Special Issue "Advances in Ocular Pharmacology"

A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Ioannis Tsinopoulos
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
2nd Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: cataract; epigenetics; nanotechnology
Dr. Ioanna Mylona
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
2nd Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: medical research; glaucoma; cataract; cornea
Dr. Lampros Lamprogiannis
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Fellow, King's College Hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital
Interests: pediatric ophthalmology ; strabismus; nanotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ocular pharmacology is a field that has grown rapidly during the last few years, as we have witnessed several new and promising treatments becoming available for eye disorders that are not amenable to surgery, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), diabetic macular edema (DME), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and virus infections.

The eye is an organ protected from environmental stress and obnoxious substances by various barriers, a fact that necessitates innovation in the administration route of pharmaceutical substances. Recently several innovative technologies have been developed to directly reach the vitreous chamber or the retina. Those include intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology.

This Special Issue will summarize the state-of-the-art, and the latest findings published in the ocular pharmacology field, as well as to provide directions for future research.

Prof. Ioannis Tsinopoulos
Dr. Ioanna Mylona
Dr. Lampros Lamprogiannis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceuticals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ocular pharmacology
  • pharmacodynamics
  • ophthalmology
  • drug delivery systems

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Bio-Distribution and Pharmacokinetics of Topically Administered γ-Cyclodextrin Based Eye Drops in Rabbits
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(5), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14050480 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 554
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics, bio-distribution and local tolerability of γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) based irbesartan 1.5% eye drops and candesartan 0.15% eye drops after single and multiple topical administration in rabbit eyes. In this randomized, controlled study, a [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics, bio-distribution and local tolerability of γ-cyclodextrin (γCD) based irbesartan 1.5% eye drops and candesartan 0.15% eye drops after single and multiple topical administration in rabbit eyes. In this randomized, controlled study, a total number of 59 New Zealand White albino rabbits were consecutively assigned to two study groups. Group 1 (n = 31) received irbesartan 1.5% and group 2 (n = 28) candesartan 0.15% eye drops. In both groups, single dose and multiple administration pharmacokinetic studies were performed. Rabbits were euthanized at five predefined time points after single-dose administration, whereas multiple-dose animals were dosed for 5 days twice-daily and then euthanized 1 h after the last dose administration. Drug concentration was measured by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the retinal tissue, vitreous humor, aqueous humor, corneal tissue and in venous blood samples. Pharmacokinetic parameters including maximal drug concentration (Cmax), time of maximal drug concentration (Tmax), half-life and AUC were calculated. To assess local tolerability, six additional rabbits received 1.5% irbesartan eye drops twice daily in one eye for 28 days. Tolerability was assessed using a modified Draize test and corneal sensibility by Cochet Bonnet esthesiometry. Both γCD based eye drops were rapidly absorbed and distributed in the anterior and posterior ocular tissues. Within 0.5 h after single administration, the Cmax of irbesartan and candesartan in retinal tissue was 251 ± 142 ng/g and 63 ± 39 ng/g, respectively. In the vitreous humor, a Cmax of 14 ± 16 ng/g for irbesartan was reached 0.5 h after instillation while Cmax was below 2 ng/g for candesartan. For multiple dosing, the observed Cmean in retinal tissue was 338 ± 124 ng/g for irbesartan and 36 ± 10 ng/g for candesartan, whereas mean vitreous humor concentrations were 13 ± 5 ng/g and <2 ng/g, respectively. The highest plasma concentrations of both irbesartan (Cmax 5.64 ± 4.08 ng/mL) and candesartan (Cmax 4.32 ± 1.04 ng/mL) were reached 0.5 h (Tmax) after single administration. Local tolerability was favorable with no remarkable differences between the treated and the control eyes. These results indicate that irbesartan and candesartan in γCD based nanoparticle eye drops can be delivered to the retinal tissue of the rabbit’s eye in pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Moreover, safety and tolerability profiles appear to be favorable in the rabbit animal model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
Filociclovir Is an Active Antiviral Agent against Ocular Adenovirus Isolates In Vitro and in the Ad5/NZW Rabbit Ocular Model
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(4), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14040294 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 452
Abstract
Presently, there is no FDA- or EMA-approved antiviral for the treatment of human adenovirus (HAdV) ocular infections. This study determined the antiviral activity of filociclovir (FCV) against ocular HAdV isolates in vitro and in the Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular model. The 50% effective concentrations [...] Read more.
Presently, there is no FDA- or EMA-approved antiviral for the treatment of human adenovirus (HAdV) ocular infections. This study determined the antiviral activity of filociclovir (FCV) against ocular HAdV isolates in vitro and in the Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular model. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of FCV and cidofovir (CDV) were determined for several ocular HAdV types using standard plaque reduction assays. Rabbits were topically inoculated in both eyes with HAdV5. On day 1, the rabbits were divided into four topical treatment groups: (1) 0.5% FCV 4x/day × 10 d; (2) 0.1% FCV 4x/day × 10 d; (3) 0.5% CDV 2x/day × 7 d; (4) vehicle 4x/day × 10 d. Eyes were cultured for virus on days 0, 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. The resulting viral eye titers were determined using standard plaque assays. The mean in vitro EC50 for FCV against tested HAdV types ranged from 0.50 to 4.68 µM, whereas those treated with CDV ranged from 0.49 to 30.3 µM. In vivo, compared to vehicle, 0.5% FCV, 0.1% FCV, and 0.5% CDV produced lower eye titers, fewer numbers of positive eye cultures, and shorter durations of eye infection. FCV demonstrated anti-adenovirus activity in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
A Safe GDNF and GDNF/BDNF Controlled Delivery System Improves Migration in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells and Survival in Retinal Ganglion Cells: Potential Usefulness in Degenerative Retinal Pathologies
Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph14010050 - 11 Jan 2021
Viewed by 740
Abstract
We assessed the sustained delivery effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)/vitamin E (VitE) microspheres (MSs) loaded with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) alone (GDNF-MSs) or combined with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; GDNF/BDNF-MSs) on migration of the human adult retinal pigment epithelial cell-line-19 (ARPE-19) [...] Read more.
We assessed the sustained delivery effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)/vitamin E (VitE) microspheres (MSs) loaded with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) alone (GDNF-MSs) or combined with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; GDNF/BDNF-MSs) on migration of the human adult retinal pigment epithelial cell-line-19 (ARPE-19) cells, primate choroidal endothelial (RF/6A) cells, and the survival of isolated mouse retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The morphology of the MSs, particle size, and encapsulation efficiencies of the active substances were evaluated. In vitro release, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) deoxyuridine dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) apoptosis, functional wound healing migration (ARPE-19; migration), and (RF/6A; angiogenesis) assays were conducted. The safety of MS intravitreal injection was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin, neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunolabeling, and TUNEL assays, and RGC in vitro survival was analyzed. MSs delivered GDNF and co-delivered GDNF/BDNF in a sustained manner over 77 days. The BDNF/GDNF combination increased RPE cell migration, whereas no effect was observed on RF/6A. MSs did not alter cell viability, apoptosis was absent in vitro, and RGCs survived in vitro for seven weeks. In mice, retinal toxicity and apoptosis was absent in histologic sections. This delivery strategy could be useful as a potential co-therapy in retinal degenerations and glaucoma, in line with future personalized long-term intravitreal treatment as different amounts (doses) of microparticles can be administered according to patients’ needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
Oral Treatment of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Patients Using Propranolol Tablets
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110336 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of propranolol treatment of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) over 4 months. Results: Among the 89 male and 31 female patients, the mean BCVA decreased to 0.42 ± 0.08 logMAR during CSCR attacks. Oral propranolol showed [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate the pharmacological effects of propranolol treatment of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) over 4 months. Results: Among the 89 male and 31 female patients, the mean BCVA decreased to 0.42 ± 0.08 logMAR during CSCR attacks. Oral propranolol showed good effectiveness in reducing CSCR signs after at least 4 months of treatment. The final BCVA of the patients in groups 1 and 2 was 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.19 ± 0.03 logMAR, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, the mean complete remission time in groups 1 and 2 was 1.9 and 3.5 months, respectively (p < 0.05), while the “success” rate in groups 1 and 2 was 95.0% (57/60) and 78.3% (47/60), respectively (p < 0.05). The recurrence rate in groups 1 and 2 was 5.3% (3/57) and 25.5% (12/47) after a further 5 months of follow-up, respectively (p < 0.05). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups that both underwent a visual acuity test and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning, between April and December 2017. The 60 patients in group 1 were requested to take propranolol for 4 months, while the other 60 subjects (group 2) received placebo therapy during the same period. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of every volunteer and an OCT image of each patient were checked and recorded at the beginning of the study and each week thereafter. If the signs of CSCR disappeared completely from the OCT scans, the case was considered a “success” and treatment stopped at once. However, the “success” subjects were further evaluated in follow-ups throughout the next 5 months to determine the rate of recurrence in groups 1 and 2. The time of total complete remission of CSCR from the OCT scans was also measured in groups 1 and 2. Conclusion: CSCR patients revealed an excellent prognosis and success rate of 95.0% after taking propranolol. The treatment was able to enhance subretinal fluid (SRF) absorption, shorten the time to total complete remission, and significantly decrease CSCR recurrence. As such, we suggest that taking propranolol may be an alternative and viable choice for CSCR patients, given that the new method was shown to be safe, cheap, effective, well tolerated and convenient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
Histological Effects of Intravitreal Injection of Antifungal Agents in New Zealand White Rabbits: An Electron Microscopic and Immunohistochemical Study
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(10), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13100267 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Fungal endophthalmitis is a serious and vision-threatening infection which requires an immediate and effective treatment approach. Our research aims to elucidate the histological effects of the intravitreal injection of the maximum safe dosage of voriconazole and micafungin on retina. Six albino New Zealand [...] Read more.
Fungal endophthalmitis is a serious and vision-threatening infection which requires an immediate and effective treatment approach. Our research aims to elucidate the histological effects of the intravitreal injection of the maximum safe dosage of voriconazole and micafungin on retina. Six albino New Zealand White Rabbits were used. In experimental animals, a solution of voriconazole (Group V) or micafungin (Group M) was intravitreally injected in the right eye, while in control animals, balanced salt solution was intravitreally injected in the left eye (Group C). Euthanasia was performed ten days post injection and the retina was removed and prepared for histological examination with a light and electron microscope. Eosin-hematoxylin staining did not reveal any pathological changes in any of the samples examined. The immunohistochemical staining for Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-a) marker was detected as negative in all samples, while Interleukin 6 (IL-6) marker was detected as mild only in the group injected with voriconazole. Electron microscopy revealed several ultrastructural alterations in retinal layers in both groups of experimental animals. Histological retinal lesions, revealed with electron microscopy in the present investigation, raises the question of the safe usage of these antifungal agents in the treatment of fungal intraocular infections in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
Proteomics Reveals the Potential Protective Mechanism of Hydrogen Sulfide on Retinal Ganglion Cells in an Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Animal Model
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(9), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13090213 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent neurotransmitter and has been proven to protect RGCs against glaucomatous injury in vitro and in vivo. This [...] Read more.
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent neurotransmitter and has been proven to protect RGCs against glaucomatous injury in vitro and in vivo. This study is to provide an overall insight of H2S’s role in glaucoma pathophysiology. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) by elevating intraocular pressure to 55 mmHg for 60 min. Six of the animals received intravitreal injection of H2S precursor prior to the procedure and the retina was harvested 24 h later. Contralateral eyes were assigned as control. RGCs were quantified and compared within the groups. Retinal proteins were analyzed via label-free mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics approach. The pathways of the differentially expressed proteins were identified by ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). H2S significantly improved RGC survival against I/R in vivo (p < 0.001). In total 1115 proteins were identified, 18 key proteins were significantly differentially expressed due to I/R and restored by H2S. Another 11 proteins were differentially expressed following H2S. IPA revealed a significant H2S-mediated activation of pathways related to mitochondrial function, iron homeostasis and vasodilation. This study provides first evidence of the complex role that H2S plays in protecting RGC against I/R. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
Ocular Co-Delivery of Timolol and Brimonidine from a Self-Assembling Peptide Hydrogel for the Treatment of Glaucoma: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluation
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(6), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13060126 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Effective pharmacotherapy during glaucoma treatment depends on interventions that reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and retain the IOP lowering effect for sufficient time so as to reduce dosing frequency and enhance patient adherence. Combination anti-glaucoma therapy and dosage forms that increase precorneal residence time [...] Read more.
Effective pharmacotherapy during glaucoma treatment depends on interventions that reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and retain the IOP lowering effect for sufficient time so as to reduce dosing frequency and enhance patient adherence. Combination anti-glaucoma therapy and dosage forms that increase precorneal residence time could therefore constitute a promising therapeutic intervention. The in-situ gel forming self-assembling peptide ac-(RADA)4-CONH2 was evaluated as carrier for the ocular co-delivery of timolol maleate (TM) and brimonidine tartrate (BR). The hydrogel’s microstructure and mechanical properties were assessed with atomic force microscopy and rheology, respectively. Drug diffusion from the hydrogel was evaluated in vitro in simulated tear fluid and ex vivo across porcine corneas and its effect on the treated corneas was assessed through physicochemical characterization and histological analysis. Results indicated that TM and BR co-delivery affected hydrogel’s microstructure resulting in shorter nanofibers and a less rigid hydrogel matrix. Rapid and complete release of both drugs was achieved within 8 h, while a 2.8-fold and 5.4-fold higher corneal permeability was achieved for TM and BR, respectively. No significant alterations were induced in the structural integrity of the corneas treated with the hydrogel formulation, suggesting that self-assembling peptide hydrogels might serve as promising systems for combination anti-glaucoma therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Article
Oral l-Cysteine Supplementation Enhances the Long Term-Effect of Topical Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Reducing the Corneal Haze after Photorefractive Keratectomy in Myopic Patients
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13040067 - 15 Apr 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
We aimed at evaluating the long-term effects of l-cysteine oral supplementation to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) eye-drops on corneal re-epithelization and transparency in myopic patients subjected to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Forty patients subjected to bilateral PRK for myopia were enrolled and [...] Read more.
We aimed at evaluating the long-term effects of l-cysteine oral supplementation to basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) eye-drops on corneal re-epithelization and transparency in myopic patients subjected to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Forty patients subjected to bilateral PRK for myopia were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups receiving an additional therapy together with the standard postoperative treatment consisting in local tobramycin 0.3%, dexamethasone 0.1%, diclofenac 0.1%, and 0.2% hyaluronate. Group 1 included 20 patients (11 males and 9 females; 34.09 ± 8 years of age) receiving only bFGF eye-drops (10 μg/10 μL) four times a day for 7 days starting from the day of surgery; Group 2 included 20 patients (12 males and 8 females; 37.35 ± 11.5 years of age) who were postoperatively administered with topical basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 μg/10 μL) four times a day for 7 days plus oral l-cysteine supplementation (500 mg/capsule) once a day for 15 days, starting 7 days before PRK. Patients were followed-up for 12 months. Clinical ophthalmologic parameters were recorded for all the 80 examined eyes. The corneal transparency was evaluated in vivo by slit lamp and confocal microscopy. The data showed that: (a) the corneal haze occurred in a smaller percentage of the patients who were postoperatively administered with topical bFGF plus oral l-cysteine supplementation (Group 2) compared to patients who received only bFGF (Group 1); (b) at 6 months of follow-up, the stromal mean image brightness of the patients belonging to Group 2 was significantly lower than that of the Group 1 (p < 0.03), and, interestingly, the difference was even more evident at 12 month from the treatment (p < 0.001). Moreover, the final mean of the spherical equivalent refraction was −0.06 ± 0.2 D in Group 1 and −0.08 ± 0.3 D in Group 2, whereas the final uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was equal or superior to 20/25 in 100% of eyes in both Group 1 and 2. Post refractive patients can benefit from the administration of l-cysteine before the surgery and in association with bFGF in the early postoperative period, showing a faster corneal re-epithelization able to prevent corneal haze in the long-term recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Review

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Review
A Critical Appraisal of New Developments in Intraocular Lens Modifications and Drug Delivery Systems for the Prevention of Cataract Surgery Complications
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(12), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13120448 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 558
Abstract
Cataract surgery is the commonest ophthalmic surgery worldwide. The replacement of the diseased lens with a synthetic one (intraocular lens—IOL) remains the treatment of choice, despite its potential complications that include infection, inflammation and posterior capsule opacification. The potential for drug delivery via [...] Read more.
Cataract surgery is the commonest ophthalmic surgery worldwide. The replacement of the diseased lens with a synthetic one (intraocular lens—IOL) remains the treatment of choice, despite its potential complications that include infection, inflammation and posterior capsule opacification. The potential for drug delivery via the IOL has been researched extensively over a period of twenty-five years, yet there is very limited progress in transferring the findings from research to everyday practice. The objective of this review is to assess the progress made in the field of IOL lens modifications and drug delivery systems over the past five years. Thirty-six studies that were conducted during the past five years were identified and deemed suitable for inclusion. They were grouped in three broad categories, studies that described new methods for loading a drug onto the IOL, assessment of the effects of drugs that were loaded to the IOL and studies that assessed the effects of non-pharmaceutical modifications of IOLs. While considerable progress is continually being made with regard to methods and materials, there is still little capitalization upon these research studies, with no commercially available IOL-based drug delivery system being available. Close cooperation between researchers in basic sciences (chemistry, physics, materials science and pharmacy), clinical researchers, IOL manufacturers and the pharmaceutical industry is an important prerequisite for further development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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Review
Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Allergic Conjunctival Diseases
Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110351 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
Allergic conjunctivitis is one of the most common external eye diseases and the prevalence has been increasing. The mainstay of treatment is topical eye drops. However, low bioavailability, low ocular drug penetration, transient resident time on the ocular surface due to tear turnover, [...] Read more.
Allergic conjunctivitis is one of the most common external eye diseases and the prevalence has been increasing. The mainstay of treatment is topical eye drops. However, low bioavailability, low ocular drug penetration, transient resident time on the ocular surface due to tear turnover, frequent topical applications and dependence on patient compliance, are the main drawbacks associated with topical administration. Nanotechnology-based medicine has emerged to circumvent these limitations, by encapsulating the drugs and preventing them from degradation and therefore providing sustained and controlled release. Using a nanotechnology-based approach to load the drug is particularly useful for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs such as immunomodulatory agents, which are commonly used in allergic conjunctival diseases. In this review, different nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, including nanoemulsions, liposomes, nanomicelles, nanosuspension, polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, and their potential ophthalmic applications, as well as advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. We also summarize the results of present studies on the loading of immunomodulators or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to nano-scaled drug delivery systems. For future potential clinical use, research should focus on the optimization of drug delivery designs that provide adequate and effective doses with safe and satisfactory pharmacokinetic and pharmaco-toxic profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ocular Pharmacology)
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