Nutrition is crucial for the management of patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) to slow down disease progression and to correct symptoms. The mainstay of the nutritional approach to renal patients is protein restriction coupled with adequate energy supply to prevent malnutrition. However, other aspects of renal diets, including fiber content, can be beneficial. This paper summarizes the latest literature on the role of different types of dietary fiber in CKD, with special attention to gut microbiota and the potential protective role of renal diets. Fibers have been identified based on aqueous solubility, but other features, such as viscosity, fermentability, and bulking effect in the colon should be considered. A proper amount of fiber should be recommended not only in the general population but also in CKD patients, to achieve an adequate composition and metabolism of gut microbiota and to reduce the risks connected with obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia.
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