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Molecules 2019, 24(2), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24020275

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Mitigates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammation via Suppression of MAPK, NF-κB and mTOR Activation in RAW 264.7 Cells

1
,
2,3,* and 1,2,*
1
School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China
2
Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, CAS, Wenzhou 325011, Zhejiang, China
3
School of Ophthalmology & Optometry, School of Biomedical Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 13 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
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Abstract

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is found in many food products including honey, dried fruits, coffee and black garlic extracts. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 5-HMF and its underlying mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 5-HMF pretreatment ranging from 31.5 to 126.0 μg/mL reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated cells. Moreover, 5-HMF-pretreated cells significantly down-regulated the mRNA expression of two major inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as compared with the only LPS-stimulated cells. 5-HMF suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), IκBα, NF-κB p65, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and protein kinase B (Akt). Besides, 5-HMF was proved to inhibit NF-κB p65 translocation into nucleus to activate inflammatory gene transcription. These results suggest that 5-HMF could exert the anti-inflammatory activity in the LPS-induced inflammatory response by inhibiting the MAPK, NF-κB and Akt/mTOR pathways. Thus, 5-HMF could be considered as a therapeutic ingredient in functional foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; RAW 264.7; inflammation; inflammatory cytokines; MAPK; Akt/mTOR; NF-κB 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; RAW 264.7; inflammation; inflammatory cytokines; MAPK; Akt/mTOR; NF-κB
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Kong, F.; Lee, B.H.; Wei, K. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Mitigates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammation via Suppression of MAPK, NF-κB and mTOR Activation in RAW 264.7 Cells. Molecules 2019, 24, 275.

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