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The Association between Whole Grain Products Consumption and Successful Aging: A Combined Analysis of MEDIS and ATTICA Epidemiological Studies
Open AccessArticle

The Relationship between Whole Grain Intake and Body Weight: Results of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials

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Midwest Biomedical Research/Center for Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health, 211 East Lake Street, Suite 3, Addison, IL 60101, USA
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General Mills, Inc., 1 General Mills Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55426, USA
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Nutritional Epidemiology Program, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington St, Boston, MA 02111, USA
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Kyzo Nutrition, LLC, 1612 Boulder Ridge Dr., Bolingbrook, IL 60490, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061245
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Human Health)
Results from some observational studies suggest that higher whole grain (WG) intake is associated with lower risk of weight gain. Ovid Medline was used to conduct a literature search for observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing WG food intake and weight status in adults. A meta-regression analysis of cross-sectional data from 12 observational studies (136,834 subjects) and a meta-analysis of nine RCTs (973 subjects) was conducted; six prospective cohort publications were qualitatively reviewed. Cross-sectional data meta-regression results indicate a significant, inverse correlation between WG intake and body mass index (BMI): weighted slope, −0.0141 kg/m2 per g/day of WG intake (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.0207, −0.0077; r = −0.526, p = 0.0001). Prospective cohort results generally showed inverse associations between WG intake and weight change with typical follow-up periods of five to 20 years. RCT meta-analysis results show a nonsignificant pooled standardized effect size of −0.049 kg (95% CI −0.297, 0.199, p = 0.698) for mean difference in weight change (WG versus control interventions). Higher WG intake is significantly inversely associated with BMI in observational studies but not RCTs up to 16 weeks in length; RCTs with longer intervention periods are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole grains; body weight; body mass index; body composition; obesity; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; prospective cohorts; cross-sectional whole grains; body weight; body mass index; body composition; obesity; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; prospective cohorts; cross-sectional
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Maki, K.C.; Palacios, O.M.; Koecher, K.; Sawicki, C.M.; Livingston, K.A.; Bell, M.; Nelson Cortes, H.; McKeown, N.M. The Relationship between Whole Grain Intake and Body Weight: Results of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1245.

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