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Cardiometabolic Health in Relation to Diet and Physical Activity: Experimental and Clinical Evidence

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 April 2023) | Viewed by 29602

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Interests: cardiovascular disease; obesity; diabetes; metabolic disease; vascular biology; exercise physiology; molecular biology; pathology; nutrition; epigenetics; translational research; dietary interventions; biomarkers; chemoprevention; cancer biology; racial disparity; clinical trials
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Guest Editor
Department of Physical Therapy, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Interests: vascular biology; clinical trials; exercise physiology; physical therapy; obesity; racial disparity; cardiovascular research; dietary interventions; translational research
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue, “The Role of Nutrition in Cardiometabolic Health: Experimental, Clinical, and Community-Based Evidence”, is to publish a focused, coherent, impactful, and well-cited volume on how nutrition influences diverse cardiometabolic risk factors. Cardiometabolic diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and obesity are the leading causes of death worldwide. In recent years, dietary habits have shifted all over the globe. At the same time, a constantly growing body of evidence demonstrates the role of caloric intake and dietary composition as determinants of cardiometabolic health. Suboptimal diet predisposes to a myriad of cardiometabolic risk factors such as impaired glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. The goal of this Special Issue is to provide rigorous evidence from novel experimental and observational studies that support the association between dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk and evaluate the diverse diet-related risk pathways. Both original and review articles are acceptable. Articles of a basic science nature, animal studies, clinical/translational studies, epidemiological studies, meta-analyses, and behavioral studies are acceptable. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Effects of dietary patterns, nutrients (macro and micro), or supplements on vascular biology and/or physiology and endothelial health, inflammation and oxidative stress, glucose and insulin homeostasis, lipid and energy metabolism, blood pressure and cardiac function, metabolic expenditure and pathways of weight regulation, visceral adiposity and adipocyte metabolism, the gut microbiome, liver function and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke.
  • Cellular, molecular, and epigenetic pathways that are modified by dietary factors and contribute to cardiometabolic health.
  • Genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that affect dietary behavior and cardiometabolic outcomes.
  • Nutritional considerations for optimal cardiometabolic health.
  • Obesity and eating disorders in adults and children and how they modulate cardiometabolic risk.
  • Nutrition, physical activity, and bariatric surgery in relation to cardiometabolic health.
  • Effects of plant-derived phytochemicals and bioactive compounds in cardiometabolic health.

Dr. Abeer M. Mahmoud
Dr. Shane Phillips
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diet
  • risk factor
  • nutrition
  • supplements
  • caloric restriction
  • cardiometabolic
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • glucose metabolism
  • insulin resistance
  • lipid profile
  • vascular biology
  • endothelial function
  • cardiovascular
  • nutrigenomics
  • epigenetics
  • weight loss
  • metabolism
  • coronary artery disease
  • stroke
  • hypertension
  • atherosclerosis
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • phytochemicals
  • bariatric surgery
  • microbiome

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial for the Special Issue “Cardiometabolic Health in Relation to Diet and Physical Activity: Experimental and Clinical Evidence”
by Abeer M. Mahmoud
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132903 - 27 Jun 2023
Viewed by 798
Abstract
This Special Issue seeks to compile a centered, influential, and well-referenced volume on the impact of diet and physical activity on various cardiometabolic risk factors [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 520 KiB  
Article
Association between Hypertension and Stroke Recurrence as Modified by Pro-oxidant–Antioxidant Balance: A Multi-Center Study
by Thu T. M. Pham, Tuyen Van Duong, Lien T. K. Nguyen, Manh-Tan Vu, Khue M. Pham, Minh H. Nguyen, Thuc C. Luong, Binh N. Do, Lan T. H. Le, Nga H. Dang, Thao T. P. Nguyen, Hoang P. Le, Cuong Q. Tran, Kien T. Nguyen, Chaur-Jong Hu, Chang-Chuan Chan, Hui-Chuan Hsu and Chyi-Huey Bai
Nutrients 2023, 15(10), 2305; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15102305 - 14 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2000
Abstract
Background: Hypertension and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of stroke. We aimed to investigate the modification impact of the pro-oxidant–anti-oxidant balance (PAB) on the association between hypertension and stroke recurrence (SR). Methods: A cross-sectional design was conducted from December 2019 [...] Read more.
Background: Hypertension and oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of stroke. We aimed to investigate the modification impact of the pro-oxidant–anti-oxidant balance (PAB) on the association between hypertension and stroke recurrence (SR). Methods: A cross-sectional design was conducted from December 2019 to December 2020 in 951 stroke patients in six hospitals across Vietnam. Hypertension was defined using antihypertensive medication or systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg. PAB was estimated using weighting methods based on smoking, drinking, and overweight/obesity with pro-oxidant capacity, diet quality, fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity with antioxidant capacity. The higher PAB scores indicated a beneficial balance shifting toward antioxidant dominance. SR was diagnosed by neurologists. Moreover, sociodemographic and health conditions were included as covariates. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to explore the associations and interactions. Results: The hypertension and SR proportions were 72.8% and 17.5%, respectively. hypertension was associated with an increased SR likelihood (odds ratio (OR) = 1.93; p = 0.004), whereas a higher PAB score was associated with a lowered SR likelihood (OR = 0.87; p = 0.003). Moreover, hypertension interacting with every one-point increment of PAB was associated with a lowered SR likelihood (OR = 0.83; p = 0.022). Conclusions: The harmful impact of hypertension on SR could be alleviated by PAB. The interplay of health behaviors should be highlighted in the intervention strategies for stroke prevention. Full article
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15 pages, 2009 KiB  
Article
Combined Citrulline and Glutathione Supplementation Improves Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Reactivity in Postmenopausal Women
by Arturo Figueroa, Arun Maharaj, Yejin Kang, Katherine N. Dillon, Mauricio A. Martinez, Masahiko Morita, Dai Nogimura and Stephen M. Fischer
Nutrients 2023, 15(7), 1557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15071557 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
Postmenopausal women (PMW) may experience endothelial dysfunction associated with arginine (ARG) deficiency relative to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) caused by oxidative stress. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to increased blood pressure (BP) responsiveness to sympathoexcitation induced by the cold pressor test (CPT). We investigated the effects [...] Read more.
Postmenopausal women (PMW) may experience endothelial dysfunction associated with arginine (ARG) deficiency relative to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) caused by oxidative stress. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to increased blood pressure (BP) responsiveness to sympathoexcitation induced by the cold pressor test (CPT). We investigated the effects of citrulline alone (CIT) and combined with the antioxidant glutathione (CIT+GSH) on vascular function. Forty-four healthy PMW were randomized to CIT (6 g), CIT+GSH (2 g + 200 mg: Setria®) or placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity, PWV), brachial and aortic BP reactivity to CPT, and serum fasting blood glucose (FBG), ARG, and ARG/ADMA ratio were measured. Baseline FBG was higher in CIT+GSH vs. PL. FMD increased after CIT+GSH vs. PL (p < 0.05). CIT and CIT+GSH increased ARG/ADMA (p < 0.05), but did not affect aortic PWV. CIT+GSH attenuated the brachial and aortic systolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to CPT vs. PL and CIT (p < 0.05). The improvements in FMD were related to baseline FMD (r = −0.39, p < 0.05) and aortic MAP response to CPT (r = −0.33, p < 0.05). This study showed that CIT+GSH improved FMD and attenuated systolic BP and MAP reactivity in PMW. Although CIT increased ARG/ADMA, it did not improve FMD in healthy PMW. Full article
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9 pages, 1212 KiB  
Article
Impact of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Gut Bacterial Bile Acid Metabolism in Humans
by Jessica-Miranda Bustamante, Tyson Dawson, Caitlin Loeffler, Zara Marfori, Julian R. Marchesi, Benjamin H. Mullish, Christopher C. Thompson, Keith A. Crandall, Ali Rahnavard, Jessica R. Allegretti and Bethany P. Cummings
Nutrients 2022, 14(24), 5200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14245200 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4473
Abstract
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment and prevention of metabolic disease. We previously conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of FMT in obese metabolically healthy patients in which we found that FMT enhanced gut bacterial bile [...] Read more.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment and prevention of metabolic disease. We previously conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of FMT in obese metabolically healthy patients in which we found that FMT enhanced gut bacterial bile acid metabolism and delayed the development of impaired glucose tolerance relative to the placebo control group. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of fecal samples collected from these patients to assess the potential gut microbial species contributing to the effect of FMT to improve metabolic health and increase gut bacterial bile acid metabolism. Fecal samples collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of FMT or placebo treatment underwent shotgun metagenomic analysis. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to profile fecal bile acids. FMT-enriched bacteria that have been implicated in gut bile acid metabolism included Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis and Clostridium hylemonae. To identify candidate bacteria involved in gut microbial bile acid metabolism, we assessed correlations between bacterial species abundance and bile acid profile, with a focus on bile acid products of gut bacterial metabolism. Bacteroides ovatus and Phocaeicola dorei were positively correlated with unconjugated bile acids. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were positively correlated with secondary bile acids. Together, these data identify several candidate bacteria that may contribute to the metabolic benefits of FMT and gut bacterial bile acid metabolism that requires further functional validation. Full article
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14 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Mexican and Puerto Rican Men’s Preferences Regarding a Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Body Image Intervention
by Lisa Sanchez-Johnsen, Amanda Dykema-Engblade, Carlos E. Rosas, Leonilda Calderon, Alfred Rademaker, Magdalena Nava and Chandra Hassan
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4634; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214634 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
This study examined the logistical, practical, and cultural preferences of Latinos regarding the design of a healthy eating, physical activity, and body image intervention. Puerto Rican and Mexican men (n = 203) completed an interview as part of an NIH-funded study. Overall, [...] Read more.
This study examined the logistical, practical, and cultural preferences of Latinos regarding the design of a healthy eating, physical activity, and body image intervention. Puerto Rican and Mexican men (n = 203) completed an interview as part of an NIH-funded study. Overall, 66.5% preferred the intervention to be in Spanish only or both Spanish and English; 88.67% said it was moderately, very or extremely important for the intervention leader to be bilingual; and 66.01% considered it moderately to extremely important for the leader to be Hispanic or Latino. Most participants (83.74%) reported they would be willing to attend an intervention that met twice per week and 74.38% said they would be willing to attend an intervention that met for 1.5 to 2 h, twice weekly. Overall, the majority said they would be moderately to extremely interested in attending an exercise program if it consisted of aerobics with Latin or salsa movements (74.88%) and if it consisted of aerobics with Latin or salsa music (70.44%). Some participants were moderately to extremely interested in attending an intervention if it included dichos (Latino sayings) (65.02%) and cuentos (folktales or stories) (69.46%). The findings have implications for lifestyle and body image interventions aimed at preventing cardiometabolic diseases. Full article
14 pages, 304 KiB  
Article
Clustering of Health Risk Behaviors in Mexican and Puerto Rican Men: Results from the Latino Men’s Health Initiative
by Angelica Alonso, Carlos E. Rosas, Alfred Rademaker and Lisa Sanchez-Johnsen
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214495 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1487
Abstract
Engaging in multiple health risk behaviors simultaneously may increase the risk for cardiometabolic diseases. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking) among Latino men. The participants were 99 Mexican and 104 [...] Read more.
Engaging in multiple health risk behaviors simultaneously may increase the risk for cardiometabolic diseases. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and smoking) among Latino men. The participants were 99 Mexican and 104 Puerto Rican men who participated in a study addressing culture- and obesity-related factors. The health behaviors were obtained from self-reported and anthropometric assessments through objective measurements. Among all participants, 5% had no health risk behaviors, 30% had one, 47% had two, and 18% had all three; their most common health risk behavior cluster was low physical activity and low fruit and vegetable consumption (28%). Among Puerto Rican men, 7% had no health risk behaviors, 24% had one, 51% had two, and 18% had all three; their most common health risk behavior cluster was current smoker and low fruit and vegetable consumption (28%). Among Mexican men, 3% had no health risk behaviors, 36% had one, 43% had two and 19% had all three; their most common health risk behavior cluster was low physical activity and low fruit and vegetable consumption (33%). The findings highlight the need for lifestyle interventions that target multiple health risk behaviors related to cardiometabolic diseases in Latinos. Full article
19 pages, 1753 KiB  
Article
Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Response by a Brewer’s Spent Grain Extract-Based Food Supplement in Subjects with Slightly Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Monocentric, Randomized, Cross-Over, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
by Hammad Ullah, Cristina Esposito, Roberto Piccinocchi, Lorenza Francesca De Lellis, Cristina Santarcangelo, Alessandro Di Minno, Alessandra Baldi, Daniele Giuseppe Buccato, Ayesha Khan, Gaetano Piccinocchi, Roberto Sacchi and Maria Daglia
Nutrients 2022, 14(19), 3916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14193916 - 21 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Dietary fiber exerts beneficial effects on human health reducing the risk factors of metabolic related diseases such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a food supplement based on brewer’s spent grain (BSG) [...] Read more.
Dietary fiber exerts beneficial effects on human health reducing the risk factors of metabolic related diseases such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of a food supplement based on brewer’s spent grain (BSG) extract in the reduction of postprandial glycemia and insulinemia in normoglycemic subjects. BSG was chemically characterized, revealing the presence of resistant starch (14.64 g/100 g), arabinoxylans (7.50 g/100 g), β-glucans (1.92 g/100 g) and other soluble fibers (6.43 g/100 g), and bioaccessible ferulic acid (91.3 mg/100 g). For the clinical study, 40 normoglycemic subjects were randomized into two groups, 1 and 2 (n = 20), for a cross-over clinical design and received either BSG extract-based food supplement or placebo. Postprandial blood glucose values were significantly lower than corresponding values in the placebo group after 90 and 120 min, while at the baseline and in the first 60 min, the two glycemic curves overlapped substantially. This improved clinical outcome was corroborated by significant reductions in postprandial insulinemia. None of the subjects reported adverse effects. This study showed that the tested BSG extract-based food supplement improves glucose metabolism and insulinemic response in normoglycemic subjects with at most a mild insulin resistance. Full article
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12 pages, 3297 KiB  
Article
Dahl Salt-Resistant Rat Is Protected against Hypertension during Diet-Induced Obesity
by Soyung Lee, Sungmin Jang, Jee Young Kim and Inkyeom Kim
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3843; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183843 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2453
Abstract
A high-fat diet (HFD) frequently causes obesity-induced hypertension. Because Dahl salt-resistant rats are protected against hypertension after high-salt or high-fructose intake, it is of interest whether this model also protects against hypertension after diet-induced obesity. We tested the hypothesis that Dahl salt-resistant rat [...] Read more.
A high-fat diet (HFD) frequently causes obesity-induced hypertension. Because Dahl salt-resistant rats are protected against hypertension after high-salt or high-fructose intake, it is of interest whether this model also protects against hypertension after diet-induced obesity. We tested the hypothesis that Dahl salt-resistant rat protects against hypertension during diet-induced obesity. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) and Dahl salt-resistant (SR) rats were fed a HFD (60% fat) or a chow diet (CD; 8% fat) for 12 weeks. We measured blood pressure using the tail-cuff method. The paraffin sections of thoracic perivascular adipose tissue (tPVAT) were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and trichrome. The expression of genes in the tPVAT and kidneys were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The HFD induced hypertension in SS (p < 0.01) but not SR rats, although it increased body weight gain (p < 0.05) and tPVAT weight (p < 0.01) in both rats. The HFD did not affect the expression of genes related to any of the adipocyte markers in both rats, although SR rats had reduced beige adipocyte marker Tmem26 levels (p < 0.01) and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin (p < 0.05) as compared with SS rat. The HFD did not affect the mRNA expression of contractile factors in the tPVAT of SS and SR rats. SR rats are protected against hypertension during diet-induced obesity. This result implies that the genetic trait determining salt sensitivity may also determine fructose and fat sensitivity and that it is associated with the prevention of hypertension. Full article
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13 pages, 619 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Web-Based Lifestyle Educational Program (‘Living Better’) Reintervention on Hypertensive Overweight or Obese Patients
by Pedro Múzquiz-Barberá, Marta Ruiz-Cortés, Rocío Herrero, María Dolores Vara, Tamara Escrivá-Martínez, Raquel Carcelén, Rosa María Baños, Enrique Rodilla and Juan Francisco Lisón
Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112235 - 27 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2121
Abstract
‘Living Better’, a self-administered web-based intervention, designed to facilitate lifestyle changes, has already shown positive short- and medium-term health benefits in patients with an obesity–hypertension phenotype. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the long-term (3-year) evolution of a group of [...] Read more.
‘Living Better’, a self-administered web-based intervention, designed to facilitate lifestyle changes, has already shown positive short- and medium-term health benefits in patients with an obesity–hypertension phenotype. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine the long-term (3-year) evolution of a group of hypertensive overweight or obese patients who had already followed the ‘Living Better’ program; (2) to analyze the effects of completing this program a second time (reintervention) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A quasi-experimental design was used. We recruited 29 individuals from the 105 who had participated in our first study. We assessed and compared their systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI), eating behavior, and physical activity (PA) level (reported as METs-min/week), at Time 0 (first intervention follow-up), Time 1 (before the reintervention), and Time 2 (post-reintervention). Our results showed significant improvements between Time 1 and Time 2 in SBP (−4.7 (−8.7 to −0.7); p = 0.017), DBP (−3.5 (−6.2 to −0.8); p = 0.009), BMI (−0.7 (−1.0 to −0.4); p < 0.001), emotional eating (−2.8 (−5.1 to −0.5); p = 0.012), external eating (−1.1 (−2.1 to −0.1); p = 0.039), and PA (Time 1: 2308 ± 2266; Time 2: 3203 ± 3314; p = 0.030, Z = −2.17). Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in SPB, DBP, BMI, and eating behavior between Time 0 and Time 1 (p > 0.24). Implementation of the ‘Living Better’ program maintained positive long-term (3-year) health benefits in patients with an obesity–hypertension phenotype. Moreover, a reintervention with this program during the COVID-19 pandemic produced significant improvements in blood pressure, BMI, eating behavior, and PA. Full article
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18 pages, 878 KiB  
Article
The Association of Dietary Intake, Oral Health, and Blood Pressure in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study
by Pinta Marito, Yoko Hasegawa, Kayoko Tamaki, Ma Therese Sta. Maria, Tasuku Yoshimoto, Hiroshi Kusunoki, Shotaro Tsuji, Yosuke Wada, Takahiro Ono, Takashi Sawada, Hiromitsu Kishimoto and Ken Shinmura
Nutrients 2022, 14(6), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14061279 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3526
Abstract
Hypertension is related to impaired mastication that causes malnutrition, declining the general health of older adults. This study assessed the role of dietary intake in the relationship between oral health and blood pressure. Eight hundred ninety-four adults aged ≥65 years who independently lived [...] Read more.
Hypertension is related to impaired mastication that causes malnutrition, declining the general health of older adults. This study assessed the role of dietary intake in the relationship between oral health and blood pressure. Eight hundred ninety-four adults aged ≥65 years who independently lived in rural regions of Japan participated in this study. Hypertension was classified according to the guidelines of the Japanese Society of Hypertension. The oral condition was evaluated by analyzing the remaining teeth, occlusal force, posterior occlusal support, masticatory performance, oral moisture, and oral bacterial level. Dietary intake was assessed using a brief self-administered dietary history questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and logistic regression analyses were used to elucidate the factors related to hypertension. Normotensive, hypertensive, and history of hypertension were observed in 30.9%, 23.8%, and 45.3% of the participants, respectively. The factors significantly associated with the hypertension were age, body mass index, posterior occlusal support condition, and sodium-to-potassium ratio related to salt intake and/or vegetable intake. Participants without posterior occlusion significantly had higher risk of hypertension (odds ratio = 1.72). This study suggested that there was an association between oral health and hypertension, while the loss of occlusal support may influence nutritional intake conditions. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 839 KiB  
Review
Can Fasting Curb the Metabolic Syndrome Epidemic?
by Josip Vrdoljak, Marko Kumric, Marino Vilovic, Dinko Martinovic, Veljko Rogosic, Josip A. Borovac, Tina Ticinovic Kurir and Josko Bozic
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030456 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5160
Abstract
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Due to the high prevalence (around 1/3 of the world population) economic burden of MetS, there is a need for new dietary, lifestyle, and [...] Read more.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Due to the high prevalence (around 1/3 of the world population) economic burden of MetS, there is a need for new dietary, lifestyle, and therapeutic options. Recently, fasting emerged as a dietary method proposed for controlling metabolic risk factors. Intermittent fasting (IF), or time-restricted feeding (TRF), describes an array of feeding patterns in which calorie intake is restricted to a specific time period. Hence, this review aimed to elucidate the latest data on MetS and explore the viability of simple management options, such as IF and TRF. Preclinical studies have shown how IF/TRF exerts beneficial effects on the gut microbiota, glucose and insulin metabolism, weight and visceral fat, and lipid metabolism. However, the results obtained from human studies are somewhat conflicting, as weight loss was achieved in all studies, whereas in some studies, there was no significant effect on insulin resistance, cholesterol/lipid metabolism, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, as only very few human studies were performed, there is a need for more randomized control trials on larger cohorts of patients with MetS to gather higher-yield evidence to clarify whether IF/TRF are suitable dietary patterns for this population. Full article
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