Special Issue "Nutraceutical, Nutrition Supplements and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rafat A. Siddiqui
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Guest Editor
Nutrition Science and Food Chemistry Laboratory, Virginia State University, 1 Hayden St, Petersburg, VA 23806, USA
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mohammed Moghadasian
Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
The University of Manitoba and St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, St. Boniface Hospital, Winnipeg, MB R2H 2A6 Canada
Interests: functional foods and nutraceuticals; metabolic disorders, diet, and drug Interactions; maternal and child nutrition; lipid nutrition and metabolism; nutrition through the life cycle

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The term “nutraceuticals” is derived from “nutrition” and “pharmaceuticals” and used for nutrition products that are also used as medicine. “Nutraceuticals” often contain modified/unmodified whole food, plant extracts alone or in combination, semi-purified and purified phytochemicals, or a combination of different phytochemicals. On the other hand, nutritional supplements are nutritional compounds that supplement one’s diet by increasing one’s total daily intake. Nutritional supplements also contain substances alone or in combination with vitamins and minerals, with or without other herbal products. The interest in nutraceuticals is growing, as these products are often used for preventing chronic diseases, delaying the ageing process, improving one’s bodily structure, and increasing life expectancy. These are often perceived as “safe” and less likely to have side effects. However, scientific research on nutraceuticals and nutrition supplements is frequently misinterpreted or overstretched for commercial interests because of high consumer demand. The purpose of this Special Issue on “Nutraceuticals, Nutrition Supplements, and Human Health” is to comprehensively review the data from basic and clinical research to discuss the benefits as well as potential adverse effects. We invite authors to submit original research and review articles that address the progress and our current understanding of nutraceuticals/supplements from in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as from clinical trials describing the benefits/adverse effects with underlying mechanisms. Topics are desired focusing on nutraceuticals/supplements analysis, intake, absorption and metabolism, cell signaling, gene expression, and variation in cellular effects due to gene polymorphisms. The overall goal of this Special Issue is to present readers with high-quality scientific evidence for the use of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that can be properly used to improve health parameters in the various stages of one’s lifecycle.

Prof. Dr. Rafat A. Siddiqui
Prof. Dr. Mohammed Moghadasian
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Functional foods
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Dietary supplements
  • Chronic diseases
  • Health
  • Clinical trials
  • Animal studies

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Nutraceuticals and Nutrition Supplements: Challenges and Opportunities
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061593 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The term “nutraceuticals” is derived from “nutrition” and “pharmaceuticals” and is used for
nutrition products that are also used as medicine [1] [...]

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Heat-Killed Bifidobacterium breve B-3 Enhances Muscle Functions: Possible Involvement of Increases in Muscle Mass and Mitochondrial Biogenesis
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010219 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
A previous clinical study on pre-obesity subjects revealed that Bifidobacterium breve B-3 shows anti-obesity effects and possibly increases muscle mass. Here, we investigated the effects of B-3 on muscle function, such as muscle strength and metabolism, and some signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. [...] Read more.
A previous clinical study on pre-obesity subjects revealed that Bifidobacterium breve B-3 shows anti-obesity effects and possibly increases muscle mass. Here, we investigated the effects of B-3 on muscle function, such as muscle strength and metabolism, and some signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Male rodents were orally administered live B-3 (B-3L) or heat-killed B-3 (B-3HK) for 4 weeks. We found that administration of B-3 to rats tended to increase muscle mass and affect muscle metabolism, with stronger effects in the B-3HK group than in the B-3L group. B-3HK significantly increased muscle mass and activated Akt in the rat soleus. With regard to muscle metabolism, B-3HK significantly increased phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) gene expression in the rat soleus, suggesting an effect on the AMPK-PGC1α-mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. Furthermore, B-3HK promoted oxidative muscle fiber composition in the gastrocnemius. We also observed a significantly higher level of murine grip strength in the B-3HK group than in the control group. These findings suggest the potential of heat-killed B-3 in promoting muscle hypertrophy and modifying metabolic functions, possibly through the Akt and AMPK pathways, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of a Supplementation with Two Quelites on Urinary Excretion of Arsenic in Adolescents Exposed to Water Contaminated with the Metalloid in a Community in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010098 - 30 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Quelites are Mexican wild plants, reported as excellent sources of nutritional compounds such as amino acids (serine, glycine, and cysteine), minerals (Mg, Fe, and Zn), and phytochemicals, as phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid) and flavonoids (phloridzin and naringenin); on the other hand, high biological [...] Read more.
Quelites are Mexican wild plants, reported as excellent sources of nutritional compounds such as amino acids (serine, glycine, and cysteine), minerals (Mg, Fe, and Zn), and phytochemicals, as phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid) and flavonoids (phloridzin and naringenin); on the other hand, high biological activity has been shown in these compounds. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of a supplementation with two endemic quelites of Mexico (Chenopodium berlandieri L. and Portulaca Oleracea L.); in addition to supplementation, a nutritional intervention was performed; the biomarkers of hemoglobin (Hb), urinary malondialdehyde (UMDA), and urinary arsenic (UAs) were measured in adolescents exposed to arsenic. A clinical intervention study was conducted in 27 adolescents ages 11 to 12 years for 4 weeks. Weekly anthropometric and dietary evaluations were carried out, as well as the concentration of Hb; the UMDA and UAs were performed by plate-based colorimetric measurement and atomic absorption spectrophotometry with the hydrides generation system, respectively. The results showed that UMDA concentrations had a significant improvement in the supplemented group (SG) vs. control group (CG) (SG = 1.59 ± 0.89 µM/g creatinine vs. CG = 2.90 ± 0.56 µM/g creatinine) in the second week of intervention; on the other hand, the supplemented group showed an increase in Hb levels (15.12 ± 0.99 g/dL) in the same week; finally after the second week, an increase in UAs levels was observed significantly compared to the baseline value (Baseline: 56.85; Week 2: 2.02 µg/g creatinine). Therefore, the results show that the mixture of quelites (a rich source of phytochemicals and nutrients) improved hemoglobin and UMDA levels, and urinary arsenic excretion from the second week in the exposed population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Dietary Supplement Label Database in Italy: Focus of FoodEx2 Coding
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010089 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The sector of food supplements is certainly varied and growing: an ever wider offer of new products is launched on the market every year. This is reflected in new reorganization of drug companies and new marketing strategies, in the adoption of new production [...] Read more.
The sector of food supplements is certainly varied and growing: an ever wider offer of new products is launched on the market every year. This is reflected in new reorganization of drug companies and new marketing strategies, in the adoption of new production technologies with resulting changes in dietary supplements regulation. In this context, information on composition reported in labels of selected dietary supplements was collected and updated for the development of a Dietary Supplement Label Database according to products’ availability on the Italian market and also including items consumed in the last Italian Dietary Survey. For each item, a code was assigned following the food classification and description system FoodEx2, revision 2. A total of 558 products have been entered into the database at present, trying to give a uniform image and representation of the major classes of food supplements, and 82 descriptors have been compiled. Various suggestions on how the number of FoodEx2 system descriptors could be expanded were noted during the compilation of the database and the coding procedure, which are presented in this article. Limits encountered in compiling the database are represented by the changes in the formulation of products on the market and therefore by the need for a constant database update. The database here presented can be a useful tool in clinical trials, dietary plans, and pharmacological programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Bioactivity Evaluation of a Novel Formulated Curcumin
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122982 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Curcumin has been used as a traditional medicine and/or functional food in several cultures because of its health benefits including anticancer properties. However, poor oral bioavailability of curcumin has limited its oral usage as a food supplement and medical food. Here we formulated [...] Read more.
Curcumin has been used as a traditional medicine and/or functional food in several cultures because of its health benefits including anticancer properties. However, poor oral bioavailability of curcumin has limited its oral usage as a food supplement and medical food. Here we formulated curcumin pellets using a solid dispersion technique. The pellets had the advantages of reduced particle size, improved water solubility, and particle porosity. This pellet form led to an improvement in curcumin’s oral bioavailability. Additionally, we used the C-Map and Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) Unified Environment (CLUE) gene expression database to determine the potential biological functions of formulated curcumin. The results indicated that, similar to conventional curcumin, the formulated curcumin acted as an NF-κB pathway inhibitor. Moreover, ConsensusPathDB database analysis was used to predict possible targets and it revealed that both forms of curcumin exhibit similar biological functions, including apoptosis. Biochemical characterization revealed that both the forms indeed induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. We concluded that the formulated curcumin increases the oral bioavailability in animals, and, as expected, retains characteristics similar to conventional curcumin at the cellular level. Our screening platform using big data not only confirms that both the forms of curcumin have similar mechanisms but also predicts the novel mechanism of the formulated curcumin. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Atherosclerotic Properties of Wild Rice in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice: The Gut Microbiome, Cytokines, and Metabolomics Study
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122894 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background and aim: We previously reported the anti-atherogenic properties of wild rice in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDL-r-KO) mice. The present study aimed to discover the mechanism of action for such effects. Materials: Fecal and plasma samples from the wild rice treated and [...] Read more.
Background and aim: We previously reported the anti-atherogenic properties of wild rice in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDL-r-KO) mice. The present study aimed to discover the mechanism of action for such effects. Materials: Fecal and plasma samples from the wild rice treated and control mice were used. Fecal bacterial population was estimated while using 16S rDNA technology. The plasma samples were used to estimate the levels of 35 inflammatory markers and metabolomics, while using Meso Scale multiplex assay and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. Results: Many bacteria, particularly Anaeroplasma sp., Acetatifactor sp., and Prophyromonadaceae sp., were found in higher quantities in the feces of wild rice fed mice as compared to the controls. Cytokine profiles were significantly different between the plasma of treated and control mice. Among them, an increase in the level of IL-10 and erythropoietin (EPO) could explain the anti-atherogenic properties of wild rice. Among many metabolites tested in plasma of these animals, surprisingly, we found an approximately 60% increase in the levels of glucose in the wild rice fed mice as compared to that in the control mice. Conclusion: Additional studies warrant further investigation of the interplay among gut microbiome, inflammatory status, and macronutrient metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Intervention Study on the Efficacy and Safety of Platycodon grandiflorus Ethanol Extract in Overweight or Moderately Obese Adults: A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102445 - 14 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (PGE) has shown various properties, such as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity, but mostly in animal studies. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary study on the anti-obesity effect of PGE in 108 Korean adults (aged 20–60 years, 30 kg/m2 [...] Read more.
Platycodon grandiflorus root extract (PGE) has shown various properties, such as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity, but mostly in animal studies. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary study on the anti-obesity effect of PGE in 108 Korean adults (aged 20–60 years, 30 kg/m2 ≥ body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2). The participants were randomly assigned to four groups and were administered the placebo, PGE571 (571 mg as PGE), PGE1142 (1142 mg as PGE), and PGE2855 (2855 mg as PGE), independently, for 12 weeks. Body composition, nutrient intake, computed tomography scan, and plasma adipokines, as well as hepatic/renal function markers, were assessed. The PGE571 group revealed a significant decrease in body fat mass and body fat percentage when compared with the placebo group. Moreover, the total abdominal and subcutaneous fat areas were significantly decreased following PGE (PGE2855 group) supplementation. These results provide useful information on the anti-obesity effect of PGE for overweight and obese adult humans. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Comparative Investigation of Frankincense Nutraceuticals: Correlation of Boswellic and Lupeolic Acid Contents with Cytokine Release Inhibition and Toxicity against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102341 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
For centuries, frankincense extracts have been commonly used in traditional medicine, and more recently, in complementary medicine. Therefore, frankincense constituents such as boswellic and lupeolic acids are of considerable therapeutic interest. Sixteen frankincense nutraceuticals were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass [...] Read more.
For centuries, frankincense extracts have been commonly used in traditional medicine, and more recently, in complementary medicine. Therefore, frankincense constituents such as boswellic and lupeolic acids are of considerable therapeutic interest. Sixteen frankincense nutraceuticals were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), revealing major differences in boswellic and lupeolic acid compositions and total contents, which varied from 0.4% to 35.7%. Frankincense nutraceuticals significantly inhibited the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8, by LPS-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and whole blood. Moreover, boswellic and lupeolic acid contents correlated with TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 inhibition. The nutraceuticals also exhibited toxicity against the human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, and CAL-51 in vitro. Nutraceuticals with total contents of boswellic and lupeolic acids >30% were the most active ones against MDA-MB-231 with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) ≤ 7.0 µg/mL. Moreover, a frankincense nutraceutical inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in vivo in breast cancer xenografts grown on the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Among eight different boswellic and lupeolic acids tested, β-ABA exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 with an IC50 = 5.9 µM, inhibited growth of cancer xenografts in vivo, and released proinflammatory cytokines. Its content in nutraceuticals correlated strongly with TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 release inhibition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary and Supplement-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatric Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081783 - 01 Aug 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Previous literature has shown that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is steadily increasing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little data is currently available regarding its use, safety, and efficacy in children with ASD. Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe [...] Read more.
Previous literature has shown that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is steadily increasing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little data is currently available regarding its use, safety, and efficacy in children with ASD. Thus, the purpose of this study is to describe the use of supplement-based CAM therapies in children between the ages of 4 to 17 years with ASD. This population-based, cross-sectional study evaluated children with ASD regarding supplement use. A total of 210 participants were recruited from a variety of sources including educational and physical activity programs, and social media to complete a questionnaire. Primary caregivers provided information on current supplement based CAM use. Data evaluated the proportion of children that used supplement therapies, the types of supplements used, reasons for use, perceived safety, and demographic factors associated with use (e.g., income, parental education, severity of disorder). Seventy-five percent of children with ASD consumed supplements with multivitamins (77.8%), vitamin D (44.9%), omega 3 (42.5%), probiotics (36.5%), and magnesium (28.1%) as the most prevalent. Several supplements, such as adrenal cortex extract, where product safety has not yet been demonstrated, were also reported. A gluten free diet was the most common specialty diet followed amongst those with restrictions (14.8%). Health care professionals were the most frequent information source regarding supplements; however, 33% of parents reported not disclosing all their child’s supplements to their physician. In conclusion, the use of supplement therapies in children with ASD is endemic and highlights the need for further research concerning public health education surrounding safety and efficacy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use of an Extract of Annona muricata Linn to Prevent High-Fat Diet Induced Metabolic Disorders in C57BL/6 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1509; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071509 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Annona muricata Linn, commonly known as graviola, is one of the most popular plants used in Brazil for weight loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of three different doses (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) of [...] Read more.
Annona muricata Linn, commonly known as graviola, is one of the most popular plants used in Brazil for weight loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effects of three different doses (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 150 mg/kg) of aqueous graviola leaf extract (AGE) supplemented by oral gavage, on obese C57BL/6 mice. Food intake, body weight, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), an insulin sensitivity test, quantification of adipose tissue cytokines, weight of fat pads, and serum biochemical and histological analyses of the liver, pancreas, and epididymal adipose tissue were measured. AGE had an anti-inflammatory effect by increasing IL-10 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Regarding the cholesterol profile, there was a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol levels in the AGE 150 group, and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the AGE 100 and 150 groups. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol in the AGE 150 group. The extract was able to reduce the adipocyte area of the epididymal adipose tissue in the AGE 100 and 150 groups. According to the histological analysis of the liver and pancreas, no significant difference was found among the groups. There were no significant effects of AGE on OGTT and serum fasting glucose concentration. However, the extract was effective in improving glucose tolerance in the AGE 150 group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenol-Enriched Plum Extract Enhances Myotubule Formation and Anabolism while Attenuating Colon Cancer-induced Cellular Damage in C2C12 Cells
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051077 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Preventing muscle wasting in certain chronic diseases including cancer is an ongoing challenge. Studies have shown that polyphenols derived from fruits and vegetables shows promise in reducing muscle loss in cellular and animal models of muscle wasting. We hypothesized that polyphenols derived from [...] Read more.
Preventing muscle wasting in certain chronic diseases including cancer is an ongoing challenge. Studies have shown that polyphenols derived from fruits and vegetables shows promise in reducing muscle loss in cellular and animal models of muscle wasting. We hypothesized that polyphenols derived from plums (Prunus domestica) could have anabolic and anti-catabolic benefits on skeletal muscle. The effects of a polyphenol-enriched plum extract (PE60) were evaluated in vitro on C2C12 and Colon-26 cancer cells. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and we found that treatment of myocytes with plum extract increased the cell size by ~3-fold (p < 0.05) and stimulated myoblast differentiation by ~2-fold (p < 0.05). Plum extract induced total protein synthesis by ~50% (p < 0.05), reduced serum deprivation-induced total protein degradation by ~30% (p < 0.05), and increased expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) by ~2-fold (p < 0.05). Plum extract also reduced tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation by 80% (p < 0.05) in A549/NF-κB-luc cells. In addition, plum extract inhibited the growth of Colon-26 cancer cells, and attenuated cytotoxicity in C2C12 myoblasts induced by soluble factors released from Colon-26 cells. In conclusion, our data suggests that plum extract may have pluripotent health benefits on muscle, due to its demonstrated ability to promote myogenesis, stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and inhibit protein degradation. It also appears to protect muscle cell from tumor-induced cytotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rectal and Vaginal Eradication of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) in Pregnant Women by Using Lactobacillus salivarius CECT 9145, A Target-specific Probiotic Strain
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040810 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococci, GBS) can cause severe neonatal sepsis. The recto-vaginal GBS screening of pregnant women and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) to positive ones is one of the main preventive options. However, such a strategy has some limitations and there is [...] Read more.
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococci, GBS) can cause severe neonatal sepsis. The recto-vaginal GBS screening of pregnant women and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) to positive ones is one of the main preventive options. However, such a strategy has some limitations and there is a need for alternative approaches. Initially, the vaginal microbiota of 30 non-pregnant and 24 pregnant women, including the assessment of GBS colonization, was studied. Among the Lactobacillus isolates, 10 Lactobacillus salivarius strains were selected for further characterization. In vitro characterization revealed that L. salivarius CECT 9145 was the best candidate for GBS eradication. Its efficacy to eradicate GBS from the intestinal and vaginal tracts of pregnant women was evaluated in a pilot trial involving 57 healthy pregnant women. All the volunteers in the probiotic group (n = 25) were GBS-positive and consumed ~9 log10 cfu of L. salivarius CECT 9145 daily from week 26 to week 38. At the end of the trial (week 38), 72% and 68% of the women in this group were GBS-negative in the rectal and vaginal samples, respectively. L. salivarius CECT 9145 seems to be an efficient method to reduce the number of GBS-positive women during pregnancy, decreasing the number of women receiving IAP during delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Decaffeinated Green Tea Extract Does Not Elicit Hepatotoxic Effects and Modulates the Gut Microbiome in Lean B6C3F1 Mice
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 776; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040776 - 03 Apr 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatotoxic potential and effects on the gut microbiome of decaffeinated green tea extract (dGTE) in lean B6C3F1 mice. Gavaging dGTE over a range of 1X–10X mouse equivalent doses (MED) for up to [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatotoxic potential and effects on the gut microbiome of decaffeinated green tea extract (dGTE) in lean B6C3F1 mice. Gavaging dGTE over a range of 1X–10X mouse equivalent doses (MED) for up to two weeks did not elicit significant histomorphological, physiological, biochemical or molecular alterations in mouse livers. At the same time, administration of dGTE at MED comparable to those consumed by humans resulted in significant modulation of gut microflora, with increases in Akkermansia sp. being most pronounced. Results of this study demonstrate that administration of relevant-to-human-consumption MED of dGTE to non-fasting mice does not lead to hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, dGTE administered to lean mice, caused changes in gut microflora comparable to those observed in obese mice. This study provides further insight into the previously reported weight management properties of dGTE; however, future studies are needed to fully evaluate and understand this effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Protein Hydrolysates from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) as Nutraceutical Molecules in Colon Cancer Treatment
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040724 - 28 Mar 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The application of plant extracts for therapeutic purposes has been used in traditional medicine since the plants are a source of a great variety of chemical compounds that possess biological activity. Actually, the effect of these extracts on diseases such as cancer is [...] Read more.
The application of plant extracts for therapeutic purposes has been used in traditional medicine since the plants are a source of a great variety of chemical compounds that possess biological activity. Actually, the effect of these extracts on diseases such as cancer is being widely studied. Colorectal adenocarcinoma is one of the main causes of cancer related to death and the second most prevalent carcinoma in Western countries. The aim of this work is to study the possible effect of two fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) protein hydrolysates on treatment and progression of colorectal cancer. Fenugreek proteins from seeds were hydrolysed by using two enzymes separately, which are named Purafect and Esperase, and were then tested on differentiated and undifferentiated human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco2/TC7 cells. Both hydrolysates did not affect the growth of differentiated cells, while they caused a decrease in undifferentiated cell proliferation by early apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in phase G1. This was triggered by a mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cytochrome C release to cytoplasm, and caspase-3 activation. In addition, the hydrolysates of fenugreek proteins displayed antioxidant activity since they reduce the intracellular levels of ROS. These findings suggest that fenugreek protein hydrolysates could be used as nutraceutical molecules in colorectal cancer treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability and Sustained Plasma Concentrations of CoQ10 in Healthy Volunteers by a Novel Oral Timed-Release Preparation
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030527 - 28 Feb 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural compound with potent antioxidant properties. Its provision through diet does not always allow adequate levels in the human body, and supplementation is often necessary. This bioavailability study intended to explore the plasma concentration levels of a novel [...] Read more.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural compound with potent antioxidant properties. Its provision through diet does not always allow adequate levels in the human body, and supplementation is often necessary. This bioavailability study intended to explore the plasma concentration levels of a novel CoQ10 oral preparation (COQUN®, Coenzyme Q10 Miniactives Retard 100 mg capsules) mimicking assumption on a regular basis. Twenty-four healthy adults tested a single dose of CoQ10 100 mg in one day to assess bioavailability. After a one week wash-out period, they were randomly assigned (1:1) to continuous administration for four weeks: Group A (n = 12) 100 mg once a day (OD); and Group B (n = 12) 100 mg twice a day (BID). During the single dose phase, Cmax was observed at 4 h, and the mean values of AUCt and Tmax were 8754 μg/mL·h and 4.29 h, respectively. The multiple dose phase showed increasing plasma levels up to 7 days after the start of administration, and sustained high concentrations during the all administration period. No relevant adverse events were reported. These results show that Miniactives® technology can release CoQ10 to allow high constant blood concentrations without a sharp decrease. This may be the first step of evidence for a potential new antioxidative treatment in human chronic diseases deserving high CoQ10 levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prevention of Recurrent Acute Otitis Media in Children Through the Use of Lactobacillus salivarius PS7, a Target-Specific Probiotic Strain
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020376 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children. Empiric antibiotherapy leads to increasing antimicrobial resistance rates among otopathogens and may impair the correct development of the microbiota in early life. In this context, probiotics seem to be [...] Read more.
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common bacterial infections in children. Empiric antibiotherapy leads to increasing antimicrobial resistance rates among otopathogens and may impair the correct development of the microbiota in early life. In this context, probiotics seem to be an attractive approach for preventing recurrent AOM (rAOM) through the restoration of the middle ear and nasopharyngeal microbiota. The aim of this study was the selection of a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus salivarius PS7), specifically tailored for its antagonism against otopathogens. Since L. salivarius PS7 was safe and displayed a strong antimicrobial activity against otopathogens, its efficacy in preventing rAOM was assessed in a trial involving 61 children suffering from rAOM. Children consumed daily ~1 × 109 CFU of L. salivarius PS7, and the number of AOM episodes were registered and compared with that observed in the previous 6 and 12 months. The microbiota of samples collected from the external auditory canal samples was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed. The number of AOM episodes during the intervention period decreased significantly (84%) when compared to that reported during the 6 months period before the probiotic intervention. In conclusion, L. salivarius PS7 is a promising strain for the prevention of rAOM in infants and children. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Vitamin K as a Diet Supplement with Impact in Human Health: Current Evidence in Age-Related Diseases
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010138 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Vitamin K health benefits have been recently widely shown to extend beyond blood homeostasis and implicated in chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, dementia, cognitive impairment, mobility disability, and frailty. Novel and more efficient nutritional and therapeutic options are urgently [...] Read more.
Vitamin K health benefits have been recently widely shown to extend beyond blood homeostasis and implicated in chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, dementia, cognitive impairment, mobility disability, and frailty. Novel and more efficient nutritional and therapeutic options are urgently needed to lower the burden and the associated health care costs of these age-related diseases. Naturally occurring vitamin K comprise the phylloquinone (vitamin K1), and a series of menaquinones broadly designated as vitamin K2 that differ in source, absorption rates, tissue distribution, bioavailability, and target activity. Although vitamin K1 and K2 sources are mainly dietary, consumer preference for diet supplements is growing, especially when derived from marine resources. The aim of this review is to update the reader regarding the specific contribution and effect of each K1 and K2 vitamers in human health, identify potential methods for its sustainable and cost-efficient production, and novel natural sources of vitamin K and formulations to improve absorption and bioavailability. This new information will contribute to foster the use of vitamin K as a health-promoting supplement, which meets the increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, relevant information on the clinical context and direct health consequences of vitamin K deficiency focusing in aging and age-related diseases will be discussed. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Exploring the Science behind Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Infant Health
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1724; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081724 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Probiotics intervention has been proposed as a feasible preventative approach against adverse health-related complications in infants. Nevertheless, the umbrella concept of probiotics has led to a massive application of probiotics in a range of products for promoting infant health, for which the strain-specificity, [...] Read more.
Probiotics intervention has been proposed as a feasible preventative approach against adverse health-related complications in infants. Nevertheless, the umbrella concept of probiotics has led to a massive application of probiotics in a range of products for promoting infant health, for which the strain-specificity, safety and efficacy findings associated with a specific probiotics strain are not clearly defined. Bifidobacterium breve M-16V is a commonly used probiotic strain in infants. M-16V has been demonstrated to offer potential in protecting infants from developing the devastating necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and allergic diseases. This review comprehends the potential beneficial effects of M-16V on infant health particularly in the prevention and treatment of premature birth complications and immune-mediated disorders in infants. Mechanistic studies supporting the use of M-16V implicated that M-16V is capable of promoting early gut microbial colonisation and may be involved in the regulation of immune balance and inflammatory response to protect high-risk infants from NEC and allergies. Summarised information on M-16V has provided conceptual proof of the use of M-16V as a potential probiotics candidate aimed at promoting infant health, particularly in the vulnerable preterm population. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Nutraceutical Potential of Carica papaya in Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071608 - 16 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Carica papaya L. is a well-known fruit worldwide, and its highest production occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The pulp contains vitamins A, C, and E, B complex vitamins, such as pantothenic acid and folate, and minerals, such as magnesium and potassium, as [...] Read more.
Carica papaya L. is a well-known fruit worldwide, and its highest production occurs in tropical and subtropical regions. The pulp contains vitamins A, C, and E, B complex vitamins, such as pantothenic acid and folate, and minerals, such as magnesium and potassium, as well as food fibers. Phenolic compounds, such as benzyl isothiocyanate, glucosinolates, tocopherols (α and δ), β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene and carotenoids, are found in the seeds. The oil extracted from the seed principally presents oleic fatty acid followed by palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids, whereas the leaves have high contents of food fibers and polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, pro-anthocyanins, tocopherol, and benzyl isothiocyanate. Studies demonstrated that the nutrients present in its composition have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, protecting it against cardiovascular illnesses and preventing harm caused by free radicals. It has also been reported that it aids in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in the reduction of cholesterol levels. Thus, both the pulp and the other parts of the plant (leaves and seeds) present antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic actions, which, in turn, can contribute to the prevention and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Pharmacological Properties of Morus nigra L. (Black Mulberry) as A Promising Nutraceutical Resource
Nutrients 2019, 11(2), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020437 - 20 Feb 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Mulberry plants belonging to the Moraceae family have been grown for the purpose of being the nutrient source for silk worm and raw materials for the preparation of jams, marmalades, vinegars, juices, wines, and cosmetics. Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) is native to [...] Read more.
Mulberry plants belonging to the Moraceae family have been grown for the purpose of being the nutrient source for silk worm and raw materials for the preparation of jams, marmalades, vinegars, juices, wines, and cosmetics. Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) is native to Southwestern Asia, and it has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for animals and humans. In this article, recent research progress on various biological and pharmacological properties of extracts, fractions, and isolated active constituents from different parts of M. nigra are reviewed. M. nigra exhibited a wide-spectrum of biological and pharmacological therapeutic effects including antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-melanogenic, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic, and anticancer activities. M. nigra also showed protective effects against various human organs and systems, mainly based on its antioxidant capacity. These findings strongly suggest that M. nigra can be used as a promising nutraceutical resource to control and prevent various chronic diseases. Full article
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