Topic Editors

Department of Plant & Environmental New Resources, College of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea

Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 May 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 July 2023)
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Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the use of petroleum-based synthetic polymers has led to the serious environmental problems, including greenhouse gas emission and pollution. Thus, the development of eco-friendly materials is a quite important issue in material science in order to replace synthetic polymers. Various types of cellulose such as natural cellulose derived from different resources, chemically modified cellulose derivatives, in particular, nanocelluloses, have become promising eco-friendly materials due to their unique properties in the fields of electronic, energy storage system, biomedical science, sensors, environmental science, catalysis, and sustainable packaging. A number of laboratories have been pursuing the development of cellulose-based materials with high performance materials, for example, transparent polymers, super-strong polymers, nanocomposites in many important applications. Despite recent and significant advances in various types of celluloses, we still remain active in making substantial efforts to develop new cellulose materials and to understand their structure-property relationship. This Special Issue aims to explore scientific advances in all cellulose-related materials ranging from synthesis to processes and a variety of applications.

Prof. Dr. Jungmok You
Dr. Jeonghun Kim
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • cellulose
  • cellulose Derivatives
  • holocellulose
  • nanocellulose
  • nanocomposites

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Polymers
polymers
4.7 8.0 2009 14.5 Days CHF 2700
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.5 5.3 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2400
Fibers
fibers
4.0 7.0 2013 33.6 Days CHF 2000
Polysaccharides
polysaccharides
4.7 7.2 2020 19.7 Days CHF 1000
Macromol
macromol
- 5.2 2021 20.4 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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16 pages, 3599 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Chemical Purification and Ultrasonication for Extraction of Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose from Potato Peel Waste
by Mohsen Sadeghi-Shapourabadi, Said Elkoun and Mathieu Robert
Macromol 2023, 3(4), 766-781; https://doi.org/10.3390/macromol3040044 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Nanofibrillated cellulose was extracted from potato peel waste using a fast and green method with a simple process. To extract cellulose and eliminate non-cellulosic constituents, alkaline and hydrogen peroxide treatments were performed under microwave irradiation. The nanofibrillated cellulose was extracted from purified cellulose [...] Read more.
Nanofibrillated cellulose was extracted from potato peel waste using a fast and green method with a simple process. To extract cellulose and eliminate non-cellulosic constituents, alkaline and hydrogen peroxide treatments were performed under microwave irradiation. The nanofibrillated cellulose was extracted from purified cellulose via TEMPO oxidation followed by ultrasonication. The TEM, FTIR, XRD, and TGA experiments were used to evaluate the structural, crystalline, and thermal properties of cellulose fiber and nanofiber. The chemical and FTIR analysis of bleached fibers indicates that almost all non-cellulosic components of biomass have been eliminated. The diameter of the extracted nanofibers is in the range of 4 to 22 nm. In terms of crystallinity, extracted nanocellulose had 70% crystallinity, compared to 17% for unprocessed lignocellulose fibers, which makes it an excellent choice for use as a reinforcement phase in biobased composites. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that cellulose nanofibers are less thermally stable than potato peel pure cellulose, but it has a higher char content (28%) than pure cellulose (6%), which signifies that the carboxylate functionality acts as a flame retardant. The comparison between cellulose derived from microwave and conventional extraction methods confirmed that their impact on the removal of non-cellulosic materials is nearly identical. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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14 pages, 2993 KiB  
Article
On Structural and Molecular Order in Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films
by Malin Nejström, Bo Andreasson, Johanna Sjölund, Alireza Eivazi, Ida Svanedal, Håkan Edlund and Magnus Norgren
Polymers 2023, 15(9), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15092205 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2199
Abstract
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) is a possible candidate, being a raw material derived from renewable resources, to replace fossil-based materials. This is due to its thermoplastic properties and the relative ease with which it could be implemented within the existing industry. With a [...] Read more.
Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) is a possible candidate, being a raw material derived from renewable resources, to replace fossil-based materials. This is due to its thermoplastic properties and the relative ease with which it could be implemented within the existing industry. With a significant amount of variation in CAB on the market today, a knowledge gap has been identified regarding the understanding of the polymer structural arrangement in films. This relates to the underlying mechanisms that regulate CAB film material properties, insights that are important in product development. In this study, commercially available CAB was investigated with XRD, SEM, AFM, and TOPEM DSC in order to obtain physicochemical information related to its micro-structural features in solvent-cast films. The film-forming ability relates mostly to the number of hydroxyl groups, and the semi-crystallinity of the films depends on the type and position of the side groups along the cellulose backbone. The appearance of signs of possible cholesteric ordering in the films could be connected to higher amounts of hydroxyl groups along the backbone that disturb the helix arrangement, while the overall order was primarily related to the butyrate substitution and secondarily related to the molecular weight of the particular CAB studied. Cold crystallization was also observed in one CAB sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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13 pages, 3664 KiB  
Article
Hydrophobic, Sustainable, High-Barrier Regenerated Cellulose Film via a Simple One-Step Silylation Reaction
by Goomin Kwon, Jisoo Park, Kangyun Lee, Youngsang Ko, Youngho Jeon, Suji Lee, Jeonghun Kim and Jungmok You
Polymers 2023, 15(8), 1901; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15081901 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2994
Abstract
With the increasing importance of environmental protection, high-performance biopolymer films have received considerable attention as effective alternatives to petroleum-based polymer films. In this study, we developed hydrophobic regenerated cellulose (RC) films with good barrier properties through a simple gas–solid reaction via the chemical [...] Read more.
With the increasing importance of environmental protection, high-performance biopolymer films have received considerable attention as effective alternatives to petroleum-based polymer films. In this study, we developed hydrophobic regenerated cellulose (RC) films with good barrier properties through a simple gas–solid reaction via the chemical vapor deposition of alkyltrichlorosilane. RC films were employed to construct a biodegradable, free-standing substrate matrix, and methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) was used as a hydrophobic coating material to control the wettability and improve the barrier properties of the final films. MTS readily coupled with hydroxyl groups on the RC surface through a condensation reaction. We demonstrated that the MTS-modified RC (MTS/RC) films were optically transparent, mechanically strong, and hydrophobic. In particular, the obtained MTS/RC films exhibited a low oxygen transmission rate of 3 cm3/m2 per day and a low water vapor transmission rate of 41 g/m2 per day, which are superior to those of other hydrophobic biopolymer films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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13 pages, 2767 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dissolution Time on the Development of All-Cellulose Composites Using the NaOH/Urea Solvent System
by Juan Francisco Delgado, Andrés Gerardo Salvay, Silvana Arroyo, Celina Raquel Bernal and María Laura Foresti
Polysaccharides 2023, 4(1), 65-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/polysaccharides4010005 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2293
Abstract
Innovative and sustainable all-cellulose composites (ACCs) can be obtained by partial dissolution of cellulosic fibers and regeneration of the dissolved fraction. Among cellulose solvents, sodium hydroxide/urea solutions are recognized as promising low-environmental impact systems. In this work, filter paper (FP) was dissolved with [...] Read more.
Innovative and sustainable all-cellulose composites (ACCs) can be obtained by partial dissolution of cellulosic fibers and regeneration of the dissolved fraction. Among cellulose solvents, sodium hydroxide/urea solutions are recognized as promising low-environmental impact systems. In this work, filter paper (FP) was dissolved with a 7 wt% NaOH/12 wt% urea aqueous solution, kept at −18 °C for different time intervals, regenerated with distilled water and finally dried under different conditions. The developed films were characterized in terms of morphology, porosity, optical properties, crystalline structure, hydration and mechanical properties. The porosity of the composites decreased with dissolution time due to the progressive filling of voids as the cellulosic fibers’ surface skin layer was dissolved and regenerated. Samples treated for 4 h showed the minimum values of porosity and opacity, high hydration and a substantial change from cellulose I to cellulose II. Hot pressing during drying led to relevant improvements in ACCs stiffness and strength values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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15 pages, 4754 KiB  
Article
Polymer-Modified Cellulose Nanofibrils Cross-Linked with Cobalt Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as a Gel Ink for 3D Printing Objects with Magnetic and Electrochemical Properties
by Jakob Benedikt Mietner, Sebastian Willruth, Rajesh Komban, Christoph Gimmler, Bilal Nehmeh and Julien R. G. Navarro
Fibers 2023, 11(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib11010002 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
This paper presents a strategy to convert hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) into a highly cross-linked hydrophobic network with inorganic nanoparticles to develop a gel ink suitable for gel 3D printing. The CNF were chemically modified initially through a single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) [...] Read more.
This paper presents a strategy to convert hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) into a highly cross-linked hydrophobic network with inorganic nanoparticles to develop a gel ink suitable for gel 3D printing. The CNF were chemically modified initially through a single-electron transfer-living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) of stearyl acrylate (SA) in the presence of the surface-modified cobalt iron oxide (CoFe2O4, CFO) nanoparticles. The modified CFO nanoparticles provide their multifunctional properties, such as magnetic and electrochemical, to the CNF hybrid network and, at the same time, act as cross-linking agents between the nanocellulose fibrils, while the grafted poly-stearyl acrylate (PSA) introduces a strong hydrophobicity in the network. A suitable gel ink form of this CNF–PSA–CFO material for gel 3D printing was achieved together with a certain solvent. Some test structure prints were directly obtained with the CNF–PSA–CFO gel and were used to evaluate the consolidation of such 3D objects through solvent exchange and freeze-drying while also keeping the magnetic and electrochemical properties of CFO in the CNF-based composite intact. The pristine CNF and CFO particles and the CNF–PSA–CFO were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XPS, TGA, VSM, and CV measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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17 pages, 6739 KiB  
Article
Production and 3D Printing of a Nanocellulose-Based Composite Filament Composed of Polymer-Modified Cellulose Nanofibrils and High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) for the Fabrication of 3D Complex Shapes
by Feras Dalloul, Jakob Benedikt Mietner and Julien R. G. Navarro
Fibers 2022, 10(10), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10100091 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3096
Abstract
This work aims to produce a 3D-printable bio-based filament composed of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and chemically modified cellulose nanofibrils. Printing using HDPE as a raw material is challenging due to its massive shrinkage and warping problems. This paper presents a new method to [...] Read more.
This work aims to produce a 3D-printable bio-based filament composed of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and chemically modified cellulose nanofibrils. Printing using HDPE as a raw material is challenging due to its massive shrinkage and warping problems. This paper presents a new method to overcome those difficulties by enhancing the mechanical properties and achieving better print quality. This was achieved using modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as fillers. Firstly, CNF was converted to a CNF-based macroinitiator through an esterification reaction, followed by a surface-initiated single-electron transfer living radical polymerization (SI-SET-LRP) of the hydrophobic monomer stearyl acrylate. Poly stearyl acrylate-grafted cellulose nanofibrils, CNF-PSAs, were synthesized, purified and characterized with ATR-FTIR, 13C CP-MAS NMR, FE-SEM and water contact angle measurements. A composite was successfully produced using a twin-screw extruder with a CNF-PSA content of 10 wt.%. Mechanical tests were carried out with tensile testing. An increase in the mechanical properties, up to 23% for the Young’s modulus, was observed. A morphologic analysis also revealed the good matrix/CNF compatibility, as no CNF aggregates could be observed. A reduction in the warping behavior for the composite filament compared to HDPE was assessed using a circular arc method. The 3D printing of complex objects using the CNF-PSA/HDPE filament resulted in better print quality when compared to the object printed with neat HDPE. Therefore, it could be concluded that CNF-PSA was a suitable filler for the reinforcement of HDPE, thus, rendering it suitable for 3D printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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17 pages, 6016 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals Fabricated by Ammonium Persulfate Oxidation from Sansevieria trifasciata Fibers
by Nafiis Lazuardi Indirasetyo and Kusmono
Fibers 2022, 10(7), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib10070061 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3187
Abstract
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were successfully prepared from Sansevieria trifasciata fibers (STFs) via ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidation in this study. The influences of the APS concentration (1.1, 1.5, and 1.9 M) and oxidation temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) on the characteristics of CNCs [...] Read more.
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were successfully prepared from Sansevieria trifasciata fibers (STFs) via ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidation in this study. The influences of the APS concentration (1.1, 1.5, and 1.9 M) and oxidation temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) on the characteristics of CNCs were studied. The resulting CNCs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The TEM observations revealed that the rod-like CNCs possessed average length and diameter ranges of 96 to 211 nm and 5 to 13 nm, respectively, which led to an aspect ratio range of 16–19. The optimum conditions for maximum crystallinity were achieved at an oxidation temperature of 70 °C, a reaction time of 16 h, and an APS concentration of 1.5 M. All CNCs exhibited lower thermal stability compared to the STFs. The CNCs could be produced from the STFs through the APS oxidation process and showed potential as nanocomposite reinforcement materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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17 pages, 3422 KiB  
Article
Water Sorption and Mechanical Properties of Cellulosic Derivative Fibers
by Mathilde Simon, René Fulchiron and Fabrice Gouanvé
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2836; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142836 - 12 Jul 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
In this study, water vapor sorption, desorption properties and tensile mechanical properties of four cellulosic fibers, cotton (C), flax (F), viscose (V) and cellulose acetate (CA), were determined. The sorption and desorption isotherms were modeled using the Park model, which allowed an accurate [...] Read more.
In this study, water vapor sorption, desorption properties and tensile mechanical properties of four cellulosic fibers, cotton (C), flax (F), viscose (V) and cellulose acetate (CA), were determined. The sorption and desorption isotherms were modeled using the Park model, which allowed an accurate fitting on the whole range of water activity. This model corresponds to a multi-sorption mode dividing in three sorption modes: Langmuir sorption, Henry’s law and water clustering. Park’s parameters were compared for the sorption and desorption isotherms for each fiber. Regardless of the fiber, differences between sorption and desorption were obtained only for the Henry sorption. The obtained sorption properties were correlated to the accessibility and the amount of sorption sites and also to the crystallinity level of the fibers. It was found that V exhibited the highest water sorption capacity due to a higher hydroxyl groups accessibility and a low amorphous fraction, followed by F, C and CA. Results from tensile tests demonstrated that F and C fibers were more rigid, more resistant and less ductile than CA and V fibers due to a difference of microstructure of the fibers. Finally, the presence of water-sorbed molecules led to a decrease in tensile modulus due to plasticization phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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13 pages, 3473 KiB  
Article
Preparation of Cellulose-Based Flocculant and Its Application in the Enrichment of Vitamin K2 in Fermentation Supernatant
by Guoliang Ma, Zhiming Zheng, Han Wang, Li Wang, Genhai Zhao, Hengfang Tang, Xiumin Ding and Peng Wang
Polymers 2022, 14(12), 2410; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14122410 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2061
Abstract
Nutritional food supplements and pharmaceutical products produced with vitamin K2 as raw materials a very promising market in the global scope. The main production method of vitamin K2 is microbial fermentation, but approximately 50% of vitamin K2 synthesized by the [...] Read more.
Nutritional food supplements and pharmaceutical products produced with vitamin K2 as raw materials a very promising market in the global scope. The main production method of vitamin K2 is microbial fermentation, but approximately 50% of vitamin K2 synthesized by the main production strain Bacillus subtilis natto exists in extracellular form, which is not easy to separate and extract. In order to solve this problem, in this study, we synthesized a novel cellulose flocculant, MCC-g-LMA, by grafting reaction using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and lauryl methacrylate (LMA) as monomers, and ammonium persulfate as an initiator to flocculate VK2 from the fermentation supernatant. The flocculant was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the grafting reaction was successful. When the flocculant dosage was 48.0 mg/L and pH was 5.0, the flocculation rate of the MCC-g-LMA on the fermentation supernatant reached 85.3%, and the enrichment rate of VK2 reached 90.0%. Furthermore, we explored the flocculation mechanism of VK2 by the MCC-g-LMA and speculated that the flocculation mechanism mainly included adsorption bridging, hydrophobic association and net trapping and sweep effect. In this study, the extraction method for trace high-value biological products in the fermentation supernatant was improved, which provided a method and theoretical basis for the efficient separation and purification of VK2 and other terpenoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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11 pages, 5354 KiB  
Article
Effect of High-Temperature Hydrothermal Treatment on the Cellulose Derived from the Buxus Plant
by Jijuan Zhang, Hongfei Huo, Lei Zhang, Yang Yang, Hongchen Li, Yi Ren and Zhongfeng Zhang
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102053 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2278
Abstract
Cellulose has attracted considerable attention as the most promising potential candidate raw material for the production of bio-based polymeric materials. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in the production of biopolymers based on different cellulose forms. In this study, cellulose [...] Read more.
Cellulose has attracted considerable attention as the most promising potential candidate raw material for the production of bio-based polymeric materials. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in the production of biopolymers based on different cellulose forms. In this study, cellulose was obtained in an innovative and environmentally friendly way, using boxwood powder. Crude cellulose was obtained by treating Buxus powder with an ethanol–acetic acid–water mixture. Refined cellulose was then obtained by treatment with an acidic sodium hypochlorite solution and alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The novel chemistry of cellulose prepared by this method promises to be not only green, but also highly desirable, because of its lower emissions and low cost. It is crucial for the future of the global polymer industry. The refined cellulose was subjected to a high-temperature hydrothermal treatment under two temperatures and time conditions, with temperature gradients of 120, 140, and 160 °C, and time gradients of 1, 2, and 3 h. The samples were subjected to infrared and thermogravimetric analyses. The cellulose undergoes dehydration and thermal degradation reactions during the heat treatment process, and the thermal stability of the residual is enhanced, compared with that of virgin cellulose. Between 120 and 140 °C, the hydroxyl and hypomethyl groups on the surface of cellulose are shed. Groups in the amorphous region of the polymer are the first to be shed. The dehydration reaction reduces the number of free hydroxyl groups on the surface of the cellulose molecules. The dehydration reaction was accelerated by an increase in temperature. Between 140 and 160 °C, the β-(1,4)-glycosidic bond begins to slowly break and some furans are generated. The structure of cellulose undergoes reorganization during thermal treatment. The thermal stability of the modified material is greater than that of untreated cellulose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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9 pages, 2302 KiB  
Communication
A Novel Tri-Layer Cellulose-Based Membrane for the Capture and Analysis of Mainstream Smoke of Tobacco
by Xuyan Song, Min Wei, Yunlu He, Xi Pan, Xinjiao Cui, Xiaodi Du and Junsheng Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4196; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094196 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Efficient capture of particulate matter in the smoke mainstream using low-cost filter pads is important for cost-effective analysis of mainstream smoke. The Cambridge filter pad (CFP) is the standard material for the collection of particulate matter in the mainstream. In this work, we [...] Read more.
Efficient capture of particulate matter in the smoke mainstream using low-cost filter pads is important for cost-effective analysis of mainstream smoke. The Cambridge filter pad (CFP) is the standard material for the collection of particulate matter in the mainstream. In this work, we report a low-cost alternative to CFP, which is composed of a cellulose acetate fiber (CAF) interlayer and two cotton fiber (CF) layers on both sides. The CF/CAF/CF filter exhibited high affinity toward typical tobacco additives such as glycerol and glycerol triacetate. In addition, the CF/CAF/CF filter had a favorable porous structure for the trapping of particulate matter. Due to these beneficial features, the CF/CAF/CF filter exhibited improved particulate matter trapping performance. These results suggest that the as-developed CF/CAF/CF filter could be a low-cost alternative to CFP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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17 pages, 4716 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Correlation between Structure and Properties of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Film Loaded with Eu3+ and Tb3+ Fluorescence by Rheology at Different Drying Stages
by Jun Ye, Zichang Fu, Jiawei Rao and Jian Xiong
Polymers 2022, 14(9), 1655; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14091655 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1799
Abstract
The influences of interactions between carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and CMC/europium (III)–terbium (III) (CET) on the structure and properties of the resultant CMC/CET films were investigated by rheology at three stages of the film-drying process. According to the water content at different drying times, [...] Read more.
The influences of interactions between carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and CMC/europium (III)–terbium (III) (CET) on the structure and properties of the resultant CMC/CET films were investigated by rheology at three stages of the film-drying process. According to the water content at different drying times, the kinetics curves during the film-drying process were drawn. Then, the rheology properties of film-forming solutions during the drying process were characterized by dynamic modulus, Han plots, zero shear complex viscosity and relaxation time. When the water content was 90%, the film contained either 0.1 or 0.2 g of CET, which had good fluidity, while the film with 0.3 g of CET was elastic-dominated. Han plots and XRD analyses showed that the interactions between the CMC and CET were not hydrogen bonds but random entanglements. The zero-shear complex viscosity and relaxation time spectrum confirmed that the entanglements enhanced as the CET content increased. Meanwhile, aggregation formed in the solution of CMC with 0.3 g of CET. When CMC-CET films with different CET additions were compared, the film with 0.2 g of CET had an even and tight sheet structure, the greatest fluorescence intensity, and superior tensile strength of 78.76 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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15 pages, 1497 KiB  
Review
Liquefaction of Cellulose for Production of Advanced Porous Carbon Materials
by Arjeta Kryeziu, Václav Slovák and Alžběta Parchaňská
Polymers 2022, 14(8), 1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14081621 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4167
Abstract
Cellulose is a renewable resource for the production of advanced carbonaceous materials for various applications. In addition to direct carbonization, attention has recently been paid to the preparation of porous carbons from liquid cellulose-based precursors. Possible pathways of cellulose conversion to a liquid [...] Read more.
Cellulose is a renewable resource for the production of advanced carbonaceous materials for various applications. In addition to direct carbonization, attention has recently been paid to the preparation of porous carbons from liquid cellulose-based precursors. Possible pathways of cellulose conversion to a liquid state suitable for the preparation of porous carbons are summarized in this review. Hydrothermal liquefaction leading to liquid mixtures of low-molecular-weight organics is described in detail together with less common decomposition techniques (microwave or ultrasound assisted liquefaction, decomposition in a strong gravitation field). We also focus on dissolution of cellulose without decomposition, with special attention paid to dissolution of nonderivatized cellulose. For this purpose, cold alkalines, hot acids, ionic liquids, or alcohols are commonly used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives)
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