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Review

Can Fasting Curb the Metabolic Syndrome Epidemic?

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Department of Pathophysiology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Ophthalmology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Health Studies, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Hospital of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Abeer M. Mahmoud and Shane Phillips
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030456
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 17 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 20 January 2022
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Due to the high prevalence (around 1/3 of the world population) economic burden of MetS, there is a need for new dietary, lifestyle, and therapeutic options. Recently, fasting emerged as a dietary method proposed for controlling metabolic risk factors. Intermittent fasting (IF), or time-restricted feeding (TRF), describes an array of feeding patterns in which calorie intake is restricted to a specific time period. Hence, this review aimed to elucidate the latest data on MetS and explore the viability of simple management options, such as IF and TRF. Preclinical studies have shown how IF/TRF exerts beneficial effects on the gut microbiota, glucose and insulin metabolism, weight and visceral fat, and lipid metabolism. However, the results obtained from human studies are somewhat conflicting, as weight loss was achieved in all studies, whereas in some studies, there was no significant effect on insulin resistance, cholesterol/lipid metabolism, or blood pressure. Nevertheless, as only very few human studies were performed, there is a need for more randomized control trials on larger cohorts of patients with MetS to gather higher-yield evidence to clarify whether IF/TRF are suitable dietary patterns for this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; fasting; intermittent fasting; time restricted feeding; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; dyslipidemia; obesity metabolic syndrome; fasting; intermittent fasting; time restricted feeding; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; dyslipidemia; obesity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vrdoljak, J.; Kumric, M.; Vilovic, M.; Martinovic, D.; Rogosic, V.; Borovac, J.A.; Ticinovic Kurir, T.; Bozic, J. Can Fasting Curb the Metabolic Syndrome Epidemic? Nutrients 2022, 14, 456. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030456

AMA Style

Vrdoljak J, Kumric M, Vilovic M, Martinovic D, Rogosic V, Borovac JA, Ticinovic Kurir T, Bozic J. Can Fasting Curb the Metabolic Syndrome Epidemic? Nutrients. 2022; 14(3):456. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030456

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vrdoljak, Josip, Marko Kumric, Marino Vilovic, Dinko Martinovic, Veljko Rogosic, Josip A. Borovac, Tina Ticinovic Kurir, and Josko Bozic. 2022. "Can Fasting Curb the Metabolic Syndrome Epidemic?" Nutrients 14, no. 3: 456. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030456

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