Special Issue "Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 February 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Albino Martins

University of Minho, I3B's - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Guimarães, Portugal
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Phone: +351 253 510913
Interests: surface biofunctionalization; drug delivery systems; fibrous scaffolds; mesenchymal stem cells
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rui L. Reis

University of Minho, I3B's - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Guimarães, Portugal
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Interests: natural origin materials; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; stem cells
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Nuno M. Neves

University of Minho, I3B's - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, Guimarães, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Interests: porous biomaterials; drug delivery systems; surface modification and texture control; adult stem cells

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterial-based solutions are amongst the most promising therapies to face the increasing incidences of cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and neurodegenerative diseases, associated with the aging of the world population. Nanofibers have already been proposed as devices for a wide range of applications. In particular, the unique properties of electrospun nanofibers have supported the development of highly effective therapeutic solutions to many unmet clinical needs.

This Special Issue aims at assembling a set of highly-innovative contributions on the most advanced solutions and therapies based on or involving electrospun meshes, as well as radical new strategies to extend its applicability. Of particular interest are papers tackling the following research topics:

- scaffolds structure and functionalization for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine;

- delivery systems for drugs/proteins/genes;

- bioactive wound dressings;

- membranes for different medical applications including filtration and dialysis;

- imaging and biosensing for disease diagnostics and/or prognosis.

Dr. Albino Martins
Prof. Dr. Rui L. Reis
Prof. Dr. Nuno M. Neves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Electrospinning
  • Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Wound dressing
  • Filtration and dialysis
  • Imaging
  • Biosensing

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effect of Electrospun Fiber Mat Thickness and Support Method on Cell Morphology
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040644
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 20 April 2019
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Abstract
Electrospun fiber mats (EFMs) are highly versatile biomaterials used in a myriad of biomedical applications. Whereas some facets of EFMs are well studied and can be highly tuned (e.g., pore size, fiber diameter, etc.), other features are under characterized. For example, although substrate [...] Read more.
Electrospun fiber mats (EFMs) are highly versatile biomaterials used in a myriad of biomedical applications. Whereas some facets of EFMs are well studied and can be highly tuned (e.g., pore size, fiber diameter, etc.), other features are under characterized. For example, although substrate mechanics have been explored by several groups, most studies rely on Young’s modulus alone as a characterization variable. The influence of fiber mat thickness and the effect of supports are variables that are often not considered when evaluating cell-mechanical response. To assay the role of these features in EFM scaffold design and to improve understanding of scaffold mechanical properties, we designed EFM scaffolds with varying thickness (50–200 µm) and supporting methodologies. EFM scaffolds were comprised of polycaprolactone and were either electrospun directly onto a support, suspended across an annulus (3 or 10 mm inner diameter), or “tension-released” and then suspended across an annulus. Then, single cell spreading (i.e., Feret diameter) was measured in the presence of these different features. Cells were sensitive to EFM thickness and suspended gap diameter. Overall, cell spreading was greatest for 50 µm thick EFMs suspended over a 3 mm gap, which was the smallest thickness and gap investigated. These results are counterintuitive to conventional understanding in mechanobiology, which suggests that stiffer materials, such as thicker, supported EFMs, should elicit greater cell polarization. Additional experiments with 50 µm thick EFMs on polystyrene and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) supports demonstrated that cells can “feel” the support underlying the EFM if it is rigid, similar to previous results in hydrogels. These results also suggest that EFM curvature may play a role in cell response, separate from Young’s modulus, possibly because of internal tension generated. These parameters are not often considered in EFM design and could improve scaffold performance and ultimately patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Hydrophilic Electrospun PLA95/β-TCP Membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040599
Received: 17 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
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Abstract
The guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane is a barrier intended to maintain a space for alveolar bone and periodontal ligament tissue regeneration but prevent the migration of fast-growing soft tissue into the defect sites. This study evaluated the physical properties, in vivo animal [...] Read more.
The guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane is a barrier intended to maintain a space for alveolar bone and periodontal ligament tissue regeneration but prevent the migration of fast-growing soft tissue into the defect sites. This study evaluated the physical properties, in vivo animal study, and clinical efficacy of hydrophilic PLA95/β-TCP GTR membranes prepared by electrospinning (ES). The morphology and cytotoxicity of ES PLA95/β-TCP membranes were evaluated by SEM and 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) respectively. The cementum and bone height were measured by an animal study at 8 and 16 weeks after surgery. Fifteen periodontal patients were selected for the clinical trial by using a commercial product and the ES PLA95/β-TCP membrane. Radiographs and various indexes were measured six months before and after surgery. The average fiber diameter for this ES PLA95/β-TCP membrane was 2.37 ± 0.86 µm. The MTT result for the ES PLA95/β-TCP membrane showed negative for cytotoxicity. The significant differences in the cementum and bone height were observed between empty control and the ES PLA95/β-TCP membrane in the animal model (p < 0.05). Clinical trial results showed clinical attachment level (CAL) of both control and ES PLA95/β-TCP groups, with a significant difference from the pre-surgery results after six months. This study demonstrated that the ES PLA95/β-TCP membrane can be used as an alternative GTR membrane for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle A Microfluidic Chip Embracing a Nanofiber Scaffold for 3D Cell Culture and Real-Time Monitoring
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040588
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
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Abstract
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue-on-a-chip application have attracted attention because of increasing demand from the industries and their potential to replace conventional two-dimensional culture and animal tests. As a result, numerous studies on 3D in-vitro cell culture and microfluidic chip have [...] Read more.
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture and tissue-on-a-chip application have attracted attention because of increasing demand from the industries and their potential to replace conventional two-dimensional culture and animal tests. As a result, numerous studies on 3D in-vitro cell culture and microfluidic chip have been conducted. In this study, a microfluidic chip embracing a nanofiber scaffold is presented. A electrospun nanofiber scaffold can provide 3D cell culture conditions to a microfluidic chip environment, and its perfusion method in the chip can allow real-time monitoring of cell status based on the conditioned culture medium. To justify the applicability of the developed chip to 3D cell culture and real-time monitoring, HepG2 cells were cultured in the chip for 14 days. Results demonstrated that the cells were successfully cultured with 3D culture-specific-morphology in the chip, and their albumin and alpha-fetoprotein production was monitored in real-time for 14 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Biofunctional Nanofibrous Substrate for Local TNF-Capturing as a Strategy to Control Inflammation in Arthritic Joints
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 567; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040567
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that affects the synovial cavity of joints, and its pathogenesis is associated with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It has been clinically shown to have an adequate response to systemic [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that affects the synovial cavity of joints, and its pathogenesis is associated with an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). It has been clinically shown to have an adequate response to systemic administration of TNF-α inhibitors, although with many shortcomings. To overcome such limitations, the immobilization of a TNF-α antibody on a nanofibrous substrate to promote a localized action is herein proposed. By using this approach, the antibody has its maximum therapeutic efficacy and a prolonged therapeutic benefit, avoiding the systemic side-effects associated with conventional biological agents’ therapies. To technically achieve such a purpose, the surface of electrospun nanofibers is initially activated and functionalized, allowing TNF-α antibody immobilization at a maximum concentration of 6 µg/mL. Experimental results evidence that the biofunctionalized nanofibrous substrate is effective in achieving a sustained capture of soluble TNF-α over time. Moreover, cell biology assays demonstrate that this system has no deleterious effect over human articular chondrocytes metabolism and activity. Therefore, the developed TNF-capturing system may represent a potential therapeutic approach for the local management of severely affected joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Electrospun Gelatin Fibers Surface Loaded ZnO Particles as a Potential Biodegradable Antibacterial Wound Dressing
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040525
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Traditional wound dressings require frequent replacement, are prone to bacterial growth and cause a lot of environmental pollution. Therefore, biodegradable and antibacterial dressings are eagerly desired. In this paper, gelatin/ZnO fibers were first prepared by side-by-side electrospinning for potential wound dressing materials. The [...] Read more.
Traditional wound dressings require frequent replacement, are prone to bacterial growth and cause a lot of environmental pollution. Therefore, biodegradable and antibacterial dressings are eagerly desired. In this paper, gelatin/ZnO fibers were first prepared by side-by-side electrospinning for potential wound dressing materials. The morphology, composition, cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), particle size analyzer (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetry (TGA) and Incucyte™ Zoom system. The results show that ZnO particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of gelatin fibers and have no cytotoxicity. In addition, the gelatin/ZnO fibers exhibit excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) with a significant reduction of bacteria to more than 90%. Therefore, such a biodegradable, nontoxic and antibacterial fiber has excellent application prospects in wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Physical Properties and In Vitro Biocompatible Evaluation of Silicone-Modified Polyurethane Nanofibers and Films
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030367
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the physical properties and the biocompatibility of electrospun silicone-modified polyurethane (PUSX) nanofibers were discussed and compared with PUSX films. To investigate the effects of different structures on the physical properties, tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus, water retention, water [...] Read more.
In this study, the physical properties and the biocompatibility of electrospun silicone-modified polyurethane (PUSX) nanofibers were discussed and compared with PUSX films. To investigate the effects of different structures on the physical properties, tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus, water retention, water contact angle (WCA) and thermal conductivity measurements were performed. To prove the in vitro biocompatibility of the materials, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and cytotoxicity were studied by NIH3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts cells following by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) analysis. As a conclusion, the mechanical properties, water retention, and WCA were proven to be able to be controlled and improved by adjusting the structure of PUSX. A higher hydrophobicity and lower thermal conductivity were found in PUSX nanofibers compared with polyurethane (PU) nanofibers and films. An in vitro biocompatibility evaluation shows that the cell proliferation can be performed on both PUSX nanofibers and films. However, within a short period, cells prefer to attach and entangle on PUSX nanofibers rather than PUSX films. PUSX nanofibers were proven to be a nontoxic alternative for PU nano-membranes or films in the biomedical field, because of the controllable physical properties and the biocompatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Self-Powered Well-Aligned P(VDF-TrFE) Piezoelectric Nanofiber Nanogenerator for Modulating an Exact Electrical Stimulation and Enhancing the Proliferation of Preosteoblasts
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030349
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
Electric potential plays an indispensable role in tissue engineering and wound healing. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on direct piezoelectric effects can be self-powered energy sources for electrical stimulation and have attracted extensive attention. However, the accuracy of piezoelectric stimuli on piezoelectric polymers membranes in [...] Read more.
Electric potential plays an indispensable role in tissue engineering and wound healing. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on direct piezoelectric effects can be self-powered energy sources for electrical stimulation and have attracted extensive attention. However, the accuracy of piezoelectric stimuli on piezoelectric polymers membranes in vitro during the dynamic condition is rarely studied. Here, a self-powered tunable electrical stimulation system for assisting the proliferation of preosteoblasts was achieved by well-aligned P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric nanofiber membrane (NFM) both as a nanogenerator (NG) and as a scaffold. The effects of electrospinning and different post-treatments (annealing and poling) on the surface wettability, piezoelectric β phase, ferroelectric properties, and sensing performance of NFMs were evaluated here. The polarized P(VDF-TrFE) NFM offered an enhanced piezoelectric value (d31 of 22.88 pC/N) versus pristine P(VDF-TrFE) NFM (d31 of 0.03 pC/N) and exhibited good sensing performance. The maximum voltage and current output of the P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric nanofiber NGs reached −1.7 V and 41.5 nA, respectively. An accurate electrical response was obtained in real time under dynamic mechanical stimulation by immobilizing the NGs on the flexible bottom of the culture plate, thereby restoring the real scene of providing electrical stimulation to the cells in vitro. In addition, we simulated the interaction between the piezoelectric nanofiber NG and cells through an equivalent circuit model. To verify the feasibility of P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber NGs as an exact electrical stimulation, the effects of different outputs of P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber NGs on cell proliferation in vitro were compared. The study realized a significant enhancement of preosteoblasts proliferation. This work demonstrated the customizability of P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric nanofiber NG for self-powered electrical stimulation system application and suggested its significant potential application for tissue repair and regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Composite Nanofibers Containing Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane–Epigallocatechin Gallate Conjugate for Bone Tissue Regeneration
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020184
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
To provide adequate conditions for the regeneration of damaged bone, it is necessary to develop piezoelectric porous membranes with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, composite nanofibers comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane–epigallocatechin gallate (POSS–EGCG) conjugate were fabricated by [...] Read more.
To provide adequate conditions for the regeneration of damaged bone, it is necessary to develop piezoelectric porous membranes with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, composite nanofibers comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane–epigallocatechin gallate (POSS–EGCG) conjugate were fabricated by electrospinning methods. The resulting composite nanofibers showed three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures. Their average diameters, ranging from 936 ± 223 nm to 1094 ± 394 nm, were hardly affected by the addition of the POSS–EGCG conjugate. On the other hand, the piezoelectric β-phase increased significantly from 77.4% to 88.1% after adding the POSS–EGCG conjugate. The mechanical strength of the composite nanofibers was ameliorated by the addition of the POSS–EGCG conjugate. The results of in vitro bioactivity tests exhibited that the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) on the nanofibers increased with the content of POSS–EGCG conjugate because of the improved piezoelectricity and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the nanofibers. All results could suggest that the PVDF composite nanofibers were effective for guided bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Electrospun Filaments Embedding Bioactive Glass Particles with Ion Release and Enhanced Mineralization
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020182
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Efforts in tissue engineering aim at creating scaffolds that mimic the physiological environment with its structural, topographical and mechanical properties for restoring the function of damaged tissue. In this study we introduce composite fibres made by a biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix embedding [...] Read more.
Efforts in tissue engineering aim at creating scaffolds that mimic the physiological environment with its structural, topographical and mechanical properties for restoring the function of damaged tissue. In this study we introduce composite fibres made by a biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLLA) matrix embedding bioactive silica-based glass particles (SBA2). Electrospinning is performed to achieve porous PLLA filaments with uniform dispersion of bioactive glass powder. The obtained composite fibres show in aligned arrays significantly increased elastic modulus compared with that of neat polymer fibres during uniaxial tensile stress. Additionally, the SBA2 bioactivity is preserved upon encapsulation as highlighted by the promoted deposition of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) upon immersion in simulated body fluid solutions. HCA formation is sequential to earlier processes of polymer erosion and ion release leading to acidification of the surrounding solution environment. These findings suggest PLLA-SBA2 fibres as a composite, multifunctional system which might be appealing for both bone and soft tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Gelatin Methacrylate (GelMA) Scaffolds with Nano- and Micro-Topographical and Morphological Features
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010120
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
The design of biomimetic biomaterials for cell culture has become a great tool to study and understand cell behavior, tissue degradation, and lesion. Topographical and morphological features play an important role in modulating cell behavior. In this study, a dual methodology was evaluated [...] Read more.
The design of biomimetic biomaterials for cell culture has become a great tool to study and understand cell behavior, tissue degradation, and lesion. Topographical and morphological features play an important role in modulating cell behavior. In this study, a dual methodology was evaluated to generate novel gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)-based scaffolds with nano and micro topographical and morphological features. First, electrospinning parameters and crosslinking processes were optimized to obtain electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds. GelMA mats were characterized by SEM, FTIR, DSC, TGA, contact angle, and water uptake. Various nanofibrous GelMA mats with defect-free fibers and stability in aqueous media were obtained. Then, micropatterned molds produced by photolithography were used as collectors in the electrospinning process. Thus, biocompatible GelMA nanofibrous scaffolds with micro-patterns that mimic extracellular matrix were obtained successfully by combining two micro/nanofabrication techniques, electrospinning, and micromolding. Taking into account the cell viability results, the methodology used in this study could be considered a valuable tool to develop patterned GelMA based nanofibrous scaffolds for cell culture and tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Sacrificial Core-Based Electrospinning: A Facile and Versatile Approach to Fabricate Devices for Potential Cell and Tissue Encapsulation Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100863
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
Electrospinning uses an electric field to produce fine fibers of nano and micron scale diameters from polymer solutions. Despite innovation in jet initiation, jet path control and fiber collection, it is common to only fabricate planar and tubular-shaped electrospun products. For applications that [...] Read more.
Electrospinning uses an electric field to produce fine fibers of nano and micron scale diameters from polymer solutions. Despite innovation in jet initiation, jet path control and fiber collection, it is common to only fabricate planar and tubular-shaped electrospun products. For applications that encapsulate cells and tissues inside a porous container, it is useful to develop biocompatible hollow core-containing devices. To this end, by introducing a 3D-printed framework containing a sodium chloride pellet (sacrificial core) as the collector and through post-electrospinning dissolution of the sacrificial core, we demonstrate that hollow core containing polyamide 66 (nylon 66) devices can be easily fabricated for use as cell encapsulation systems. ATR-FTIR and TG/DTA studies were used to verify that the bulk properties of the electrospun device were not altered by contact with the salt pellet during fiber collection. Protein diffusion investigations demonstrated that the capsule allowed free diffusion of model biomolecules (insulin, albumin and Ig G). Cell encapsulation studies with model cell types (fibroblasts and lymphocytes) revealed that the capsule supports the viability of encapsulated cells inside the capsule whilst compartmentalizing immune cells outside of the capsule. Taken together, the use of a salt pellet as a sacrificial core within a 3D printed framework to support fiber collection, as well as the ability to easily remove this core using aqueous dissolution, results in a biocompatible device that can be tailored for use in cell and tissue encapsulation applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial and Bioactive Surface Modifications of Titanium Implants by PCL/TiO2 Nanocomposite Coatings
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100860
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
Surface modification of biomedical implants is an established strategy to improve tissue regeneration, osseointegration and also to minimize the bacterial accumulation. In the present study, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/titania (PCL/TiO2) nanocomposite coatings were developed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates for an improved [...] Read more.
Surface modification of biomedical implants is an established strategy to improve tissue regeneration, osseointegration and also to minimize the bacterial accumulation. In the present study, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/titania (PCL/TiO2) nanocomposite coatings were developed on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates for an improved biological and antibacterial properties for bone tissue engineering. TiO2 nanoparticles in various amounts (2, 5, and 7 wt %) were incorporated into a biodegradable PCL matrix to form a homogeneous solution. Further, PCL/TiO2 coatings on cpTi were obtained by electrospinning of PCL/TiO2 solution onto the substrate. The resulted coatings were structurally characterized and inspected by employing scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Given the potential biological applications of PCL/TiO2 coated cpTi substrates, the apatite-forming capacity was examined by immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) for upto 21 days. Biocompatibility has been evaluated through adhesion/proliferation of hFOB osteoblast cell lines and cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity of PCL/TiO2 nanocomposites has been tested using UV light against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus). The resulting surface displays good bioactive properties against osteoblast cell lines with increased viability of 40% at day 3 and superior antibacterial property against S.aureus with a significant reduction of bacteria to almost 76%. Surface modification by PCL/TiO2 nanocomposites makes a viable approach for improving dual properties, i.e., biological and antibacterial properties on titanium implants which might be used to prevent implant-associated infections and promoting cell attachment of orthopedic devices at the same time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characteristics of Porous Hydroxyapatite-CaO Composite Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080570
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAp), a major inorganic and essential component of normal bone and teeth, is a promising biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductivity. Therefore, synthetic HAp has been widely used as a bone substitute, cell carrier, and delivery carrier of therapeutic [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp), a major inorganic and essential component of normal bone and teeth, is a promising biomaterial due to its excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductivity. Therefore, synthetic HAp has been widely used as a bone substitute, cell carrier, and delivery carrier of therapeutic genes or drugs. Mesoporous materials have attracted considerable attention due to their relatively high surface area, large pore volume, high porosity, and tunable pore size. Recently, mesoporous HAp has also been successfully synthesized by the traditional template-based process and has been demonstrated to possess better drug-loading and release efficiencies than traditional HAp. It is widely accepted that cell adhesion and most cellular activities, including spreading, migration, proliferation, gene expression, surface antigen display, and cytoskeletal functioning, are sensitive to the topography and molecular composition of the matrix. The native extracellular matrix is a porous, nanofibrous structure. The major focus of this study is the fabrication of porous hydroxyapatite-CaO composite nanofibers (p-HApFs) and the investigation of its drug-release property. In this study, nanofibers were prepared by the sol-gel route and an electrospinning technique to mimic the three-dimensional structure of the natural extracellular matrix. We analyzed the components of fibers using X-ray diffraction and determined the morphology of fibers using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The average diameter of the nanofibers was approximately 461 ± 186 nm. The N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms were type IV isotherms. Moreover, p-HApFs had better drug-loading efficiency and could retard the burst release of tetracycline and maintain antibacterial activity for a period of 7 days. Hence, p-HApFs have the potential to become a new bone graft material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Electrospun Nanofibers: Recent Applications in Drug Delivery and Cancer Therapy
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040656
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 19 April 2019 / Published: 24 April 2019
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Abstract
Polymeric nanofibers (NFs) have been extensively reported as a biocompatible scaffold to be specifically applied in several researching fields, including biomedical applications. The principal researching lines cover the encapsulation of antitumor drugs for controlled drug delivery applications, scaffolds structures for tissue engineering and [...] Read more.
Polymeric nanofibers (NFs) have been extensively reported as a biocompatible scaffold to be specifically applied in several researching fields, including biomedical applications. The principal researching lines cover the encapsulation of antitumor drugs for controlled drug delivery applications, scaffolds structures for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, as well as magnetic or plasmonic hyperthermia to be applied in the reduction of cancer tumors. This makes NFs useful as therapeutic implantable patches or mats to be implemented in numerous biomedical researching fields. In this context, several biocompatible polymers with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability including poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), poly butylcyanoacrylate (PBCA), poly ethylenglycol (PEG), poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly lactic acid (PLA) have been widely used for the synthesis of NFs using the electrospun technique. Indeed, other types of polymers with stimuli-responsive capabilities has have recently reported for the fabrication of polymeric NFs scaffolds with relevant biomedical applications. Importantly, colloidal nanoparticles used as nanocarriers and non-biodegradable structures have been also incorporated by electrospinning into polymeric NFs for drug delivery applications and cancer treatments. In this review, we focus on the incorporation of drugs into polymeric NFs for drug delivery and cancer treatment applications. However, the principal novelty compared with previously reported publications is that we also focus on recent investigations concerning new strategies that increase drug delivery and cancer treatments efficiencies, such as the incorporation of colloidal nanoparticles into polymeric NFs, the possibility to fabricate NFs with the capability to respond to external environments, and finally, the synthesis of hybrid polymeric NFs containing carbon nanotubes, magnetic and gold nanoparticles, with magnetic and plasmonic hyperthermia applicability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Electrospinning Nanofibers for Therapeutics Delivery
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040532
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 22 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
The limitations of conventional therapeutic drugs necessitate the importance of developing novel therapeutics to treat diverse diseases. Conventional drugs have poor blood circulation time and are not stable or compatible with the biological system. Nanomaterials, with their exceptional structural properties, have gained significance [...] Read more.
The limitations of conventional therapeutic drugs necessitate the importance of developing novel therapeutics to treat diverse diseases. Conventional drugs have poor blood circulation time and are not stable or compatible with the biological system. Nanomaterials, with their exceptional structural properties, have gained significance as promising materials for the development of novel therapeutics. Nanofibers with unique physiochemical and biological properties have gained significant attention in the field of health care and biomedical research. The choice of a wide variety of materials for nanofiber fabrication, along with the release of therapeutic payload in sustained and controlled release patterns, make nanofibers an ideal material for drug delivery research. Electrospinning is the conventional method for fabricating nanofibers with different morphologies and is often used for the mass production of nanofibers. This review highlights the recent advancements in the use of nanofibers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs, nucleic acids and growth factors. A detailed mechanism for fabricating different types of nanofiber produced from electrospinning, and factors influencing nanofiber generation, are discussed. The insights from this review can provide a thorough understanding of the precise selection of materials used for fabricating nanofibers for specific therapeutic applications and also the importance of nanofibers for drug delivery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Biopolymers for Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications: Recent Advances and Overview of Alginate Electrospinning
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030404
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
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Abstract
Innovative solutions using biopolymer-based materials made of several constituents seems to be particularly attractive for packaging in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In this direction, some progress has been made in extending use of the electrospinning process towards fiber formation based on biopolymers and [...] Read more.
Innovative solutions using biopolymer-based materials made of several constituents seems to be particularly attractive for packaging in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. In this direction, some progress has been made in extending use of the electrospinning process towards fiber formation based on biopolymers and organic compounds for the preparation of novel packaging materials. Electrospinning can be used to create nanofiber mats characterized by high purity of the material, which can be used to create active and modern biomedical and pharmaceutical packaging. Intelligent medical and biomedical packaging with the use of polymers is a broadly and rapidly growing field of interest for industries and academia. Among various polymers, alginate has found many applications in the food sector, biomedicine, and packaging. For example, in drug delivery systems, a mesh made of nanofibres produced by the electrospinning method is highly desired. Electrospinning for biomedicine is based on the use of biopolymers and natural substances, along with the combination of drugs (such as naproxen, sulfikoxazol) and essential oils with antibacterial properties (such as tocopherol, eugenol). This is a striking method due to the ability of producing nanoscale materials and structures of exceptional quality, allowing the substances to be encapsulated and the drugs/biologically active substances placed on polymer nanofibers. So, in this article we briefly summarize the recent advances on electrospinning of biopolymers with particular emphasis on usage of Alginate for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessReview Sputtering of Electrospun Polymer-Based Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications: A Perspective
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010077
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract
Electrospinning has gained wide attention recently in biomedical applications. Electrospun biocompatible scaffolds are well-known for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, wound dressing, and tissue engineering applications. In this review, the synthesis of polymer-based fiber composites using an electrospinning technique is discussed. Formerly, [...] Read more.
Electrospinning has gained wide attention recently in biomedical applications. Electrospun biocompatible scaffolds are well-known for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, wound dressing, and tissue engineering applications. In this review, the synthesis of polymer-based fiber composites using an electrospinning technique is discussed. Formerly, metal particles were then deposited on the surface of electrospun fibers using sputtering technology. Key nanometals for biomedical applications including silver and copper nanoparticles are discussed throughout this review. The formulated scaffolds were found to be suitable candidates for biomedical uses such as antibacterial coatings, surface modification for improving biocompatibility, and tissue engineering. This review briefly mentions the characteristics of the nanostructures while focusing on how nanostructures hold potential for a wide range of biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications)
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