E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Maria G. Miguel

Universidade do Algarve, IBB-Centro de Biotecnologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Edif. 8, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +351289800900
Interests: In vitro antioxidant activity; in vivo antioxidant activity; phenols; terpenes; anti-inflammatory activity; free radicals; ageing; healthy eating

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation involves several steps to respond to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen agents, tissue lesions, irritants, etc., in order to destroy or isolate those agents, remove damaged tissues and restore tissue homeostasis. The first step consists of the recognition of infection and damage, the second step consists of the activation of common signaling pathways and the third step consists of the transcription and translation of genes, that is, the inducible expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These molecules, together with chemokines, originate the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils to a damaged site, passing selectively through endothelial cells with a protein-rich fluid. Whereas, in acute inflammation, there is an immediate and early response to an injurious agent and is quickly resolved, in chronic inflammation the disturbance persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with a variety of cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases.

The use of plants, plant products, marine compounds, mushrooms, bee products (honey, propolis, bee pollen) are examples of materials that have been the target of many studies in order to find effective anti-inflammatory compounds or extracts. Such studies include not only the isolation and identification of compounds but also the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activity.

This Special Issue “Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products” invites researchers to contribute to original research or review articles related to the anti-inflammatory activity, including mechanisms and pharmacological characterization, of extracts from mushrooms, bee products, marine or plant products, their fractions or purified substances (extraction procedures, isolation, and identification).

Dr. Maria G. Miguel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access bimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • inflammation
  • anti-inflammatory
  • natural products
  • pharmacology
  • plant
  • marine

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Mitigates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammation via Suppression of MAPK, NF-κB and mTOR Activation in RAW 264.7 Cells
Molecules 2019, 24(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020275
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
PDF Full-text (3290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is found in many food products including honey, dried fruits, coffee and black garlic extracts. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 5-HMF and its underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 5-HMF pretreatment ranging from 31.5 to 126.0 μg/mL
[...] Read more.
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is found in many food products including honey, dried fruits, coffee and black garlic extracts. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 5-HMF and its underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 5-HMF pretreatment ranging from 31.5 to 126.0 μg/mL reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, 5-HMF-pretreated cells significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of two major inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as compared with the only LPS-stimulated cells. 5-HMF suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), IκBα, NF-κB p65, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and protein kinase B (Akt). Besides, 5-HMF was proved to inhibit NF-κB p65 translocation into nucleus to activate inflammatory gene transcription. These results suggest that 5-HMF could exert the anti-inflammatory activity in the LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB and Akt/mTOR pathways. Thus, 5-HMF could be considered as a therapeutic ingredient in functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle IL-6 in Osteoarthritis: Effects of Pine Stilbenoids
Molecules 2019, 24(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010109
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
PDF Full-text (1932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in osteoarthritis (OA) patients and the effects of the stilbenoids monomethyl pinosylvin and pinosylvin on the expression of
[...] Read more.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in osteoarthritis (OA) patients and the effects of the stilbenoids monomethyl pinosylvin and pinosylvin on the expression of the cartilage matrix components aggrecan and collagen II and the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in human OA chondrocytes. Synovial fluid and plasma samples were obtained from 100 patients with severe OA [BMI 29.7 (8.3) kg/m2, age 72 (14) years, median (IQR); 62/38 females/males] undergoing total knee replacement surgery. IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) concentrations in synovial fluid and plasma were measured by immunoassay. The effects of pinosylvin on the expression of IL-6, aggrecan, and collagen II were studied in primary cultures of human OA chondrocytes. IL-6 levels in synovial fluid from OA patients [119.8 (193.5) pg/mL, median (IQR)] were significantly increased as compared to the plasma levels [3.1 (2.7) pg/mL, median (IQR)] and IL-6 levels in synovial fluid were associated with MMPs and radiographic disease severity. Natural stilbenoids monomethyl pinosylvin and pinosylvin increased aggrecan expression and suppressed IL-6 production in OA chondrocytes. The results propose that IL-6 is produced within OA joints and has an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. Stilbenoid compounds monomethyl pinosylvin and pinosylvin appeared to have disease-modifying potential in OA chondrocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cardioprotective Effects of Puerarin-V on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction Mice Is Associated with Regulation of PPAR-Υ/NF-κB Pathway
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3322; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123322
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 13 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
PDF Full-text (10093 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Puerarin is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine which has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new advantageous crystal form of puerarin, puerarin-V, has been developed. However, the cardioprotective effects of puerarin-V on myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure are still
[...] Read more.
Puerarin is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine which has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new advantageous crystal form of puerarin, puerarin-V, has been developed. However, the cardioprotective effects of puerarin-V on myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure are still unclear. In this research, we aim to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of puerarin-V on the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI mice and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. To induce MI in C57BL/6 mice, ISO was administered at 40 mg/kg subcutaneously every 12 h for three times in total. The mice were randomly divided into nine groups: (1) control; (2) ISO; (3) ISO + puerarin injection; (4–9) ISO + puerarin-V at different doses and timings. After treatment, cardiac function was evaluated by electrocardiogram (ECG), biochemical and histochemical analysis. In vitro inflammatory responses and apoptosis were evaluated in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced PPAR-Υ/NF-κB and subsequently activation of cytokines were assessed by the western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Administration of puerarin-V significantly inhibits the typical ST segment depression compared with that in MI mice. Further, puerarin-V treatment significantly improves ventricular wall infarction, decreases the incidence of mortality, and inhibits the levels of myocardial injury markers. Moreover, puerarin-V treatment reduces the inflammatory milieu in the heart of MI mice, thereby blocking the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6). The beneficial effects of puerarin-V might be associated with the normalization in gene expression of PPAR-Υ and PPAR-Υ/NF-κB /ΙκB-α/ΙΚΚα/β phosphorylation. In the in vitro experiment, treatment with puerarin-V (0.3, 1 and 3 μM) significantly reduces cell death and suppresses the inflammation cytokines expression. Likewise, puerarin-V exhibits similar mechanisms. The cardioprotective effects of puerarin-V treatment on MI mice in the pre + post-ISO group seem to be more prominent compared to those in the post-ISO group. Puerarin-V exerts cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced MI in mice, which may be related to the activation of PPAR-γ and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, our research provides a new therapeutic option for the treatment of MI in clinic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Pilloin, A Flavonoid Isolated from Aquilaria sinensis, Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity In Vitro and In Vivo
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3177; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123177
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
PDF Full-text (4794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Flavonoids, widely present in medicinal plants and fruits, are known to exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. In this study, we isolated a flavonoid compound, pilloin, from Aquilaria sinensis and investigated its anti-inflammatory activity in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. Pilloin inhibited
[...] Read more.
Flavonoids, widely present in medicinal plants and fruits, are known to exhibit multiple pharmacological activities. In this study, we isolated a flavonoid compound, pilloin, from Aquilaria sinensis and investigated its anti-inflammatory activity in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and septic mice. Pilloin inhibited NF-κB activation and reduced the phosphorylation of IκB in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, pilloin significantly suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and iNOS, in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Additionally, pilloin suppressed LPS-induced morphological alterations, phagocytic activity and ROS elevation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling pathways (including JNK, ERK, p38) were also inhibited by pilloin. Furthermore, pilloin reduced serum levels of TNF-α (from 123.3 ± 7 to 46.6 ± 5.4 ng/mL) and IL-6 levels (from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.7 ± 0.1 ng/mL) in multiple organs of LPS-induced septic mice (liver: from 71.8 ± 3.2 to 36.7 ± 4.3; lung: from 118.6 ± 10.6 to 75.8 ± 11.9; spleen: from 185.9 ± 23.4 to 109.6 ± 18.4; kidney: from 160.3 ± 11.8 to 75 ± 10.8 pg/mL). In summary, our results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potential of pilloin and reveal its underlying molecular mechanism of action. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pentaherbs formula and Its Influence on Gut Microbiota in Allergic Asthma
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112776
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
PDF Full-text (3418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Allergic asthma is a highly prevalent airway inflammatory disease, which involves the interaction between the immune system, environmental and genetic factors. Co-relation between allergic asthma and gut microbiota upon the change of diet have been widely reported, implicating that oral intake of alternative
[...] Read more.
Allergic asthma is a highly prevalent airway inflammatory disease, which involves the interaction between the immune system, environmental and genetic factors. Co-relation between allergic asthma and gut microbiota upon the change of diet have been widely reported, implicating that oral intake of alternative medicines possess a potential in the management of allergic asthma. Previous clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies have shown that the Pentaherbs formula (PHF) comprising five traditional Chinese herbal medicines Lonicerae Flos, Menthae Herba, Phellodendri Cortex, Moutan Cortex, and Atractylodis Rhizoma possesses an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory potential through suppressing various immune effector cells. In the present study, to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of PHF in allergic asthma, intragastrical administration of PHF was found to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness, airway wall remodeling and goblet cells hyperplasia in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma mice model. PHF also significantly suppressed pulmonary eosinophilia and asthma-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-33 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. In addition, PHF modulated the splenic regulatory T cells population, up-regulated regulatory interleukin (IL)-10 in serum, altered the microbial community structure and the short chain fatty acids content in the gut of the asthmatic mice. This study sheds light on the anti-inflammatory activities of PHF on allergic asthma. It also provides novel in vivo evidence that herbal medicines can ameliorate symptoms of allergic diseases may potentially prevent the development of subsequent atopic disorder such as allergic asthma through the influence of the gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Anti-Inflammatory and Skin-Moisturizing Effects of a Flavonoid Glycoside Extracted from the Aquatic Plant Nymphoides indica in Human Keratinocytes
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2342; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092342
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nymphoides indica, an aquatic plant, is used as folk medicine in some countries. Our previous study demonstrated that the methanol extract of N. indica inhibited the activity of tyrosinases, tyrosine related protein (TRP)1 and TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, as well as
[...] Read more.
Nymphoides indica, an aquatic plant, is used as folk medicine in some countries. Our previous study demonstrated that the methanol extract of N. indica inhibited the activity of tyrosinases, tyrosine related protein (TRP)1 and TRP2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, as well as the activity of protein kinase A, by effectively inhibiting cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Although the biological activities of N. indica extract have been reported, there are no reports on the skin bioactivity of the main compound(s) on human keratinocytes. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether 4′-glucoside (QDG) isolated from N. indica. In brief, ultraviolet B irradiated keratinocytes were pretreated with different concentrations of QDG, and the effects of QDG on various inflammatory markers were determined. QDG significantly inhibited inflammation-related cytokines and chemokines and enhanced the activation of skin barrier factors. Additionally, QDG also attenuated phosphorylation inhibition of the upstream cytokines and nuclear factor-κB expression. These results suggest that QDG isolated from N. indica may serve as a potential source of bioactive substances for chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effect of Herbal Formulation KM1608 on Inflammatory Bowl Diseases: A Preliminary Experimental Study
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082068
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
PDF Full-text (2659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aucklandia lappa DC., Terminalia chebula Retz and Zingiber officinale Roscoe have been traditionally used in east Asia to treat chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. This study aimed to evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of KM1608, which is composed of three natural herbs in a
[...] Read more.
Aucklandia lappa DC., Terminalia chebula Retz and Zingiber officinale Roscoe have been traditionally used in east Asia to treat chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. This study aimed to evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of KM1608, which is composed of three natural herbs in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. The anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism were assessed in vitro using LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. The in vivo effect of KM1608 on DSS-induced colitis was examined after oral administration in mice. KM1608 significantly inhibited the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of KM1608 was attributed to the reduction of Akt phosphorylation in the LPS-treated cells. In the mouse model, oral administration of KM1608 significantly improved DSS-induced colitis symptoms, such as disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and colon weight, as well as suppressed the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the DSS-induced colitis tissues. Taken together, KM1608 improved colitis through the regulation of inflammatory responses, suggesting that KM1608 has potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Decursinol Angelate Inhibits LPS-Induced Macrophage Polarization through Modulation of the NFκB and MAPK Signaling Pathways
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081880
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 24 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inflammation is considered the root cause of various inflammatory diseases, including cancers. Decursinol angelate (DA), a pyranocoumarin compound obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas, has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DA on
[...] Read more.
Inflammation is considered the root cause of various inflammatory diseases, including cancers. Decursinol angelate (DA), a pyranocoumarin compound obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas, has been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of DA on the MAP kinase and NFκB signaling pathways and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage (Raw 264.7) cell lines. PMA induced the activation of the MAP kinase-NFκB pathway and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in differentiated monocytes. Treatment with DA inhibited the activation of MAP kinases and the translocation of NFκB, and decreased the expression and exogenous secretion of IL-1β and IL-6. Furthermore, LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells were found to have increased expression of M1 macrophage-associated markers, such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the M2 macrophage-associated marker CD11b. LPS also activated pro-inflammatory cytokines and Erk-NFκB. Treatment with DA suppressed LPS-induced macrophage polarization and the inflammatory response by blocking Raf-ERK and the translocation of NFκB in Raw 264.7 cells. Treatment with DA also inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-6, NOX, and iNOS in Raw 264.7 cells. These results suggest that DA has the potential to inhibit macrophage polarization and inflammation by blocking the activation of pro-inflammatory signals. These anti-inflammatory effects of DA may contribute to its potential use as a therapeutic strategy against various inflammation-induced cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Oregano Essential Oil Attenuates RAW264.7 Cells from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response through Regulating NADPH Oxidase Activation-Driven Oxidative Stress
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081857
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Oregano is an aromatic plant widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean area and in Asia. Recent studies have revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oil in this plant. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential have not been well elucidated. This study determined
[...] Read more.
Oregano is an aromatic plant widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean area and in Asia. Recent studies have revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oil in this plant. However, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential have not been well elucidated. This study determined whether oregano essential oil (OEO) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7 cells) in vitro and elucidated the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that OEO (2.5–10 μg/mL) inhibited the expression and secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells treated with LPS (1 μg/mL). Consistent with the pro-inflammatory gene expression, the OEO treatment efficiently reduced the LPS-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B, and nuclear factor κB in RAW264.7 cells. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibition in Nox2 protein-silenced cells attenuated the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The OEO inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of NADPH oxidase and oxidative stress. This result suggests that LPS induces RAW264.7 cell inflammation through the NADPH oxidase-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, OEO protects against the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell inflammatory response through the NADPH oxidase/ROS pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top