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Lactate-Fortified Puerariae Radix Fermented by Bifidobacterium breve Improved Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation via Alteration of Gut Microbial Communities

1
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, 27 Donggukro, Ilsan-donggu, Goyang 10326, Korea
2
BexPharm Healthcare Ltd., Seoul 04781, Korea
3
Research Group of Gut Microbiome, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju-gun 24 55365, Korea
4
Department of Food Biotechnology, Korea University of Science and Technology, Wanju-gun 34113, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020276
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 15 January 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Disorders)
Background: Puerariae Radix (PR), the dried root of Pueraria lobata, is reported to possess therapeutic efficacies against various diseases including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Fermentation-driven bioactivation of herbal medicines can result in improved therapeutic potencies and efficacies. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet and fructose in water with PR (400 mg/kg) or PR fermented by Bifidobacterium breve (400 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. Histological staining, qPCR, Western blot, and 16s rRNA sequencing were used to determine the protective effects of PR and fermented PR (fPR) against metabolic dysfunction. Results: Treatment with both PR and fPR for 10 weeks resulted in a reduction in body weight gain with a more significant reduction in the latter group. Lactate, important for energy metabolism and homeostasis, was increased during fermentation. Both PR and fPR caused significant down-regulation of the intestinal expression of the MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α genes. However, for the IL-6 and TNF-α gene expressions, the inhibitory effect of fPR was more pronounced (p < 0.01) than that of PR (p < 0.05). Oral glucose tolerance test results showed that both PR and fPR treatments improved glucose homeostasis. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the expression of hepatic gene PPARγ, a key regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, following fPR but not PR treatment. Activation of hepatic AMPK phosphorylation was significantly enhanced by both PR and fPR treatment. In addition, both PR and fPR reduced adipocyte size in highly significant manners (p < 0.001). Treatment by fPR but not PR significantly reduced the expression of PPARγ and low-density lipoproteins in adipose tissue. Conclusion: Treatment with fPR appears to be more potent than that of PR in improving the pathways related to glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)+fructose-fed animals. The results revealed that the process of fermentation of PR enhanced lactate and facilitated the enrichment of certain microbial communities that contribute to anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pueraria lobata; anti-inflammatory; metabolic syndrome; anti-obesity; beta-diversity; alpha-diversity Pueraria lobata; anti-inflammatory; metabolic syndrome; anti-obesity; beta-diversity; alpha-diversity
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Choi, Y.; Bose, S.; Shin, N.R.; Song, E.-J.; Nam, Y.-D.; Kim, H. Lactate-Fortified Puerariae Radix Fermented by Bifidobacterium breve Improved Diet-Induced Metabolic Dysregulation via Alteration of Gut Microbial Communities. Nutrients 2020, 12, 276.

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