb-A1c) levels. Furthermore, fasting blood glucose levels were reduced by metformin or RGE administered alone but recovered to the control level following co-administration, suggesting that the effect was additive. However, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels were not different with metformin and RGE treatment alone or in combination. Biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were not different among the three treatment groups. In conclusion, RGE and metformin showed an additive effect in glycemic control. However, the co-administration of RGE and metformin did not cause PK interactions or affect biochemical parameters including the free fatty acid, triglyceride, AST, ALT, or cholesterol levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Determination of Five Cytochrome P450 Probe Substrates and Their Metabolites and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide Probe Substrate in Human Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030079 - 02 Jul 2018
Abstract
A rapid and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and cytochrome P450 (P450) probe substrates and their phase I metabolites in human plasma was developed. The OATP1B1 (pitavastatin) and five P450 [...] Read more.
A rapid and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and cytochrome P450 (P450) probe substrates and their phase I metabolites in human plasma was developed. The OATP1B1 (pitavastatin) and five P450 probe substrates, caffeine (CYP1A2), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A) and their metabolites were extracted from human plasma (50 µL) using methanol. Analytes were separated on a C18 column followed by selected reaction monitoring detection using MS/MS. All analytes were separated simultaneously within a 9 min run time. The developed method was fully validated over the expected clinical concentration range for all analytes tested. The intra- and inter-day precisions for all analytes were lower than 11.3% and 8.82%, respectively, and accuracy was 88.5–117.3% and 96.1–109.2%, respectively. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.05 ng/mL for dextromethorphan, dextrorphan, midazolam, and 1′-hydroxymidazolam; 0.5 ng/mL for losartan, EXP-3174, omeprazole, 5′-hydroxyomeprazole, and pitavastatin; and 5 ng/mL for caffeine and paraxanthine. The method was successfully used in a pharmacokinetic study in healthy subjects after oral doses of five P450 and OATP1B1 probes. This analytical method provides a simple, sensitive, and accurate tool for the determination of OATP1B1 and five major P450 activities in vivo drug interaction studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Assay for the Quantification of Fabry Disease Biomarker Globotriaosylceramide (GB3) in Fabry Model Mouse
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020069 - 07 Jun 2018
Abstract
Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the lack of α-Gal A gene activity. Globotriaosylceramide (GB3, ceramide trihexoside) is a novel endogenous biomarker which predicts the incidence of Fabry disease. At the early stage efficacy/biomarker study, a rapid method to [...] Read more.
Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the lack of α-Gal A gene activity. Globotriaosylceramide (GB3, ceramide trihexoside) is a novel endogenous biomarker which predicts the incidence of Fabry disease. At the early stage efficacy/biomarker study, a rapid method to determine this biomarker in plasma and in all relevant tissues related to this disease simultaneously is required. However, the limited sample volume, as well as the various levels of GB3 in different matrices makes the GB3 quantitation very challenging. Hereby we developed a rapid method to identify GB3 in mouse plasma and various tissues. Preliminary stability tests were also performed in three different conditions: short-term, freeze-thaw, long-term. The calibration curve was well fitted over the concentration range of 0.042–10 μg/mL for GB3 in plasma and 0.082–20 μg/g for GB3 in various tissues. This method was successfully applied for the comparison of GB3 levels in Fabry model mice (B6;129-Glatm1Kul/J), which has not been performed previously to the best of our knowledge. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Qualification and Application of a Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Adalimumab in Rat Plasma
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020061 - 24 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
A liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometric method was developed for early-stage research on adalimumab in rats. The method consisted of immunoprecipitation followed by tryptic digestion for sample preparation and LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of specific signature peptides of adalimumab in the positive ion mode [...] Read more.
A liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometric method was developed for early-stage research on adalimumab in rats. The method consisted of immunoprecipitation followed by tryptic digestion for sample preparation and LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of specific signature peptides of adalimumab in the positive ion mode using electrospray ionization. This specific signature peptide is derived from the complementarity-determining region (CDR) of adalimumab. A quadratic regression (weighted 1/concentration), with an equation y = ax2 + bx + c, was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range of 1–100 μg/mL for adalimumab. The qualification run met the acceptance criteria of ±25% accuracy and precision values for quality control (QC) samples. This qualified LC-QTOF-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of adalimumab in rats as a case study. This LC-QTOF-MS/MS approach would be useful as a complementary method for adalimumab or its biosimilars at an early stage of research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Determination of Procainamide and N-acetylprocainamide in Rat Plasma by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with a Diode Array Detector and Its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Rats
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10020041 - 30 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A simple, sensitive, and reliable reversed-phase, Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a Diode Array Detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of Procainamide (PA) and its major metabolite, N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), in rat plasma was developed and validated. A simple deproteinization method [...] Read more.
A simple, sensitive, and reliable reversed-phase, Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with a Diode Array Detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of Procainamide (PA) and its major metabolite, N-acetylprocainamide (NAPA), in rat plasma was developed and validated. A simple deproteinization method with methanol was applied to the rat plasma samples, which were analyzed using UHPLC equipped with DAD at 280 nm, and a Synergi™ 4 µm polar, reversed-phase column using 1% acetic acid (pH 5.5) and methanol (76:24, v/v) as eluent in isocratic mode at a flow rate 0.2 mL/min. The method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.998) over the concentration range of 20–100,000 and 20–10,000 ng/mL for PA and NAPA, respectively. Intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from 97.7 to 110.9%, and precision was <10.5% for PA and 99.7 to 109.2 and <10.5%, respectively, for NAPA. The lower limit of quantification was 20 ng/mL for both compounds. This is the first report of the UHPLC-DAD bioanalytical method for simultaneous measurement of PA and NAPA. The most obvious advantage of this method over previously reported HPLC methods is that it requires small sample and injection volumes, with a straightforward, one-step sample preparation. It overcomes the limitations of previous methods, which use large sample volume and complex sample preparation. The devised method was successfully applied to the quantification of PA and NAPA after an intravenous bolus administration of 10 mg/kg procainamide hydrochloride to rats. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Drying Technologies for the Stability and Bioavailability of Biopharmaceuticals
Pharmaceutics 2018, 10(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030131 - 17 Aug 2018
Cited by 10
Abstract
Solid dosage forms of biopharmaceuticals such as therapeutic proteins could provide enhanced bioavailability, improved storage stability, as well as expanded alternatives to parenteral administration. Although numerous drying methods have been used for preparing dried protein powders, choosing a suitable drying technique remains a [...] Read more.
Solid dosage forms of biopharmaceuticals such as therapeutic proteins could provide enhanced bioavailability, improved storage stability, as well as expanded alternatives to parenteral administration. Although numerous drying methods have been used for preparing dried protein powders, choosing a suitable drying technique remains a challenge. In this review, the most frequent drying methods, such as freeze drying, spray drying, spray freeze drying, and supercritical fluid drying, for improving the stability and bioavailability of therapeutic proteins, are discussed. These technologies can prepare protein formulations for different applications as they produce particles with different sizes and morphologies. Proper drying methods are chosen, and the critical process parameters are optimized based on the proposed route of drug administration and the required pharmacokinetics. In an optimized drying procedure, the screening of formulations according to their protein properties is performed to prepare a stable protein formulation for various delivery systems, including pulmonary, nasal, and sustained-release applications. Full article
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