Special Issue "Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2020).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Elena I. Ryabchikova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ICBFM SB RAS), Russia
Interests: multilevel nanoconstructions; mechanisms of nanoparticles interaction with a cell; nucleic acid delivery; spheroid model; electron microscopy; antimicrobial peptides; cell ultrastructure

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The Special Issue “Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine” is addressed to investigators working on the application of nanomaterials in biomedicine. What is biomedicine? Apparently, everyone intuitively understands when trying to pinpoint this area of knowledge that an absence of clarity is to be expected. Memidex online dictionary defines biomedicine as “a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice”, and gives 10 more definitions that do not make the subject of biomedicine clearer.

The very broad definition of biomedicine means that this Special Issue covers a variety of nanotechnology applications in experimental and preclinical studies destined for medicine. Research articles and reviews are invited to “Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine” Special Issue to gather information about achievements in various fields of nanotechnology connected to different  branches of biomedicine. We hope that this Special Issue will serve as a kind of multidisciplinary congress, allowing one to discuss developments in the field of nanomaterial application in biomedical research, including but not limited to the following:   

  • New approaches using nanomaterials to diagnose various disease, including cancer and infections;
  • The use of nanomaterials to improve the preservation and storage duration of medical preparations;
  • Nanomaterials providing targeted delivery of medical preparations;
  • Nanomaterials in tissue engineering and prosthetics;
  • Nanomaterials to improve patient care, new effective antimicrobial agents.

Prof. Elena I. Ryabchikova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanotechnology
  • Biocompatible nanomaterials
  • Diagnostics
  • Storage of medicines
  • Targeted drug delivery
  • Nanomedicine
  • Nanocarriers
  • Tissue engineering.

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010118 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 598
Abstract
Biomedicine is actively developing a methodological network that brings together biological research and its medical applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)

Research

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Article
Assessment of the Theranostic Potential of Gold Nanostars—A Multimodal Imaging and Photothermal Treatment Study
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2112; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112112 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles offer the possibility to combine both imaging and therapy of otherwise difficult to treat tumors. To validate and further improve their potential, we describe the use of gold nanostars that were functionalized with a polyethyleneglycol-maleimide coating for in vitro and in [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles offer the possibility to combine both imaging and therapy of otherwise difficult to treat tumors. To validate and further improve their potential, we describe the use of gold nanostars that were functionalized with a polyethyleneglycol-maleimide coating for in vitro and in vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI), computed tomography (CT), as well as photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer cells and tumor masses, respectively. Nanostar shaped particles show a high absorption coefficient in the near infrared region and have a hydrodynamic size in biological medium around 100 nm, which allows optimal intra-tumoral retention. Using these nanostars for in vitro labeling of tumor cells, high intracellular nanostar concentrations could be achieved, resulting in high PAI and CT contrast and effective PTT. By injecting the nanostars intratumorally, high contrast could be generated in vivo using PAI and CT, which allowed successful multi-modal tumor imaging. PTT was successfully induced, resulting in tumor cell death and subsequent inhibition of tumor growth. Therefore, gold nanostars are versatile theranostic agents for tumor therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
Ultrastructural Features of Gold Nanoparticles Interaction with HepG2 and HEK293 Cells in Monolayer and Spheroids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102040 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 734
Abstract
Use of multicellular spheroids in studies of nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in the last decade, however details of NPs interaction with spheroids are poorly known. We synthesized AuNPs (12.0 ± 0.1 nm in diameter, transmission electron microscopy (TEM data) and covered them with [...] Read more.
Use of multicellular spheroids in studies of nanoparticles (NPs) has increased in the last decade, however details of NPs interaction with spheroids are poorly known. We synthesized AuNPs (12.0 ± 0.1 nm in diameter, transmission electron microscopy (TEM data) and covered them with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI). Values of hydrodynamic diameter were 17.4 ± 0.4; 35.9 ± 0.5 and ±125.9 ± 2.8 nm for AuNPs, AuBSA-NPs and AuPEI-NPs, and Z-potential (net charge) values were −33.6 ± 2.0; −35.7 ± 1.8 and 39.9 ± 1.3 mV, respectively. Spheroids of human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) and human embryo kidney (HEK293) cells (Corning ® spheroid microplates CLS4515-5EA), and monolayers of these cell lines were incubated with all NPs for 15 min–4 h, and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde solution. Samples were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. HepG2 and HEK2893 spheroids showed tissue-specific features and contacted with culture medium by basal plasma membrane of the cells. HepG2 cells both in monolayer and spheroids did not uptake of the AuNPs, while AuBSA-NPs and AuPEI-NPs readily penetrated these cells. All studied NPs penetrated HEK293 cells in both monolayer and spheroids. Thus, two different cell cultures maintained a type of the interaction with NPs in monolayer and spheroid forms, which not depended on NPs Z-potential and size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
Sensitive SQUID Bio-Magnetometry for Determination and Differentiation of Biogenic Iron and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in the Biological Samples
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101993 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 675
Abstract
This study aimed to develop the method for determination of the ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPION)-originated iron (UOI) in the tissues of rats on the basis of the magnetic characteristics (MC) in the liver, left heart ventricle (LHV), kidneys, aorta and blood [...] Read more.
This study aimed to develop the method for determination of the ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPION)-originated iron (UOI) in the tissues of rats on the basis of the magnetic characteristics (MC) in the liver, left heart ventricle (LHV), kidneys, aorta and blood of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). Rats were treated intravenously by USPIONs dispersed in saline (transmission electron microscope (TEM) mean size ~30 nm, hydrodynamic size ~51 nm, nominal iron content 1 mg Fe/mL) at the low iron dose of 1 mg/kg. MC in the form of the mass magnetisation (M) versus the magnetic field (H) curves and temperature dependences of M (determined using the SQUID magnetometer), histochemical determination of iron (by Perl’s method) and USPION-induced superoxide production (by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence) were investigated 100 min post-infusion. USPIONs significantly elevated superoxide production in the liver, LHV, kidney and aorta vs. the control group. Histochemical staining confirmed the presence of iron in all solid biological samples, however, this method was not suitable to unequivocally confirm the presence of UOI. We improved the SQUID magnetometric method and sample preparation to allow the determination of UOI by measurements of the MC of the tissues at 300 K in solid and liquid samples. The presence of the UOI was confirmed in all the tissues investigated in USPIONs-treated rats. The greatest levels were found in blood and lower amounts in the aorta, liver, LHV and kidneys. In conclusion, we have improved SQUID-magnetometric method to make it suitable for detection of low amounts of UOI in blood and tissues of rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
Effects of Two Kinds of Iron Nanoparticles as Reactive Oxygen Species Inducer and Scavenger on the Transcriptomic Profiles of Two Human Leukemia Cells with Different Stemness
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101951 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Leukemia is a common and lethal disease. In recent years, iron-based nanomedicines have been developed as a new ferroptosis inducer to leukemia. However, the cytotoxicity of iron nanoparticles to leukemia cells at the transcriptomic level remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of [...] Read more.
Leukemia is a common and lethal disease. In recent years, iron-based nanomedicines have been developed as a new ferroptosis inducer to leukemia. However, the cytotoxicity of iron nanoparticles to leukemia cells at the transcriptomic level remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of two kinds of iron nanoparticles, 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FeNPs) as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer and Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) as an ROS scavenger, on the transcriptomic profiles of two leukemia cells (KG1a and HL60) by RNA-Seq. As a result, 470 and 1690 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the FeNP-treated HL60 and KG1a cells, respectively, and 2008 and 2504 DEGs were found in the PBNP-treated HL60 and KG1a cells, respectively. Among them, 14 common upregulated and 4 common downregulated DEGs were found, these genes were representative genes that play key roles in lipid metabolism (GBA and ABCA1), iron metabolism (FTL, DNM1, and TRFC), antioxidation (NQO1, GCLM, and SLC7A11), vesicle traffic (MCTP2, DNM1, STX3, and BIN2), and innate immune response (TLR6, ADGRG3, and DDX24). The gene ontology revealed that the mineral absorption pathway was significantly regulated by PBNPs in two cells, whereas the lipid metabolism and HIF-1 signaling pathways were significantly regulated by FeNPs in two cells. This study established the gene signatures of two kinds of nanoparticles in two leukemia cells, which revealed the main biological processes regulated by the two kinds of iron nanoparticles. These data shed new insights into the cytotoxicity of iron nanoparticles that differently regulate ROS in leukemia cells with variant stemness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
Amphiphilic “Like-A-Brush” Oligonucleotide Conjugates with Three Dodecyl Chains: Self-Assembly Features of Novel Scaffold Compounds for Nucleic Acids Delivery
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101948 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
The conjugation of lipophilic groups to oligonucleotides is a promising approach for improving nucleic acid-based therapeutics’ intracellular delivery. Lipid oligonucleotide conjugates can self-aggregate in aqueous solution, which gains much attention due to the formation of micellar particles suitable for cell endocytosis. Here, we [...] Read more.
The conjugation of lipophilic groups to oligonucleotides is a promising approach for improving nucleic acid-based therapeutics’ intracellular delivery. Lipid oligonucleotide conjugates can self-aggregate in aqueous solution, which gains much attention due to the formation of micellar particles suitable for cell endocytosis. Here, we describe self-association features of novel “like-a-brush” oligonucleotide conjugates bearing three dodecyl chains. The self-assembly of the conjugates into 30–170 nm micellar particles with a high tendency to aggregate was shown using dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force (AFM), and transmission electron (TEM) microscopies. Fluorescently labeled conjugates demonstrated significant quenching of fluorescence intensity (up to 90%) under micelle formation conditions. The conjugates possess increased binding affinity to serum albumin as compared with free oligonucleotides. The dodecyl oligonucleotide conjugate and its duplex efficiently internalized and accumulated into HepG2 cells’ cytoplasm without any transfection agent. It was shown that the addition of serum albumin or fetal bovine serum to the medium decreased oligonucleotide uptake efficacy (by 22.5–36%) but did not completely inhibit cell penetration. The obtained results allow considering dodecyl-containing oligonucleotides as scaffold compounds for engineering nucleic acid delivery vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
pH-Sensitive Dendrimersomes of Hybrid Triazine-Carbosilane Dendritic Amphiphiles-Smart Vehicles for Drug Delivery
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1899; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101899 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Supramolecular constructions of amphiphilic dendritic molecules are promising vehicles for anti-cancer drug delivery due to the flexibility of their architecture, high drug loading capacity and avoiding off-target effects of a drug. Herein, we report a new class of amphiphilic dendritic species—triazine-carbosilane dendrons readily [...] Read more.
Supramolecular constructions of amphiphilic dendritic molecules are promising vehicles for anti-cancer drug delivery due to the flexibility of their architecture, high drug loading capacity and avoiding off-target effects of a drug. Herein, we report a new class of amphiphilic dendritic species—triazine-carbosilane dendrons readily self-assembling into pH-sensitive dendrimersomes. The dendrimersomes efficiently encapsulate anticancer drugs doxorubicin and methotrexate. Chemodrug-loaded dendrimersomes have dose-related cytotoxic activity against leukaemia cell lines 1301 and K562. Our findings suggest that triazine-carbosilane dendrimersomes are prospective drug carriers for anti-cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
Tyrosine-Modification of Polypropylenimine (PPI) and Polyethylenimine (PEI) Strongly Improves Efficacy of siRNA-Mediated Gene Knockdown
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091809 - 10 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
The delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) is an efficient method for gene silencing through the induction of RNA interference (RNAi). It critically relies, however, on efficient vehicles for siRNA formulation, for transfection in vitro as well as for their potential use in [...] Read more.
The delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) is an efficient method for gene silencing through the induction of RNA interference (RNAi). It critically relies, however, on efficient vehicles for siRNA formulation, for transfection in vitro as well as for their potential use in vivo. While polyethylenimines (PEIs) are among the most studied cationic polymers for nucleic acid delivery including small RNA molecules, polypropylenimines (PPIs) have been explored to a lesser extent. Previous studies have shown the benefit of the modification of small PEIs by tyrosine grafting which are featured in this paper. Additionally, we have now extended this approach towards PPIs, presenting tyrosine-modified PPIs (named PPI-Y) for the first time. In this study, we describe the marked improvement of PPI upon its tyrosine modification, leading to enhanced siRNA complexation, complex stability, siRNA delivery, knockdown efficacy and biocompatibility. Results of PPI-Y/siRNA complexes are also compared with data based on tyrosine-modified linear or branched PEIs (LPxY or PxY). Taken together, this establishes tyrosine-modified PPIs or PEIs as particularly promising polymeric systems for siRNA formulation and delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Communication
Magnetoliposomes Incorporated in Peptide-Based Hydrogels: Towards Development of Magnetolipogels
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091702 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1251
Abstract
A major problem with magnetogels is the encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Magnetoliposomes not only provide these domains but also improve drug stability and avert the aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles. In this work, two magnetoliposome architectures, solid and aqueous, were combined with supramolecular [...] Read more.
A major problem with magnetogels is the encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs. Magnetoliposomes not only provide these domains but also improve drug stability and avert the aggregation of the magnetic nanoparticles. In this work, two magnetoliposome architectures, solid and aqueous, were combined with supramolecular peptide-based hydrogels, which are of biomedical interest owing to their biocompatibility, easy tunability, and wide array of applications. This proof-of-concept was carried out through combination of magnetoliposomes (loaded with the model drug curcumin and the lipid probe Nile Red) with the hydrogels prior to pH triggered gelation, and fluorescence spectroscopy was used to assess the dynamics of the encapsulated molecules. These systems allow for the encapsulation of a wider array of drugs. Further, the local environment of the encapsulated molecules after gelation is unaffected by the used magnetoliposome architecture. This system design is promising for future developments on drug delivery as it provides a means to independently modify the components and adapt and optimize the design according to the required conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
Therapeutic Delivery of rAAV sox9 via Polymeric Micelles Counteracts the Effects of Osteoarthritis-Associated Inflammatory Cytokines in Human Articular Chondrocytes
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061238 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 903
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease linked to the irreversible degradation of key extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) components (proteoglycans, type-II collagen) by proteolytic enzymes due to an impaired tissue homeostasis, with the critical involvement of OA-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1 beta, i.e., [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent joint disease linked to the irreversible degradation of key extracellular cartilage matrix (ECM) components (proteoglycans, type-II collagen) by proteolytic enzymes due to an impaired tissue homeostasis, with the critical involvement of OA-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1 beta, i.e., IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, i.e., TNF-α). Gene therapy provides effective means to re-establish such degraded ECM compounds by rejuvenating the altered OA phenotype of the articular chondrocytes, the unique cell population ubiquitous in the articular cartilage. In particular, overexpression of the highly specialized SOX9 transcription factor via recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors has been reported for its ability to readjust the metabolic balance in OA, in particular via controlled rAAV delivery using polymeric micelles as carriers to prevent a possible vector neutralization by antibodies present in the joints of patients. As little is known on the challenging effects of such naturally occurring OA-associated pro-inflammatory cytokines on such rAAV/polymeric gene transfer, we explored the capacity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO)-based polymeric micelles to deliver a candidate rAAV-FLAG-hsox9 construct in human OA chondrocytes in the presence of IL-1β and TNF-α. We report that effective, micelle-guided rAAV sox9 overexpression enhanced the deposition of ECM components and the levels of cell survival, while advantageously reversing the deleterious effects afforded by the OA cytokines on these processes. These findings highlight the potentiality of polymeric micelles as effective rAAV controlled delivery systems to counterbalance the specific contribution of major OA-associated inflammatory cytokines, supporting the concept of using such systems for the treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases like OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
In-Situ Biofabrication of Silver Nanoparticles in Ceiba pentandra Natural Fiber Using Entada spiralis Extract with Their Antibacterial and Catalytic Dye Reduction Properties
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061104 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1020
Abstract
It is believed of great interest to incorporate silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) into stable supported materials using biological methods to control the adverse properties of nanoscale particles. In this study, in-situ biofabrication of Ag-NPs using Entada spiralis (E. spiralis) aqueous extract in Ceiba pentandra [...] Read more.
It is believed of great interest to incorporate silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) into stable supported materials using biological methods to control the adverse properties of nanoscale particles. In this study, in-situ biofabrication of Ag-NPs using Entada spiralis (E. spiralis) aqueous extract in Ceiba pentandra (C. pentandra) fiber as supporting material was used in which, the E. spiralis extract acted as both reducing and stabilizing agents to incorporate Ag-NPs in the C. pentandra fiber. The properties of Ag-NPs incorporated in the C. pentandra fiber (C. pentandra/Ag-NPs) were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscope (FETEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Thermogravimetric (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses. The average size of Ag-NPs measured using FETEM image was 4.74 nm spherical in shape. The C. pentandra/Ag-NPs was easily separated after application, and could control the release of Ag-NPs to the environment due to its strong attachment in C. pentandra fiber. The C. pentandra/Ag-NPs exposed good qualitative and quantitative antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 33420). The dye catalytic properties of C. pentandra/Ag-NPs revealed the dye reduction time in which it was completed within 4 min for 20 mg/L rhodamine B and 20 min for 20 mg/L methylene blue dye, respectively. Based on the results, it is evident that C. pentandra/Ag-NPs are potentially promising to be applied in wound healing, textile, wastewater treatment, food packaging, labeling and biomedical fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Article
rAAV-Mediated Overexpression of SOX9 and TGF-β via Carbon Dot-Guided Vector Delivery Enhances the Biological Activities in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 855; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050855 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
Scaffold-assisted gene therapy is a highly promising tool to treat articular cartilage lesions upon direct delivery of chondrogenic candidate sequences. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of providing highly chondroreparative agents, the cartilage-specific sex-determining region Y-type high-mobility [...] Read more.
Scaffold-assisted gene therapy is a highly promising tool to treat articular cartilage lesions upon direct delivery of chondrogenic candidate sequences. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of providing highly chondroreparative agents, the cartilage-specific sex-determining region Y-type high-mobility group 9 (SOX9) transcription factor or the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) via clinically adapted, independent recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors formulated with carbon dots (CDs), a novel class of carbon-dominated nanomaterials. Effective complexation and release of a reporter rAAV-lacZ vector was achieved using four different CDs elaborated from 1-citric acid and pentaethylenehexamine (CD-1); 2-citric acid, poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MW 550 Da), and N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (CD-2); 3-citric acid, branched poly(ethylenimine) (MW 600 Da), and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (MW 2 kDa) (CD-3); and 4-citric acid and branched poly(ethylenimine) (MW 600 Da) (CD-4), allowing for the genetic modification of hMSCs. Among the nanoparticles, CD-2 showed an optimal ability for rAAV delivery (up to 2.2-fold increase in lacZ expression relative to free vector treatment with 100% cell viability for at least 10 days, the longest time point examined). Administration of therapeutic (SOX9, TGF-β) rAAV vectors in hMSCs via CD-2 led to the effective overexpression of each independent transgene, promoting enhanced cell proliferation (TGF-β) and cartilage matrix deposition (glycosaminoglycans, type-II collagen) for at least 21 days relative to control treatments (CD-2 lacking rAAV or associated to rAAV-lacZ), while advantageously restricting undesirable type-I and -X collagen deposition. These results reveal the potential of CD-guided rAAV gene administration in hMSCs as safe, non-invasive systems for translational strategies to enhance cartilage repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review

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Review
Comprehensive Survey on Nanobiomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 2019; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10102019 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
One of the most important ideas ever produced by the application of materials science to the medical field is the notion of biomaterials. The nanostructured biomaterials play a crucial role in the development of new treatment strategies including not only the replacement of [...] Read more.
One of the most important ideas ever produced by the application of materials science to the medical field is the notion of biomaterials. The nanostructured biomaterials play a crucial role in the development of new treatment strategies including not only the replacement of tissues and organs, but also repair and regeneration. They are designed to interact with damaged or injured tissues to induce regeneration, or as a forest for the production of laboratory tissues, so they must be micro-environmentally sensitive. The existing materials have many limitations, including impaired cell attachment, proliferation, and toxicity. Nanotechnology may open new avenues to bone tissue engineering by forming new assemblies similar in size and shape to the existing hierarchical bone structure. Organic and inorganic nanobiomaterials are increasingly used for bone tissue engineering applications because they may allow to overcome some of the current restrictions entailed by bone regeneration methods. This review covers the applications of different organic and inorganic nanobiomaterials in the field of hard tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review
A Review of Biodegradable Natural Polymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101970 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Biodegradable natural polymers have been investigated extensively as the best choice for encapsulation and delivery of drugs. The research has attracted remarkable attention in the pharmaceutical industry. The shortcomings of conventional dosage systems, along with modified and targeted drug delivery methods, are addressed [...] Read more.
Biodegradable natural polymers have been investigated extensively as the best choice for encapsulation and delivery of drugs. The research has attracted remarkable attention in the pharmaceutical industry. The shortcomings of conventional dosage systems, along with modified and targeted drug delivery methods, are addressed by using polymers with improved bioavailability, biocompatibility, and lower toxicity. Therefore, nanomedicines are now considered to be an innovative type of medication. This review critically examines the use of natural biodegradable polymers and their drug delivery systems for local or targeted and controlled/sustained drug release against fatal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review
Recent Advances in Nanomedicine for the Diagnosis and Therapy of Liver Fibrosis
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1945; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101945 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Liver fibrosis, a reversible pathological process of inflammation and fiber deposition caused by chronic liver injury and can cause severe health complications, including liver failure, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Traditional diagnostic methods and drug-based therapy have several limitations, such as lack of [...] Read more.
Liver fibrosis, a reversible pathological process of inflammation and fiber deposition caused by chronic liver injury and can cause severe health complications, including liver failure, liver cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Traditional diagnostic methods and drug-based therapy have several limitations, such as lack of precision and inadequate therapeutic efficiency. As a medical application of nanotechnology, nanomedicine exhibits great potential for liver fibrosis diagnosis and therapy. Nanomedicine enhances imaging contrast and improves tissue penetration and cellular internalization; it simultaneously achieves targeted drug delivery, combined therapy, as well as diagnosis and therapy (i.e., theranostics). In this review, recent designs and development efforts of nanomedicine systems for the diagnosis, therapy, and theranostics of liver fibrosis are introduced. Relative to traditional methods, these nanomedicine systems generally demonstrate significant improvement in liver fibrosis treatment. Perspectives and challenges related to these nanomedicine systems translated from laboratory to clinical use are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review
Molecular Ultrasound Imaging
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1935; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101935 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
In the last decade, molecular ultrasound imaging has been rapidly progressing. It has proven promising to diagnose angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombosis, and many intravascular targets, such as VEGFR2, integrins, and selectins, have been successfully visualized in vivo. Furthermore, pre-clinical studies demonstrated that molecular [...] Read more.
In the last decade, molecular ultrasound imaging has been rapidly progressing. It has proven promising to diagnose angiogenesis, inflammation, and thrombosis, and many intravascular targets, such as VEGFR2, integrins, and selectins, have been successfully visualized in vivo. Furthermore, pre-clinical studies demonstrated that molecular ultrasound increased sensitivity and specificity in disease detection, classification, and therapy response monitoring compared to current clinically applied ultrasound technologies. Several techniques were developed to detect target-bound microbubbles comprising sensitive particle acoustic quantification (SPAQ), destruction-replenishment analysis, and dwelling time assessment. Moreover, some groups tried to assess microbubble binding by a change in their echogenicity after target binding. These techniques can be complemented by radiation force ultrasound improving target binding by pushing microbubbles to vessel walls. Two targeted microbubble formulations are already in clinical trials for tumor detection and liver lesion characterization, and further clinical scale targeted microbubbles are prepared for clinical translation. The recent enormous progress in the field of molecular ultrasound imaging is summarized in this review article by introducing the most relevant detection technologies, concepts for targeted nano- and micro-bubbles, as well as their applications to characterize various diseases. Finally, progress in clinical translation is highlighted, and roadblocks are discussed that currently slow the clinical translation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review
Advances in Gold Nanoparticle-Based Combined Cancer Therapy
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091671 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1535
Abstract
According to the global cancer observatory (GLOBOCAN), there are approximately 18 million new cancer cases per year worldwide. Cancer therapies are largely limited to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the maximum tolerated dose is presently being used to treat cancer [...] Read more.
According to the global cancer observatory (GLOBOCAN), there are approximately 18 million new cancer cases per year worldwide. Cancer therapies are largely limited to surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the maximum tolerated dose is presently being used to treat cancer patients. The integrated development of innovative nanoparticle (NP) based approaches will be a key to address one of the main issues in both radiotherapy and chemotherapy: normal tissue toxicity. Among other inorganic NP systems, gold nanoparticle (GNP) based systems offer the means to further improve chemotherapy through controlled delivery of chemotherapeutics, while local radiotherapy dose can be enhanced by targeting the GNPs to the tumor. There have been over 20 nanotechnology-based therapeutic products approved for clinical use in the past two decades. Hence, the goal of this review is to understand what we have achieved so far and what else we can do to accelerate clinical use of GNP-based therapeutic platforms to minimize normal tissue toxicity while increasing the efficacy of the treatment. Nanomedicine will revolutionize future cancer treatment options and our ultimate goal should be to develop treatments that have minimum side effects, for improving the quality of life of all cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review
Antioxidant Functionalized Nanoparticles: A Combat against Oxidative Stress
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071334 - 08 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Numerous abiotic stresses trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are highly toxic and reactive. These ROS are known to cause damage to carbohydrates, DNA, lipids and proteins, and build the oxidative stress and results in the induction of various diseases. [...] Read more.
Numerous abiotic stresses trigger the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are highly toxic and reactive. These ROS are known to cause damage to carbohydrates, DNA, lipids and proteins, and build the oxidative stress and results in the induction of various diseases. To resolve this issue, antioxidants molecules have gained significant attention to scavenge these free radicals and ROS. However, poor absorption ability, difficulty in crossing the cell membranes and degradation of these antioxidants during delivery are the few challenges associated with both natural and synthetic antioxidants that limit their bioavailability. Moreover, the use of nanoparticles as an antioxidant is overlooked, and is limited to a few nanomaterials. To address these issues, antioxidant functionalized nanoparticles derived from various biological origin have emerged as an important alternative, because of properties like biocompatibility, high stability and targeted delivery. Algae, bacteria, fungi, lichens and plants are known as the producers of diverse secondary metabolites and phenolic compounds with extraordinary antioxidant properties. Hence, these compounds could be used in amalgamation with biogenic derived nanoparticles (NPs) for better antioxidant potential. This review intends to increase our knowledge about the antioxidant functionalized nanoparticles and the mechanism by which antioxidants empower nanoparticles to combat oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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Review
Nanomedicine and Onco-Immunotherapy: From the Bench to Bedside to Biomarkers
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071274 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
The broad relationship between the immune system and cancer is opening a new hallmark to explore for nanomedicine. Here, all the common and synergy points between both areas are reviewed and described, and the recent approaches which show the progress from the bench [...] Read more.
The broad relationship between the immune system and cancer is opening a new hallmark to explore for nanomedicine. Here, all the common and synergy points between both areas are reviewed and described, and the recent approaches which show the progress from the bench to the beside to biomarkers developed in nanomedicine and onco-immunotherapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanomaterials in Biomedicine)
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