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Lifestyle Interventions with a Focus on Nutritional Strategies to Increase Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Heart Failure, Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Frailty

1
Department of Internal Medicine, VCU Pauley Heart Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
2
Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences, College of Humanities & Sciences, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
3
Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Ochsner Clinical School, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2849; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122849
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 15 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor for all-cause and disease-specific morbidity and mortality. CRF is a modifiable risk factor, and exercise training and increased physical activity, as well as targeted medical therapies, can improve CRF. Although nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for chronic noncommunicable diseases, little is known about the effect of dietary patterns and specific nutrients on modifying CRF. This review focuses specifically on trials that implemented dietary supplementation, modified dietary pattern, or enacted caloric restriction, with and without exercise training interventions, and subsequently measured the effect on peak oxygen consumption (VO2) or surrogate measures of CRF and functional capacity. Populations selected for this review are those recognized to have a reduced CRF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, obesity, sarcopenia, and frailty. We then summarize the state of existing knowledge and explore future directions of study in disease states recently recognized to have an abnormal CRF. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiorespiratory fitness; peak oxygen consumption; cardiopulmonary exercise testing; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; heart failure; obesity; sarcopenia; frailty cardiorespiratory fitness; peak oxygen consumption; cardiopulmonary exercise testing; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; heart failure; obesity; sarcopenia; frailty
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MDPI and ACS Style

Billingsley, H.E.; Rodriguez-Miguelez, P.; Del Buono, M.G.; Abbate, A.; Lavie, C.J.; Carbone, S. Lifestyle Interventions with a Focus on Nutritional Strategies to Increase Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Heart Failure, Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Frailty. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2849. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122849

AMA Style

Billingsley HE, Rodriguez-Miguelez P, Del Buono MG, Abbate A, Lavie CJ, Carbone S. Lifestyle Interventions with a Focus on Nutritional Strategies to Increase Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Heart Failure, Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Frailty. Nutrients. 2019; 11(12):2849. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122849

Chicago/Turabian Style

Billingsley, Hayley E., Paula Rodriguez-Miguelez, Marco G. Del Buono, Antonio Abbate, Carl J. Lavie, and Salvatore Carbone. 2019. "Lifestyle Interventions with a Focus on Nutritional Strategies to Increase Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Heart Failure, Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Frailty" Nutrients 11, no. 12: 2849. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122849

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