Editorial Board Members’ Collection Series: Dietary Patterns and Cancer

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutritional Epidemiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 September 2024 | Viewed by 52233

Special Issue Editors


grade E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA
Interests: Alzheimer’s disease; cancer; COVID-19; dietary components and patterns; UVB; Vitamin D
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Neuromed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
2. Department of Medicine and Surgery, Research Center in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine (EPIMED), University of Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
Interests: nutritional epidemiology; Mediterranean diet; public health; social determinants; biological mediators; ultraprocessed foods; diet quality

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Guest Editor
Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milano, Italy
Interests: cancer risk factors; epidemiology; prevention; biomarkers; omics analysis; skin neoplasm; repurposing drugs; vitamin D
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although cancer is considered largely preventable by a healthy diet, there is convincing evidence only for some (e.g., fruit, vegetables, and fiber) of the many studied dietary factors. Robust studies, particularly on dietary patterns, are still necessary to implement guidelines for cancer prevention.

Patients diagnosed with cancer often present in a malnourished state, with them being at high risk of losing vital body resources which results in immunodeficiency, an impaired quality of life, and worse clinical outcomes. Moreover, in advanced cancer, where a cure still remains elusive, optimal supportive and integrated nutrition are required to allow patients to tolerate aggressive or long-term anticancer treatments, to maintain an adequate quality of life, or to stay the course of advancing disease.

Our goal is to further disetangle the relationship between dietary patterns with any type of cancer risk; to contribute to the development of evidence-based dietary recommendations tailored specifically to cancer survivors; and to provide a comprehensive update on nutrition scientific evidence as a crucial factor in preventing, promoting, and treating cancer scenarios.

This Special Issue welcomes original research articles and reviews on nutrition-related cancer prevention, diagnosis, and intervention.

Dr. William B. Grant
Prof. Dr. Licia Iacoviello
Prof. Dr. Sara Gandini
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • dietary patterns
  • cancer
  • nutritional support
  • malnutrition
  • cancer prevention
  • cancer survivors
  • quality of life
  • personalized medicine
  • lifestyle recommendations
  • biomarkers
  • microbiome

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 3151 KiB  
Article
Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Cell Survival and Proliferation by Carnosic Acid Is Associated with Inhibition of Akt and Activation of AMPK Signaling
by Matteo Nadile, Newman Siu Kwan Sze, Val A. Fajardo and Evangelia Tsiani
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091257 - 24 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Prostate cancer, accounting for 375,304 deaths in 2020, is the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide. While many treatments exist for prostate cancer, novel therapeutic agents with higher efficacy are needed to target aggressive and hormone-resistant forms of prostate cancer, while sparing [...] Read more.
Prostate cancer, accounting for 375,304 deaths in 2020, is the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide. While many treatments exist for prostate cancer, novel therapeutic agents with higher efficacy are needed to target aggressive and hormone-resistant forms of prostate cancer, while sparing healthy cells. Plant-derived chemotherapy drugs such as docetaxel and paclitaxel have been established to treat cancers including prostate cancer. Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene found in the herb rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) has been shown to have anticancer properties but its effects in prostate cancer and its mechanisms of action have not been examined. CA dose-dependently inhibited PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation (IC50: 64, 21 µM, respectively). Furthermore, CA decreased phosphorylation/activation of Akt, mTOR, and p70 S6K. A notable increase in phosphorylation/activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and its upstream regulator sestrin-2 was seen with CA treatment. Our data indicate that CA inhibits AKT-mTORC1-p70S6K and activates Sestrin-2-AMPK signaling leading to a decrease in survival and proliferation. The use of inhibitors and small RNA interference (siRNA) approaches should be employed, in future studies, to elucidate the mechanisms involved in carnosic acid’s inhibitory effects of prostate cancer. Full article
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16 pages, 298 KiB  
Article
Adherence to Diet Quality Indices and Breast Cancer Risk in the Italian ORDET Cohort
by Martina Quartiroli, Chiara Roncallo, Valeria Pala, Vittorio Simeon, Fulvio Ricceri, Elisabetta Venturelli, Lara Pattaroni, Sabina Sieri and Claudia Agnoli
Nutrients 2024, 16(8), 1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16081187 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, with 2.3 million diagnoses in 2020. There is growing evidence that lifestyle factors, including dietary factors, particularly the complex interactions and synergies between different foods and nutrients (and not a single nutrient or [...] Read more.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, with 2.3 million diagnoses in 2020. There is growing evidence that lifestyle factors, including dietary factors, particularly the complex interactions and synergies between different foods and nutrients (and not a single nutrient or food), may be associated with a higher risk of BC. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI), the Greek Mediterranean Index, the DASH score, and the EAT-Lancet score can help lower the risk of BC, and analyze if chronic low-grade inflammation may be one of the possible mechanisms through which dietary patterns influence breast cancer risk. We evaluated the effect of adherence to these four dietary quality indices in the 9144 women of the ORDET cohort who completed a dietary questionnaire. The effect of adherence to dietary patterns on chronic inflammation biomarkers was evaluated on a subsample of 552 participants. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC risk in relation to the index score categories used were estimated using multivariable Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Regression coefficients (β), with 95% CI for C-reactive protein (CRP), TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin levels in relation to adherence to dietary patterns were evaluated with the linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders. IMI was inversely associated with BC in all women (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60–0.97, P trend = 0.04), particularly among postmenopausal women (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.42–0.98, P trend = 0.11). None of the other dietary patterns was associated with BC risk. Higher IMI and Greek Mediterranean Index scores were inversely associated with circulating CRP (β: −0.10, 95% CI: −0.18, −0.02, and β: −0.13, 95% CI: −0.21, −0.04). The higher score of the EAT-Lancet Index was instead associated with a higher concentration of circulating levels of CRP (β: 0.10, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.18). In conclusion, these results suggest that adherence to a typical Italian Mediterranean diet protects against BC development, especially among postmenopausal women, possibly through modulation of chronic low-grade inflammation. Full article
14 pages, 1614 KiB  
Article
Investigating Nutritional and Inflammatory Status as Predictive Biomarkers in Oligoreccurent Prostate Cancer—A RADIOSA Trial Preliminary Analysis
by Mattia Zaffaroni, Maria Giulia Vincini, Giulia Corrao, Chiara Lorubbio, Ilaria Repetti, Federico Mastroleo, Costantino Putzu, Riccardo Villa, Sofia Netti, Oriana D’Ecclesiis, Stefano Luzzago, Francesco Alessandro Mistretta, Gennaro Musi, Federica Cattani, Sara Gandini, Giulia Marvaso and Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4583; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214583 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1503
Abstract
(1) Background: In the RADIOSA phase II randomized clinical trial (NCT03940235), the biology task entails the identification of predictive and prognostic biomarkers in the context of oligorecurrent, castration-sensitive prostate cancer in order to distinguish polymetastatic from oligometastatic disease. This may lay the groundwork [...] Read more.
(1) Background: In the RADIOSA phase II randomized clinical trial (NCT03940235), the biology task entails the identification of predictive and prognostic biomarkers in the context of oligorecurrent, castration-sensitive prostate cancer in order to distinguish polymetastatic from oligometastatic disease. This may lay the groundwork for personalized treatments for those patients who could really benefit from metastasis-directed therapies. (2) Methods: Oligorecurrent PCa pts with three or fewer bone or lymph nodal localizations were randomized 1:1 to receive SBRT alone (arm A) or SBRT + 6 months of ADT (arm B). Common serum-derived biomarkers were collected at baseline, and at 3 months after RT. The prognostic nutritional index, an immune and nutrition-based prognostic score, and the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score, a scoring system for evaluating patient’s nutritional status, were calculated in accordance with the body of available literature. As inflammatory indicators, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the NLR–albumin ratio (NLRAR) were assessed. Changes in these parameters between baseline and the 3-month timepoint were evaluated both in absolute and relative values. Changes in these parameters between baseline and the 3-month timepoint were evaluated. Significant differences in the trend of these parameters were assessed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test. A network analysis to analyze the relationships between different features stratifying patients according to the arm of study and site of metastases was performed. (3) Results: The current analysis comprised 88 patients (45 arm A, SBRT only, and 43 arm B, SBRT + ADT). When patients were stratified by ADT administration, cholesterol values showed an increasing trend in the group receiving ADT (p = 0.005) which was no longer significant at 1 year. When patients were stratified by site of metastases (52 lymph nodal, 29 bone localizations), the value of NLR was found to be increased in patients with bone localizations (p < 0.05). In addition, the network analysis showed that BMI and NRI are strongly and directly linked for patients at baseline and that this correlation is no longer found at three months. Finally, when patients were divided according to time from surgery to oligorecurrence (enrollment) the patients with a longer time (>6.7 years) showed an increase in CONUT score from baseline. All the other nutritional and inflammatory scores or parameters investigated in the present analysis showed no statistically significant differences at baseline, three months, 1 year, and in absolute change. (4) Conclusions: The nutritional and inflammatory parameters do not seem to represent valuable candidates for possible use in clinical decision making in our cohort of patients and a reliable biological characterization of the oligometastatic state in prostate cancer still seems far from being achieved. Ongoing molecular analysis will show if there is a role of mutational landscape in the definition of the oligometastatic state. Full article
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16 pages, 575 KiB  
Article
Pro-Vegetarian Food Patterns and Cancer Risk among Italians from the Moli-Sani Study Cohort
by Claudia Francisca Martínez, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Simona Costanzo, Teresa Panzera, Simona Esposito, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello, Marialaura Bonaccio and on behalf of the Moli-Sani Study Investigators
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3976; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183976 - 14 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Besides the Mediterranean diet, there is a paucity of studies examining plant-based diets in relation to cancer outcomes in Mediterranean populations. We analyzed 22,081 apparently cancer-free participants (mean age 55 ± 12 year) from the Moli-sani study (enrollment period 2005–2010; Italy). A general [...] Read more.
Besides the Mediterranean diet, there is a paucity of studies examining plant-based diets in relation to cancer outcomes in Mediterranean populations. We analyzed 22,081 apparently cancer-free participants (mean age 55 ± 12 year) from the Moli-sani study (enrollment period 2005–2010; Italy). A general pro-vegetarian food pattern was computed by assigning positive or negative scores to plant- or animal-derived foods, respectively from a 188-item FFQ. A priori healthful or unhealthful pro-vegetarian food patterns distinguished between healthy plant foods (e.g., fruits, vegetables) and less-healthy plant foods (e.g., fruit juices, refined grains). Cancer incidence was defined as the earliest diagnosis of cancer from hospital discharge records over a median follow-up of 12.9 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, a general pro-vegetarian food pattern was associated with a lower rate of cancer incidence (HR = 0.85; 95%CI 0.75–0.97 for Q5 vs. Q1); no association was observed between the healthful or unhealthful pro-vegetarian food patterns and overall cancer incidence. A healthful pro-vegetarian pattern, however, was inversely associated with digestive cancer (HR = 0.76; 95%CI 0.58–0.99 for Q5 vs. Q1), while the unhealthful pro-vegetarian pattern was directly linked to respiratory cancer (HR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.06–2.68 for Q5 vs. Q1). Our findings in a Mediterranean population support the hypothesis that some, but not all pro-vegetarian diets, might prevent some cancers. Full article
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12 pages, 997 KiB  
Article
Inflammatory and Metabolic Biomarker Assessment in a Randomized Presurgical Trial of Curcumin and Anthocyanin Supplements in Patients with Colorectal Adenomas
by Debora Macis, Irene Maria Briata, Oriana D’Ecclesiis, Harriet Johansson, Valentina Aristarco, Tania Buttiron Webber, Massimo Oppezzi, Sara Gandini, Bernardo Bonanni and Andrea DeCensi
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183894 - 7 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Colorectal cancer prevention is crucial for public health, given its high mortality rates, particularly in young adults. The early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions is key to preventing carcinogenesis progression. Natural compounds like curcumin and anthocyanins show promise in impeding adenomatous polyp [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer prevention is crucial for public health, given its high mortality rates, particularly in young adults. The early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions is key to preventing carcinogenesis progression. Natural compounds like curcumin and anthocyanins show promise in impeding adenomatous polyp progression in preclinical models. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II presurgical trial in 35 patients with adenomatous polyps to explore the biological effects of curcumin and anthocyanins on circulating biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism. No significant difference in biomarker changes by treatment arm was observed. However, the network analysis before treatment revealed inverse correlations between adiponectin and BMI and glycemia, as well as direct links between inflammatory biomarkers and leptin and BMI. In addition, a considerable inverse relationship between adiponectin and grade of dysplasia was detected after treatment (corr = −0.45). Finally, a significant increase in IL-6 at the end of treatment in subjects with high-grade dysplasia was also observed (p = 0.02). The combined treatment of anthocyanins and curcumin did not result in the direct modulation of circulating biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism, but revealed a complex modulation of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis. Full article
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12 pages, 729 KiB  
Article
High Dietary Phosphorus Is Associated with Increased Breast Cancer Risk in a U.S. Cohort of Middle-Aged Women
by Ronald B. Brown, Philip Bigelow, Joel A. Dubin and John G. Mielke
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3735; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173735 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 14168
Abstract
Research has shown that high amounts of dietary phosphorus that are twice the amount of the U.S. dietary reference intake of 700 mg for adults are associated with all-cause mortality, phosphate toxicity, and tumorigenesis. The present nested case–control study measured the relative risk [...] Read more.
Research has shown that high amounts of dietary phosphorus that are twice the amount of the U.S. dietary reference intake of 700 mg for adults are associated with all-cause mortality, phosphate toxicity, and tumorigenesis. The present nested case–control study measured the relative risk of self-reported breast cancer associated with dietary phosphate intake over 10 annual visits in a cohort of middle-aged U.S. women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Analyzing data from food frequency questionnaires, the highest level of daily dietary phosphorus intake, >1800 mg of phosphorus, was approximately equivalent to the dietary phosphorus levels in menus promoted by the United States Department of Agriculture. After adjusting for participants’ energy intake, this level of dietary phosphorus was associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk of breast cancer incidence compared to the reference dietary phosphorus level of 800 to 1000 mg, which is based on recommendations from the U.S. National Kidney Foundation, (RR: 2.30, 95% CI: 0.94–5.61, p = 0.07). Despite the lack of statistical significance, likely due to the small sample size of the cohort, the present nested case–control study’s clinically significant effect size, dose–response, temporality, specificity, biological plausibility, consistency, coherence, and analogy with other research findings meet the criteria for inferred causality in observational studies, warranting further investigations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that a low-phosphate diet should be tested on patients with breast cancer. Full article
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Review

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29 pages, 668 KiB  
Review
Healthy Lifestyle and Cancer Risk: Modifiable Risk Factors to Prevent Cancer
by Pasquale Marino, Mariangela Mininni, Giovanni Deiana, Graziella Marino, Rosa Divella, Ilaria Bochicchio, Alda Giuliano, Stefania Lapadula, Alessandro Rocco Lettini and Francesca Sanseverino
Nutrients 2024, 16(6), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16060800 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Cancer has become a serious problem worldwide, as it represents the main cause of death, and its incidence has increased over the years. A potential strategy to counter the growing spread of various forms of cancer is the adoption of prevention strategies, in [...] Read more.
Cancer has become a serious problem worldwide, as it represents the main cause of death, and its incidence has increased over the years. A potential strategy to counter the growing spread of various forms of cancer is the adoption of prevention strategies, in particular, the use of healthy lifestyles, such as maintaining a healthy weight, following a healthy diet; being physically active; avoiding smoking, alcohol consumption, and sun exposure; and vitamin D supplementation. These modifiable risk factors are associated with this disease, contributing to its development, progression, and severity. This review evaluates the relationship between potentially modifiable risk factors and overall cancer development, specifically breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, and highlights updated recommendations on cancer prevention. The results of numerous clinical and epidemiological studies clearly show the influence of lifestyles on the development and prevention of cancer. An incorrect diet, composed mainly of saturated fats and processed products, resulting in increased body weight, combined with physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, and smoking, has induced an increase in the incidence of all three types of cancer under study. Given the importance of adopting correct and healthy lifestyles to prevent cancer, global institutions should develop strategies and environments that encourage individuals to adopt healthy and regular behaviors. Full article
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42 pages, 2923 KiB  
Review
Cancer Metabolism as a Therapeutic Target and Review of Interventions
by Matthew T. J. Halma, Jack A. Tuszynski and Paul E. Marik
Nutrients 2023, 15(19), 4245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15194245 - 1 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 14627
Abstract
Cancer is amenable to low-cost treatments, given that it has a significant metabolic component, which can be affected through diet and lifestyle change at minimal cost. The Warburg hypothesis states that cancer cells have an altered cell metabolism towards anaerobic glycolysis. Given this [...] Read more.
Cancer is amenable to low-cost treatments, given that it has a significant metabolic component, which can be affected through diet and lifestyle change at minimal cost. The Warburg hypothesis states that cancer cells have an altered cell metabolism towards anaerobic glycolysis. Given this metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells, it is possible to target cancers metabolically by depriving them of glucose. In addition to dietary and lifestyle modifications which work on tumors metabolically, there are a panoply of nutritional supplements and repurposed drugs associated with cancer prevention and better treatment outcomes. These interventions and their evidentiary basis are covered in the latter half of this review to guide future cancer treatment. Full article
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14 pages, 329 KiB  
Review
Novel Treatments for Obesity: Implications for Cancer Prevention and Treatment
by Carla Micaela Cuttica, Irene Maria Briata and Andrea DeCensi
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3737; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173737 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
It is now established that obesity is related to a higher incidence of cancer during a lifespan. The effective treatment of obesity opens up new perspectives in the treatment of a relevant modifiable cancer risk factor. The present narrative review summarizes the correlations [...] Read more.
It is now established that obesity is related to a higher incidence of cancer during a lifespan. The effective treatment of obesity opens up new perspectives in the treatment of a relevant modifiable cancer risk factor. The present narrative review summarizes the correlations between weight loss in obesity and cancer. The current knowledge between obesity treatment and cancer was explored, highlighting the greatest potential for its use in the treatment of cancer in the clinical setting. Evidence for the effects of obesity therapy on proliferation, apoptosis, and response to chemotherapy is summarized. While more studies, including large, long-term clinical trials, are needed to adequately evaluate the relationship and durability between anti-obesity treatment and cancer, collaboration between oncologists and obesity treatment experts is increasingly important. Full article
18 pages, 1061 KiB  
Review
Dietary Acid Load and Cancer Risk: A Review of the Uruguayan Experience
by Alvaro Luis Ronco and Maximilian Andreas Storz
Nutrients 2023, 15(14), 3098; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15143098 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Dietary acid load (DAL) is recognized as a risk factor for several chronic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests that an elevated DAL, as measured by the validated potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores, [...] Read more.
Dietary acid load (DAL) is recognized as a risk factor for several chronic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests that an elevated DAL, as measured by the validated potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) scores, could also increase the risk for several cancers. This narrative review summarizes the potential role of DAL in Uruguayan cancer patients and outlines the potentially involved pathophysiological pathways that mediate the role of DAL in both cancer development and growth. Although Uruguay is a developing country, its average diet is a heavily meat-based Western one, translating into a supraphysiological acid burden from diet. In recent years, we have published epidemiologic evidence based on ten case-control studies involving 3736 cancer cases and 9534 hospital-based controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for each interest variable to analyze the association between the exposure levels of DAL scores and cancer, calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In a majority of the cases, the highest DAL scores tended to double the cancer risk as compared to the lowest category. We also found high risks for methionine intake, an acidifying amino acid found in higher concentrations in animal-based foods, which may increase cancer risks at least by a joint action based on the pH and the proliferation enhancing properties of the amino acid itself. Full article
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22 pages, 904 KiB  
Review
Role of Nutrition in Pediatric Patients with Cancer
by Laura Pedretti, Serena Massa, Davide Leardini, Edoardo Muratore, Sofia Rahman, Andrea Pession, Susanna Esposito and Riccardo Masetti
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030710 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5071
Abstract
Children with cancer are at high risk for developing short-term and long-term nutritional problems related to their underlying disease and side effects of multimodal treatments. Nutritional status (NS) can influence several clinical outcomes, such as overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), treatment [...] Read more.
Children with cancer are at high risk for developing short-term and long-term nutritional problems related to their underlying disease and side effects of multimodal treatments. Nutritional status (NS) can influence several clinical outcomes, such as overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), treatment tolerance, risk of developing infections and quality of life (QoL). However, the importance of nutrition in children with cancer is still underestimated. This review focuses on alterations of NS that occurs in children during cancer treatment. In particular, we reviewed the pathogenesis of undernutrition in oncological children, as well as how NS affects treatment tolerance and response, the immune system and the risk of infections of children with cancer. Thanks to recent advances in all types of supportive therapy and to the progress of knowledge on this topic, it has been realized that NS is a modifiable prognostic factor that can be intervened upon to improve the outcome of these patients. Currently, there is a lack of a systematic approach and standard recommendations for nutritional care in the pediatric cancer population. Literature analysis showed that it is essential to define the NS and treat any alterations in a timely manner ensuring proper growth and development. Nutritional follow-up should become an integral part of the care pathway. Regular nutritional monitoring should be performed at diagnosis, during treatment and during follow-up. A close collaboration and sharing of expertise between pediatric oncologists and nutrition specialists, combined with careful and participatory sharing of the feeding experience with the family and the child (after age 6 years), is strongly required. Full article
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Other

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14 pages, 974 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Role of Nicotinamide as Chemo-Preventive Agent in NMSCs: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Giulio Tosti, Francesca Pepe, Patrizia Gnagnarella, Flavia Silvestri, Aurora Gaeta, Paola Queirolo and Sara Gandini
Nutrients 2024, 16(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16010100 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1998
Abstract
Background: Nicotinamide is the active form of vitamin B3 (niacin) obtained through endogenous synthesis, mainly through tryptophan metabolism and dietary supplements, fish, meats, grains, and dairy products. It participates in cellular energy metabolism and modulates multiple cellular survival and death pathways. Nicotinamide has [...] Read more.
Background: Nicotinamide is the active form of vitamin B3 (niacin) obtained through endogenous synthesis, mainly through tryptophan metabolism and dietary supplements, fish, meats, grains, and dairy products. It participates in cellular energy metabolism and modulates multiple cellular survival and death pathways. Nicotinamide has been widely studied as a safe chemopreventive agent that reduces actinic keratosis (AKs) and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Methods: We used the Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases to search the concepts “nicotinamide”, “chemoprevention”, and “skin cancer” up to August 2023. Three independent authors screened titles and abstracts for intervention and study design before searching full texts for eligibility criteria. The primary outcome was the impact of oral nicotinamide on the incidence of NMSC in high-risk patients. We also conducted a systematic search to identify relevant epidemiological studies published evaluating dietary niacin intake and the risk of NMSC. Results: Two hundred and twenty-five studies were reviewed, and four met the inclusion criteria. There was no association between NAM consumption and risk for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (rate ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.48–1.37; I2 = 0%), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.50–1.55; I2 = 63%), and NMSC (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61–1.12; I2 = 63%). Adverse events were rare and acceptable, allowing optimal compliance of patients to the treatment. We found only one article evaluating the association between niacin dietary intake and NMSC risk, supporting a potential beneficial role of niacin intake concerning SCC but not BCC or melanoma. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis shows, by pooling immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, that there is insufficient evidence that oral nicotinamide therapy significantly reduces the number of keratinocyte cancers. Full article
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15 pages, 2811 KiB  
Systematic Review
Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Xiao Bai, Xue Li, Siqi Ding and Dongqiu Dai
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3826; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173826 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Available results on the association between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and gastric cancer (GC) incidence are controversial. The present study aimed to determine the correlation between different subtypes of GC and MD adherence. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021284432). We searched Embase, [...] Read more.
Available results on the association between the Mediterranean diet (MD) and gastric cancer (GC) incidence are controversial. The present study aimed to determine the correlation between different subtypes of GC and MD adherence. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021284432). We searched Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception through 22 April 2023 to retrieve relevant studies. A random-effects model was used to pool odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eleven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analyses revealed that adherence to the MD was inversely associated with GC risk (ORcc, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.63; ORcoh, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.92). Higher MD adherence was significantly associated with a reduced GC risk in male (ORcc, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.93; ORcoh, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.01), but not in female (ORcc, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.01; ORcoh, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.31). Furthermore, adherence to the MD possibly decreased the risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) (ORcc, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.83; ORcoh, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.02) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) (ORcc, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.79; ORcoh, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.94). Our results indicate that adherence to the MD reduces the risk of GC and its subtypes. Full article
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