Special Issue "Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Nanoporous Functional Materials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yusuke Yamauchi

Professor / School of Chem Eng Senior Group Leader/ Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), The University of Queensland, Australia
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Interests: Inorganic Chemistry; Materials Chemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. Jeonghun Kim

School of Chemical Engineering and Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), The University of Queensland, Australia
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Interests: synthesis of organic and inorganic materials; nanoarchitecture; covalent organic framework; nanoporous materials; catalyst; energy storage; bio-applications
Guest Editor
Prof. Jungmok You

Department of Plant & Environmental New Resources, College of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: functional polymers; conductive polymers; nanostructured materials; hydrogels; cellulose; nanocomposites; bioelectronics; sensors; microelectrodes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoporous materials have attracted considerable attention for various applications, such as catalysts, energy storages, sensors, bioapplications, environmentally-related application, etc., due to the high surface area, functions, easy hybridization ability with other materials. In general, the nanoporous structure can be made by bottom-up or top-down approaches through the integratin of fields of material science, chemistry, nanotechnology, etc. Recently, nanoporous structures are being applied to polymers, metals, metal oxides, and carbons to improve their properties in applications. Therefore, synthesis and characterization of nanoporous materials are very important. This Special Issue explores scientific advances of nanoporous functional materials in diverse applications and includes research articles focusing on experimental studies, as well prospective discussing practical applications.

Prof. Dr. Yusuke Yamauchi
Dr. Jeonghun Kim
Prof. Dr. Jungmok You
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanoporous
  • nanoparticles
  • functional materials
  • nanotechnology
  • carbon
  • metal oxide
  • covalent organic framework
  • catalyst
  • energy storage
  • sensor
  • bio-application

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Highly Conductive Porous Cellulose/PEDOT:PSS Nanocomposite Paper via Post-Treatment
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040612
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 13 April 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, we report the fabrication of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposite paper with excellent flexibility through post-treatment with an organic solvent. The post-treated PEDOT:PSS/CNF porous nanocomposite papers showed a lower sulfur content, indicating the removal of residual PSS. The [...] Read more.
In this paper, we report the fabrication of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposite paper with excellent flexibility through post-treatment with an organic solvent. The post-treated PEDOT:PSS/CNF porous nanocomposite papers showed a lower sulfur content, indicating the removal of residual PSS. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS/CNF porous nanocomposite paper was increased from 1.05 S/cm to 123.37 S/cm and 106.6 S/cm by post-treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG), respectively. These values are outstanding in the development of electrically conductive CNF composites. Additionally, the highly conductive nanocomposite papers showed excellent bending stability during bending tests. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed a Faradaic redox reaction and non-Faradaic capacitance due to the redox activity of PEDOT:PSS and large surface area, respectively. Electrochemical energy storage ability was evaluated and results showed that capacitance improved after post-treatment. We believe that the highly conductive PEDOT:PSS/CNF porous nanocomposite papers with excellent flexibility described here are potential candidates for application in porous paper electrodes, flexible energy storage devices, and bioengineering sensors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of N-Doped Micropore Carbon Quantum Dots with High Quantum Yield and Dual-Wavelength Photoluminescence Emission from Biomass for Cellular Imaging
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040495
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
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Abstract
Pursuit of a simple, fast, and cost-effective method to prepare highly and dual-wavelength fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is a persistent objective in recent years. Here, we fabricated N-doped micropore carbon quantum dots (NM-CQDs) with a high quantum yield and dual-wavelength photoluminescence (PL) [...] Read more.
Pursuit of a simple, fast, and cost-effective method to prepare highly and dual-wavelength fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is a persistent objective in recent years. Here, we fabricated N-doped micropore carbon quantum dots (NM-CQDs) with a high quantum yield and dual-wavelength photoluminescence (PL) emission from sustainable biomass using a pulsed laser ablation method. Interestingly, two coexisting indigo–blue photoluminescence (PL) emissions were clearly observed, elucidating that the excited electrons transited from the intrinsic π* orbital to the surface state (SS) formed from the saturation passivation. The quantum yield (QY) and fluorescence lifetime (FL) of the obtained NM-CQDs were as high as 32.4% and 6.56 ns. Further investigations indicated that the emission behaviors of NM-CQDs were still stable and independent in various conditions such as various excitation wavelengths, salt ionic concentrations, pH values, irradiation times, and temperatures. The obtained NM-CQDs are very suitable for cellular staining images due to strong and stable PL emission and show good internalization in different cells. Therefore, we propose a new and cost-effective preparation strategy for highly fluorescent NM-CQDs with great potential in biomedical imaging and engineering. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spiderweb-Like Fe-Co Prussian Blue Analogue Nanofibers as Efficient Catalyst for Bisphenol-A Degradation by Activating Peroxymonosulfate
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030402
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 March 2019 / Published: 10 March 2019
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Abstract
Prussian blue and its analogues (PBA) based nanomaterials have been widely applied to removing pollutants in the recent years. However, easy aggregation and poor recycling largely limit their practical applications. In this work, spiderweb-like Fe-Co Prussian blue analogue/polyacrylonitrile (FCPBA/PAN) nanofibers were prepared by [...] Read more.
Prussian blue and its analogues (PBA) based nanomaterials have been widely applied to removing pollutants in the recent years. However, easy aggregation and poor recycling largely limit their practical applications. In this work, spiderweb-like Fe-Co Prussian blue analogue/polyacrylonitrile (FCPBA/PAN) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and applied to degrading bisphenol-A (BPA) by activating peroxymonosulfate (PMS). Detailed characterization demonstrated that a high loading of FCPBA (86% of FCPBA in FCPBA/PAN) was successfully fixed on the PAN nanofibers. 67% of BPA was removed within 240 min when 500 mg·L−1 PMS and 233 mg·L−1 FCPBA/PAN were introduced in 20 mg·L−1 BPA solution at initial pH of 2.8. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and radical inhibition experiments were performed to identify the possible degradation mechanism. For comparison, a low loading of FCPBA nanofibers (0.6FCPBA/PAN nanofibers, 43% of FCPBA in FCPBA/PAN) were also prepared and tested the catalytic performance. The results showed that the activity of FCPBA/PAN was much higher than 0.6FCPBA/PAN. Furthermore, a FCPBA/PAN packed column was made as a reactor to demonstrate the reusability and stability of FCPBA/PAN nanofibers, which also exhibited the bright future for the industrial application. This work makes it possible to fabricate efficient PBA nanocatalysts with excellent recyclability and promotes the application of PBA in industrial areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tunable Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbons from Fe3O(BDC)3 for Chloramphenicol Antibiotic Remediation
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020237
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is commonly employed in veterinary clinics, but illegal and uncontrollable consumption can result in its potential contamination in environmental soil, and aquatic matrix, and thereby, regenerating microbial resistance, and antibiotic-resistant genes. Adsorption by efficient, and recyclable adsorbents such as mesoporous carbons [...] Read more.
Chloramphenicol (CAP) is commonly employed in veterinary clinics, but illegal and uncontrollable consumption can result in its potential contamination in environmental soil, and aquatic matrix, and thereby, regenerating microbial resistance, and antibiotic-resistant genes. Adsorption by efficient, and recyclable adsorbents such as mesoporous carbons (MPCs) is commonly regarded as a “green and sustainable” approach. Herein, the MPCs were facilely synthesized via the pyrolysis of the metal–organic framework Fe3O(BDC)3 with calcination temperatures (x °C) between 600 and 900 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. The characterization results pointed out mesoporous carbon matrix (MPC700) coating zero-valent iron particles with high surface area (~225 m2/g). Also, significant investigations including fabrication condition, CAP concentration, effect of pH, dosage, and ionic strength on the absorptive removal of CAP were systematically studied. The optimal conditions consisted of pH = 6, concentration 10 mg/L and dose 0.5 g/L for the highest chloramphenicol removal efficiency at nearly 100% after 4 h. Furthermore, the nonlinear kinetic and isotherm adsorption studies revealed the monolayer adsorption behavior of CAP onto MPC700 and Fe3O(BDC)3 materials via chemisorption, while the thermodynamic studies implied that the adsorption of CAP was a spontaneous process. Finally, adsorption mechanism including H-bonding, electrostatic attraction, π–π interaction, and metal–bridging interaction was proposed to elucidate how chloramphenicol molecules were adsorbed on the surface of materials. With excellent maximum adsorption capacity (96.3 mg/g), high stability, and good recyclability (4 cycles), the MPC700 nanocomposite could be utilized as a promising alternative for decontamination of chloramphenicol antibiotic from wastewater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nitrogen-Doped Hierarchically Porous Carbons Derived from Polybenzoxazine for Enhanced Supercapacitor Performance
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010131
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs), which are synthesized from benzoxazine resins, were successfully prepared following the processes of polymerization, carbonization, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation. As the key factor, the KOH activation temperature influences the pore structure and surface functionality, which are crucial [...] Read more.
Nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs), which are synthesized from benzoxazine resins, were successfully prepared following the processes of polymerization, carbonization, and potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation. As the key factor, the KOH activation temperature influences the pore structure and surface functionality, which are crucial for the excellent performance. The HPC-800 material, with the highest activation temperature (800 °C), displays a hierarchical pore structure, a high specific surface area (1812.4 m2·g−1), large total pore volume (0.98 cm3·g−1), high nitrogen content (1.27%), and remarkable electrical conductivity. It has also presented an excellent electrochemical performance of high specific capacitance of 402.4 F·g−1 at 0.1 A·g−1, excellent rate capability of 248.6 F·g−1 at 10 A·g−1, and long-term cycling stability with >99.0% capacitance retention after 500 cycles at 1 A·g−1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Zr Doping on the Magnetic and Phase Transition Properties of VO2 Powder
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010113
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
In this work, V1−xZrxO2 powder (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) was synthesized by two step hydrothermal method. The micro-topography, magnetic and phase transition properties have been investigated using various measurement techniques. All prepared V1−xZrx [...] Read more.
In this work, V1−xZrxO2 powder (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) was synthesized by two step hydrothermal method. The micro-topography, magnetic and phase transition properties have been investigated using various measurement techniques. All prepared V1−xZrxO2 powder samples exhibit monoclinic structure at room temperature. With the Zr4+ ions doping concentration increased, the shapes of VO2 particles change from spherical to rectangular slice. Besides, the saturation magnetic moment of the samples decrease with the increase of doped Zr4+ ions concentration, while their phase transition temperature increase gradually with Zr ions doping at a rate of around 2 °C/at% on average. We investigated the Zr doping effects on V-V dimers and confirmed the role of V-V dimers in phase transition. We speculate that more V-V dimers form with Zr doping by magnetic measurements, which result in the monoclinic phase of Zr-doped VO2 sample is more stable than rutile phase. Therefore the phase transition temperature is elevated by Zr doping in our experiment. We further consider that the VO2 phase transition should be ascribed to Peierls transition caused by the changing of V-V dimers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Properties of SiBCO Aerogel and Its Composites
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010040
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract
To obtain new high-temperature resistant composites that can meet the requirements of aircraft development for thermal insulation and mechanical properties, SiBCO aerogel composites were prepared by sol-gel, supercritical drying and high-temperature pyrolysis with trimethyl borate (TMB) or phenylboronic acid (PBA) as the boron [...] Read more.
To obtain new high-temperature resistant composites that can meet the requirements of aircraft development for thermal insulation and mechanical properties, SiBCO aerogel composites were prepared by sol-gel, supercritical drying and high-temperature pyrolysis with trimethyl borate (TMB) or phenylboronic acid (PBA) as the boron source and mullite fiber as reinforcement. The structure and composition of the SiBCO aerogel and its composites were characterized with SEM, FT-IR, ICP and nitrogen adsorption tests. The specific surface area of the SiBCO aerogel is 293.22 m2/g, and the pore size is concentrated in the range of 10–150 nm. The mechanical properties, the thermal insulation properties and the temperature resistance were also studied. Due to the introduction of boron, the temperature resistance of SiBCO aerogel composites is improved greatly, and the service temperature of composites reached 1773 K. When n (TMB)/n (TEOS) = 1/1, the temperature resistance of the composites is the best. After heating in air at 1773 K for 30 min, the shrinkage of SiBCO aerogel composites is only 2.45%, and the thermal conductivity of the composites is 0.138 W/(m·K) at 1773 K. In addition, the type and amount of catalyst also have certain effects on the mechanical properties and temperature resistance of the composites. Full article
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Open AccessLetter Cyano-Bridged Cu-Ni Coordination Polymer Nanoflakes and Their Thermal Conversion to Mixed Cu-Ni Oxides
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8120968
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
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Abstract
Herein, we demonstrate the bottom-up synthesis of 2D cyano-bridged Cu-Ni coordination polymer (CP) nanoflakes through a controlled crystallization process and their conversion to Cu-Ni mixed oxides via a thermal treatment in air. The chelating effect of citrate anions effectively prevents the rapid coordination [...] Read more.
Herein, we demonstrate the bottom-up synthesis of 2D cyano-bridged Cu-Ni coordination polymer (CP) nanoflakes through a controlled crystallization process and their conversion to Cu-Ni mixed oxides via a thermal treatment in air. The chelating effect of citrate anions effectively prevents the rapid coordination reaction between Cu2+ and K2[Ni(CN)4], resulting in the deceleration of the crystallization process of CPs. Specifically, with addition of trisodium citrate dehydrate, the number of nuclei formed at the early stage of the reaction is decreased. Less nuclei undergo a crystal growth by interacting with [Ni(CN)4]2−, leading to the formation of larger Cu-Ni CP nanoflakes. Following heat treatment in air, the -CN- groups present within the CP nanoflakes are removed and nanoporous Cu-Ni mixed oxide nanoflakes are generated. When tested as an electrode material for supercapacitors using a three-electrode system, the optimum Cu-Ni mixed oxide sample shows a maximum specific capacitance of 158 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1. It is expected that the proposed method will be useful for the preparation of other types of 2D and 3D CPs as precursors for the creation of various nanoporous metal oxides. Full article
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Open AccessLetter Micelle-Assisted Strategy for the Direct Synthesis of Large-Sized Mesoporous Platinum Catalysts by Vapor Infiltration of a Reducing Agent
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100841
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stable polymeric micelles have been demonstrated to serve as suitable templates for creating mesoporous metals. Herein, we report the utilization of a core-shell-corona type triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) and H2PtCl6·H2O to synthesize [...] Read more.
Stable polymeric micelles have been demonstrated to serve as suitable templates for creating mesoporous metals. Herein, we report the utilization of a core-shell-corona type triblock copolymer of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine-b-ethylene oxide) and H2PtCl6·H2O to synthesize large-sized mesoporous Pt particles. After formation of micelles with metal ions, the reduction process has been carried out by vapor infiltration of a reducing agent, 4-(Dimethylamino)benzaldehyde. Following the removal of the pore-directing agent under the optimized temperature, mesoporous Pt particles with an average pore size of 15 nm and surface area of 12.6 m2·g−1 are achieved. More importantly, the resulting mesoporous Pt particles exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity compared to commercially available Pt black. Full article
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