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Open AccessArticle

Fermented Korean Red Ginseng Extract Enriched in Rd and Rg3 Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Regulation of mTORC1

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28160, Korea
NOVA K-MED Co., Ltd., 1646 Yuseong-daero, HNU Innobiz Park Suite 403, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34054, Korea
College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Biosafety Research Institute and College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si 54596, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2963;
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
The fermentation of Korean red ginseng (RG) increases the bioavailability and efficacy of RG, which has a protective role in various diseases. However, the ginsenoside-specific molecular mechanism of the fermented RG with Cordyceps militaris (CRG) has not been elucidated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A mouse model of NAFLD was induced by a fast-food diet (FFD) and treated with CRG (100 or 300 mg/kg) for the last 8 weeks. CRG-mediated signaling was assessed in the liver cells isolated from mice. CRG administration significantly reduced the FFD-induced steatosis, liver injury, and inflammation, indicating that CRG confers protective effects against NAFLD. Of note, an extract of CRG contains a significantly increased amount of ginsenosides (Rd and Rg3) after bioconversion compared with that of conventional RG. Moreover, in vitro treatment with Rd or Rg3 produced anti-steatotic effects in primary hepatocytes. Mechanistically, CRG protected palmitate-induced activation of mTORC1 and subsequent inhibition of mitophagy and PPARα signaling. Similar to that noted in hepatocytes, CRG exerted anti-inflammatory activity through mTORC1 inhibition-mediated M2 polarization. In conclusion, CRG inhibits lipid-mediated pathologic activation of mTORC1 in hepatocytes and macrophages, which in turn prevents NAFLD development. Thus, the administration of CRG may be an alternative for the prevention of NAFLD.
Keywords: NAFLD; fermented Korean red ginseng; mTORC1 NAFLD; fermented Korean red ginseng; mTORC1
MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, S.-Y.; Park, J.-S.; Shon, C.-H.; Lee, C.-Y.; Ryu, J.-M.; Son, D.-J.; Hwang, B.-Y.; Yoo, H.-S.; Cho, Y.-C.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.-W.; Roh, Y.-S. Fermented Korean Red Ginseng Extract Enriched in Rd and Rg3 Protects against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Regulation of mTORC1. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2963.

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