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Special Issue "Advances in Food Analysis"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alessandra Gentili

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; development of original extraction procedures (e.g. SPE prototypes; evaluation of last-generation materials as sorbents for SPE and liquid ionics/deep eutectic solvents for DLLME); development and validation of LC methods; LC-DAD-MS/MS profiling of organic micronutrients in foods and biological fluids
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chiara Fanali

Departmental Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome- Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: high-performance liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; food bioactive compounds; method development and validation; liquid phase extraction; proteomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the growing awareness of the close relation among diet, health and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Non-destructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real-time.

This Special Issue is intended to highlight the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis. Research papers and reviews illustrating the most interesting developments related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients and other biomolecules of interest are welcome.

We warmly invite our colleagues to submit their original contributions to this Special Issue in order to provide updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, effects of processing, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers.

We would be delighted if you could respond to confirm your contribution and the proposed title by 30 November, 2018.

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Gentili
Prof. Dr. Chiara Fanali
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sample preparation
  • separation techniques
  • sensor analysis
  • spectroscopic techniques
  • food composition
  • food contaminants
  • natural products
  • characterization of alternative food sources
  • characterization of medicinal herbs

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development of New Analytical Microwave-Assisted Extraction Methods for Bioactive Compounds from Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.)
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112992
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
The phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in myrtle berries are responsible for its beneficial health properties. In the present study, a new, microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from myrtle pulp has been developed. Different extraction variables, including
[...] Read more.
The phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in myrtle berries are responsible for its beneficial health properties. In the present study, a new, microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from myrtle pulp has been developed. Different extraction variables, including methanol composition, pH, temperature, and sample–solvent ratio were optimized by applying a Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. Methanol composition and pH were the most influential variables for the total phenolic compounds (58.20% of the solvent in water at pH 2), and methanol composition and temperature for anthocyanins (50.4% of solvent at 50 °C). The methods developed showed high repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD < 5%). Both methods were applied to myrtle berries collected in two different areas of the province of Cadiz (Spain). Hierarchical clustering analysis results show that the concentration of bioactive compounds in myrtle is related to their geographical origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oils from Humulus Lupulus scCO2 Extract by Hydrodistillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112866
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of essential oils obtained from the Humulus lupulus scCO2 (sc-supercritical) extract: microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). As a result, the best conditions for the maximum essential oil production were determined
[...] Read more.
Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of essential oils obtained from the Humulus lupulus scCO2 (sc-supercritical) extract: microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). As a result, the best conditions for the maximum essential oil production were determined for the MAHD method at 335 W microwave power for 30 min at water to raw material ratio of 8:3. The obtained essential oils were enriched in β-myrcene in the amount of 74.13%–89.32% (wt%). Moreover, the first application for determination of the above-mentioned volatile compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with photo-diode array detection (PDA) is presented, which in comparison with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) resulted in similar values for β-myrcene and α-humulene in obtained samples within less than 1 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Identification and Dynamic Analysis of Saccharides during Steam Processing of Rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema by HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112855
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
The sweet rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema are widely used as a tonic and functional food. A sensitive and rapid analytical method was developed for simultaneous identification and dynamic analysis of saccharides during steam processing in P. cyrtonema using HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. Fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose,
[...] Read more.
The sweet rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema are widely used as a tonic and functional food. A sensitive and rapid analytical method was developed for simultaneous identification and dynamic analysis of saccharides during steam processing in P. cyrtonema using HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. Fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, sucrose, and 1-kestose were identified, as well as a large number of oligosaccharides constituted of fructose units through β-(2→1) or β-(2→6). Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were decomposed to monosaccharides during a steaming process, since the contents of glucose, galactose, and fructose were increased, while those of sucrose, 1-kestose, and polysaccharides were decreased. The high content of fructose was revealed to be the main determinant for increasing the level of sweetness after steaming. The samples of different repeated steaming times were shown to be well grouped and gradually shift along the PC1 (72.4%) axis by principal component analysis. The small-molecule saccharides, especially fructose, could be considered as markers for the steaming process of rhizomes of P. cyrtonema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Nutritional Traits and Phytochemical Composition of Artisan Jams Produced in Comoros Islands: Using Indigenous Fruits with High Health-Impact as an Example of Biodiversity Integration and Food Security in Rural Development
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102707
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
In the Comoros Islands, as in other developing countries, malnutrition and food insecurity affect a very large percentage of the population. Developing fruit-based products in order to make profit, reduce poverty and improve indigenous people diet could be very important for local population
[...] Read more.
In the Comoros Islands, as in other developing countries, malnutrition and food insecurity affect a very large percentage of the population. Developing fruit-based products in order to make profit, reduce poverty and improve indigenous people diet could be very important for local population of countries as Comoros Islands. The aim of the present work was to study the chemical composition of jams and jellies produced from seven fruit species harvested in Grand Comore Island. The following parameters were studied sugars and organic acids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of the main phytochemicals. Antioxidant activity was also measured. A multivariate approach (Principal Component Analysis) was performed in order to better characterize the products and to set a potential analytical tool for jam characterisation. Results showed that the analysed products are a good source of polyphenolic constituents, as caffeic and gallic acids, catechin and quercetin and volatile compounds, as limonene and γ-terpinene: these molecules may be considered as suitable markers for these fruit-derived products as characterizing the chromatographic patterns. The characterisation of these products and their nutritional and nutraceutical traits is important as valorisation of local food production for poverty reduction and rural development. Further benefits of this approach include the maintenance of local agro-biodiversity as raw material for fruit-based products and the strengthening of food security practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Sensor Based on Polyelectrolyte Composite Film Decorated Glassy Carbon Electrode for Detection of Nitrite in Curing Food at Sub-Micromolar Level
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2580; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102580
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
To ensure food quality and safety, developing cost-effective, rapid and precision analytical techniques for quantitative detection of nitrite is highly desirable. Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on the sodium cellulose sulfate/poly (dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (NaCS/PDMDAAC) composite film modified glass carbon electrode
[...] Read more.
To ensure food quality and safety, developing cost-effective, rapid and precision analytical techniques for quantitative detection of nitrite is highly desirable. Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on the sodium cellulose sulfate/poly (dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (NaCS/PDMDAAC) composite film modified glass carbon electrode (NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE) was proposed toward the detection of nitrite at sub-micromolar level, aiming to make full use of the inherent properties of individual component (biocompatible, low cost, good electrical conductivity for PDMDAAC; non-toxic, abundant raw materials, good film forming ability for NaCS) and synergistic enhancement effect. The NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE was fabricated by a simple drop-casting method. Electrochemical behaviors of nitrite at NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimum conditions, the NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE exhibits a wide linear response region of 4.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1~1.5 × 10−4 mol·L−1 and a low detection 1imit of 43 nmol·L−1. The NaCS/PDMDAAC shows a synergetic enhancement effect toward the oxidation of nitrite, and the sensing performance is much better than the previous reports. Moreover, the NaCS/PDMDAAC also shows good stability and reproducibility. The NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in ham sausage with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle The Content of Biogenic Amines in Croatian Wines of Different Geographical Origins
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102570
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Samples of white and red wines produced in two different wine-growing regions, coastal (Dalmatia) and continental (Hrvatsko zagorje) of Croatia, were analysed for biogenic amines content. Biogenic amines content was determined, and its concentration levels were associated with the geographical origin of the
[...] Read more.
Samples of white and red wines produced in two different wine-growing regions, coastal (Dalmatia) and continental (Hrvatsko zagorje) of Croatia, were analysed for biogenic amines content. Biogenic amines content was determined, and its concentration levels were associated with the geographical origin of the wine. Due to its high sensitivity, HPLC method with ultraviolet detector was used, including the derivatisation step with dansyl chloride. The method was applied to detect and quantify 11 biogenic amines in 48 red and white wines. It was found that both Dalmatian red and white wines are characterised by tryptamine (0.23–1.22 mg L−1), putrescine (0.41–7.5 mg L−1) and ethanolamine (2.87–24.32 mg L−1). White wines from the Hrvatsko zagorje region are characterised by content of isopentylamine (0.31–1.47 mg L−1), putrescine (0.27–1.49 mg L−1) and ethanolamine (3.80–17.96 mg L−1). In contrast to white wines from the Hrvatsko zagorje region, in the red wines, all biogenic amines except ethylamine, were found and equally presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Quantification and Confirmation of Fifteen Carbamate Pesticide Residues by Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Enhanced Product Ion Scan Modes via LC-MS/MS QTRAP System
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102496
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
In this research, fifteen carbamate pesticide residues were systematically analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry on a QTRAP 5500 system in both multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan modes. The carbamate pesticide residues were extracted
[...] Read more.
In this research, fifteen carbamate pesticide residues were systematically analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry on a QTRAP 5500 system in both multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan modes. The carbamate pesticide residues were extracted from a variety of samples by QuEChERS method and separated by a popular reverse phase column (Waters BEH C18). Except for the current conformation criteria including selected ion pairs, retention time and relative intensities from MRM scan mode, the presence of carbamate pesticide residues in diverse samples, especially some doubtful cases, could also be confirmed by the matching of carbamate pesticide spectra via EPI scan mode. Moreover, the fragmentation routes of fifteen carbamates were firstly explained based on the mass spectra obtained by a QTRAP system; the characteristic fragment ion from a neutral loss of CH3NCO (−57 Da) could be observed. The limits of detection and quantification for fifteen carbamates were 0.2–2.0 μg kg−1 and 0.5–5.0 μg kg−1, respectively. For the intra- (n = 3) and inter-day (n = 15) precisions, the recoveries of fifteen carbamates from spiked samples ranged from 88.1% to 118.4%, and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all below 10%. The method was applied to pesticide residues detection in fruit, vegetable and green tea samples taken from local markets, in which carbamates were extensively detected but all below the standard of maximum residue limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Selection and Identification of Novel Aptamers Specific for Clenbuterol Based on ssDNA Library Immobilized SELEX and Gold Nanoparticles Biosensor
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092337
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
We describe a multiple combined strategy to discover novel aptamers specific for clenbuterol (CBL). An immobilized ssDNA library was used for the selection of specific aptamers using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Progress was monitored using real-time quantitative PCR
[...] Read more.
We describe a multiple combined strategy to discover novel aptamers specific for clenbuterol (CBL). An immobilized ssDNA library was used for the selection of specific aptamers using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Progress was monitored using real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the enriched library was sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. Candidate aptamers were picked and preliminarily identified using a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) biosensor. Bioactive aptamers were characterized for affinity, circular dichroism (CD), specificity and sensitivity. The Q-PCR amplification curve increased and the retention rate was about 1% at the eighth round. Use of the AuNPs biosensor and CD analyses determined that six aptamers had binding activity. Affinity analysis showed that aptamer 47 had the highest affinity (Kd = 42.17 ± 8.98 nM) with no cross reactivity to CBL analogs. Indirect competitive enzyme linked aptamer assay (IC-ELAA) based on a 5′-biotin aptamer 47 indicated the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.18 ± 0.02 ng/L (n = 3), and it was used to detect pork samples with a mean recovery of 83.33–97.03%. This is the first report of a universal strategy including library fixation, Q-PCR monitoring, high-throughput sequencing, and AuNPs biosensor identification to select aptamers specific for small molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Electrochemical Sensors Based on Cuprous Oxide-Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Modified Electrode toward Sensitive Detection of Sunset Yellow
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092130
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3619 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Control and detection of sunset yellow is an utmost demanding issue, due to the presence of potential risks for human health if excessively consumed or added. Herein, cuprous oxide-electrochemically reduced graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O-ErGO/GCE) was developed for the
[...] Read more.
Control and detection of sunset yellow is an utmost demanding issue, due to the presence of potential risks for human health if excessively consumed or added. Herein, cuprous oxide-electrochemically reduced graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O-ErGO/GCE) was developed for the determination of sunset yellow. The Cu2O-ErGO/GCE was fabricated by drop-casting Cu2O-GO dispersion on the GCE surface following a potentiostatic reduction of graphene oxide (GO). Scanning electron microscope and X-ray powder diffractometer was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the modification materials, such as Cu2O nanoparticles and Cu2O-ErGO nanocomposites. The electrochemical behavior of sunset yellow on the bare GCE, ErGO/GCE, and Cu2O-ErGO/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry, respectively. The analytical parameters (including pH value, sweep rate, and accumulation parameters) were explored systematically. The results show that the anodic peak currents of Cu2O-ErGO /GCE are 25-fold higher than that of the bare GCE, due to the synergistic enhancement effect between Cu2O nanoparticles and ErGO sheets. Under the optimum detection conditions, the anodic peak currents are well linear to the concentrations of sunset yellow, ranging from 2.0 × 10−8 mol/L to 2.0 × 10−5 mol/L and from 2.0 × 10−5 mol/L to 1.0 × 10−4 mol/L with a low limit of detection (S/N = 3, 6.0 × 10−9 mol/L). Moreover, Cu2O-ErGO/GCE was successfully used for the determination of sunset yellow in beverages and food with good recovery. This proposed Cu2O-ErGO/GCE has an attractive prospect applications on the determination of sunset yellow in diverse real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessTechnical Note Synthesis and Structural Identification of a Biaryl Ether-Linked Zearalenone Dimer
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102624
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
A new dimer of the food-relevant mycotoxin zearalenone was isolated after electrochemical and chemical oxidation. The structure was determined as a 16-O-15′-biaryl ether-linked dimer based on spectroscopic analyses (1H- and 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC, and HSQCAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis (Q-TOF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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