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Special Issue "Advances in Food Analysis"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alessandra Gentili

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; development of original extraction procedures (e.g. SPE prototypes; evaluation of last-generation materials as sorbents for SPE and liquid ionics/deep eutectic solvents for DLLME); development and validation of LC methods; LC-DAD-MS/MS profiling of organic micronutrients in foods and biological fluids
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chiara Fanali

Departmental Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome- Rome, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: high-performance liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; food bioactive compounds; method development and validation; liquid phase extraction; proteomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, the growing awareness of the close relation among diet, health and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Non-destructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real-time.

This Special Issue is intended to highlight the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis. Research papers and reviews illustrating the most interesting developments related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients and other biomolecules of interest are welcome.

We warmly invite our colleagues to submit their original contributions to this Special Issue in order to provide updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, effects of processing, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers.

We would be delighted if you could respond to confirm your contribution and the proposed title by 30 November, 2018.

Prof. Dr. Alessandra Gentili
Prof. Dr. Chiara Fanali
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sample preparation
  • separation techniques
  • sensor analysis
  • spectroscopic techniques
  • food composition
  • food contaminants
  • natural products
  • characterization of alternative food sources
  • characterization of medicinal herbs

Published Papers (26 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Characterization and Quantification of Varied Ingredients from Sojae semen praeparatum in Fermentation Using UFLC–TripleTOF MS
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101864
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Systematic comparison of active ingredients in Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) during fermentation was performed using ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS and principal component analysis (PCA). By using this strategy, a total of 25 varied compounds from various biosynthetic groups were assigned and relatively [...] Read more.
Systematic comparison of active ingredients in Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) during fermentation was performed using ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS and principal component analysis (PCA). By using this strategy, a total of 25 varied compounds from various biosynthetic groups were assigned and relatively quantified in the positive or negative ion mode, including two oligosaccharides, twelve isoflavones, eight fatty acids, N–(3–Indolylacetyl)–dl–aspartic acid, methylarginine, and sorbitol. Additionally, as the representative constituents, six targeted isoflavones were sought in a targeted manner and accurately quantified using extracted ion chromatograms (XIC) manager (AB SCIEX, Los Angeles, CA, USA) combined with MultiQuant software (AB SCIEX, Los Angeles, CA, USA). During the fermentation process, the relative contents of oligoses decreased gradually, while the fatty acids increased. Furthermore, the accurate contents of isoflavone glycosides decreased, while aglycones increased and reached a maximum in eight days, which indicated that the ingredients converted obviously and regularly throughout the SSP fermentation. In combination with the morphological changes, which meet the requirements of China Pharmacopoeia, this work suggested that eight days is the optimal time for fermentation of SSP from the aspects of morphology and content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Accelerated Solvent Extraction-Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection Method for Quantitative Analysis of Thiamphenicol, Florfenicol and Florfenicol Amine in Poultry Eggs
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1830; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091830
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
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Abstract
A simple, rapid and novel method for the detection of residues of thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite, florfenicol amine (FFA), in poultry eggs by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLD) was developed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ammonia (98:2, v/v) using [...] Read more.
A simple, rapid and novel method for the detection of residues of thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite, florfenicol amine (FFA), in poultry eggs by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLD) was developed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ammonia (98:2, v/v) using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and purified by manual degreasing with acetonitrile-saturated n-hexane. The target compounds were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) chromatographic column using a mobile phase composed of 0.005 mol/L NaH2PO4, 0.003 mol/L sodium lauryl sulfate and 0.05% trimethylamine, adjusted to pH 5.3 ± 0.1 by phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (64:36, v/v). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the three target compounds in poultry eggs were 1.8–4.9 µg/kg and 4.3–11.7 µg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the three target compounds in poultry eggs were above 80.1% when the spiked concentrations of three phenicols were the LOQ, 0.5 maximum residue limit (MRL), 1.0 MRL and 2.0 MRL. The intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 5.5%, and the interday RSDs were less than 6.6%. Finally, this new detection method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of TAP, FF and FFA in 150 commercial poultry eggs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
1H-NMR Profiling and Carbon Isotope Discrimination as Tools for the Comparative Assessment of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Cultivars with Various Geographical and Genetic Origins—A Preliminary Study
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1378; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071378
Received: 12 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between walnut genotypes of various geographical and genetic origins grown under the same or different environmental conditions. The biological material analyzed consisted in walnut kernels of 34 cultivars, nine advanced selections, and six [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between walnut genotypes of various geographical and genetic origins grown under the same or different environmental conditions. The biological material analyzed consisted in walnut kernels of 34 cultivars, nine advanced selections, and six hybrids harvested in 2015 and 2016, summing up to a total of 64 samples. The walnuts, walnut oil, and residue were characterized in respect to their chemical (proximate composition—fat, protein, nutritional value, fatty acids profile by 1H-NMR) and carbon-13 isotopic composition. The data was used to statistically discriminate the cultivars according to composition, geographical area of origin, and year of harvest, comparing the Romanian cultivars, selections, and hybrids with the internationally available ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antihyperglycemic Activities of the Wild Lactarius deliciosus from China
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071357
Received: 13 March 2019 / Revised: 30 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
The wild mushroom Lactarius deliciosus from China was studied for the first time to obtain information about its chemical composition, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic activities. Nutritional value, dietary fiber, fatty acids, metal elements, free sugars, free amino acids, organic acids, flavor 5′-nucleotides, and volatile [...] Read more.
The wild mushroom Lactarius deliciosus from China was studied for the first time to obtain information about its chemical composition, antioxidant, and antihyperglycemic activities. Nutritional value, dietary fiber, fatty acids, metal elements, free sugars, free amino acids, organic acids, flavor 5′-nucleotides, and volatile aroma compounds were determined. Potential antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities were also tested by investigating 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals scavenging activities, ferric ion reducing activity, as well as α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities using ethanol and aqueous extracts. The results showed that L. deliciosus was a good wild mushroom with high protein, carbohydrate, and dietary fiber contents, while low in fat and calorie, extensive unsaturated fatty acids contents, with negligible health risks about harmful metal elements. Twenty kinds of free amino acids were detected with a total content 3389.45 mg per 100 g dw. Flavor 5′-nucleotides including 5′-CMP, 5′-UMP, 5′-IMP, and 5′-AMP were 929.85, 45.21, 311.75, and 14.49 mg per 100 g dw, respectively. Mannitol (7825.00 mg per 100 g dw) was the main free sugar, and quininic acid (729.84 mg per 100 g dw) was the main organic acid. Twenty-five kinds of volatile aroma compounds were identified, acids (84.23%) were the most abundant compounds based on content, while aldehydes (15 of 25) were the most abundant compounds based on variety. In addition, both ethanol and aqueous extracts from L. deliciosus exhibited excellent antioxidant activity. While in antihyperglycemic activity tests, only ethanol extracts showed inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
A UHPLC-UV Method Development and Validation for Determining Kavalactones and Flavokavains in Piper methysticum (Kava)
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071245
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
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Abstract
An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) separation was developed for six kava pyrones (methysticin, dihydromethysticin (DHM), kavain, dihydrokavain (DHK), desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), and yangonin), two unidentified components, and three Flavokavains (Flavokavain A, B, and C) in Piper methysticum (kava). The six major kavalactones and three [...] Read more.
An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) separation was developed for six kava pyrones (methysticin, dihydromethysticin (DHM), kavain, dihydrokavain (DHK), desmethoxyyangonin (DMY), and yangonin), two unidentified components, and three Flavokavains (Flavokavain A, B, and C) in Piper methysticum (kava). The six major kavalactones and three flavokavains are completely separated (Rs > 1.5) within 15 min using a HSS T3 column and a mobile phase at 60 °C. All the peaks in the LC chromatogram of kava extract or standard solutions were structurally confirmed by LC-UV-MS/MS. The degradations of yangonin and flavokavains were observed among the method development. The degradation products were identified as cis-isomerization by MS/MS spectra. The isomerization was prevented or limited by sample preparation in a non-alcoholic solvent or with no water. The method uses the six kava pyrones and three flavokavains as external standards. The quantitative calibration curves are linear, covering a range of 0.5–75 μg/mL for the six kava pyrones and 0.05–7.5 μg/mL for the three flavokavains. The quantitation limits for methysticin, DHM, kavain, DHK, DMY, and yangonin are approximately 0.454, 0.480, 0.277, 0.686, 0.189, and 0.422 μg/mL. The limit of quantification (LOQs) of the three flavokavains are about 0.270, 0.062, and 0.303 μg/mL for flavokavain C (FKC), flavokavain A (FKA), and flavokavain B (FKB). The average recoveries at three different levels are 99.0–102.3% for kavalactones (KLs) and 98.1–102.9% for flavokavains (FKs). This study demonstrates that the method of analysis offers convenience and adequate sensitivity for determining methysticin, DHM, kavain, DHK, yangonin, DMY, FKA, FKB, and FKC in kava raw materials (root and CO2 extract) and finished products (dry-filled capsule and tablet). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Impedimetric Aptasensor for Label Free Detection of Patulin in Apple Juice
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061017
Received: 6 February 2019 / Revised: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the present work, an aptasensing platform was developed for the detection of a carcinogenic mycotoxin termed patulin (PAT) using a label-free approach. The detection was mainly based on a specific interaction of an aptamer immobilized on carbon-based electrode. A long linear spacer [...] Read more.
In the present work, an aptasensing platform was developed for the detection of a carcinogenic mycotoxin termed patulin (PAT) using a label-free approach. The detection was mainly based on a specific interaction of an aptamer immobilized on carbon-based electrode. A long linear spacer of carboxy-amine polyethylene glycol chain (PEG) was chemically grafted on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) via diazonium salt in the aptasensor design. The NH2-modified aptamer was then attached covalently to carboxylic acid groups of previously immobilized bifunctional PEG to build a diblock macromolecule. The immobilized diblocked molecules resulted in the formation of long tunnels on a carbon interface, while the aptamer was assumed as the gate of these tunnels. Upon target analyte binding, the gates were assumed to be closed due to conformational changes in the structure of the aptamer, increasing the resistance to the charge transfer. This increase in resistance was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the main analytical technique for the quantitative detection of PAT. Encouragingly, a good linear range between 1 and 25 ng was obtained. The limit of detection and limit of quantification was 2.8 ng L−1 and 4.0 ng L−1, respectively. Selectivity of the aptasensor was confirmed with mycotoxins commonly occurring in food. The developed apta-assay was also applied to a real sample, i.e., fresh apple juice spiked with PAT, and toxin recovery up to 99% was observed. The results obtained validated the suitability and selectivity of the developed apta-assay for the identification and quantification of PAT in real food samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Fatty Acid, Lipid Classes and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of the Marine Clam Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby 1851) from Cua Lo Beach, Nghe An Province, Vietnam
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050895
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study aims to analyze compositions of fatty acids and phospholipid molecular species in the hard clams Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby, 1851) harvested from Cua Lo beach, Nghe An province, Viet Nam. Total lipid of hard clams Meretrix lyrata occupied 1.7 ± 0.2% of [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze compositions of fatty acids and phospholipid molecular species in the hard clams Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby, 1851) harvested from Cua Lo beach, Nghe An province, Viet Nam. Total lipid of hard clams Meretrix lyrata occupied 1.7 ± 0.2% of wet weight and contained six classes: hydrocarbon and wax (HW), triacylglycerol (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA), sterol (ST), polar lipid (PoL), and monoalkyl diacylglycerol (MADAG). Among the constituents, the proportion of PoL accounted was highest, at 45.7%. In contrast, the figures for MADAG were lowest, at 1.3%. Twenty-six fatty acids were identified with the ratios of USAFA/SAFA was 2. The percentage of n-3 PUFA (ω-3) and n-6 PUFA (ω-6) was high, occupying 38.4% of total FA. Among PUFAs, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) accounted for 3.8%, 7.8%, 2.2% and 12.0% of total lipid of the clam respectively. Phospholipid molecular species were identified in polar lipids of the clams consisting six types: phosphatidylethalnolamine (PE, with 28 molecular species), phosphatidylcholine (PC, with 26 molecular species), phosphatidylserine (PS, with 18 molecular species), phosphatidylinositol (PI, with 10 molecular species), phosphatidylglycerol (PG, with only one molecular species), and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP, with 15 molecular species). This is the first time that the molecular species of sphingophospholipid were determined, in Meretrix lyrata in particular, and for clams in general. Phospholipid formula species of PE and PS were revealed to comprise two kinds: Alkenyl acyl glycerophosphoethanolamine and Alkenyl acyl glycerophosphoserine occupy 80.3% and 81.0% of total PE and PS species, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of diacyl glycero phosphatidylcholine was twice as high as that of PakCho in total PC, at 69.3, in comparison with 30.7%. In addition, phospholipid formula species of PI and PG comprised only diacyl glycoro phospholipids. PE 36:1 (p18:0/18:1), PC 38:6 (16:0/22:6), PS 38:1 (p18:0/20:1), PI 40:5 (20:1/20:4), PG 32:0 (16:0/16:0) and CAEP 34:2 (16:2/d18:0) were the major molecular species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphology and Molecular Identification of Twelve Commercial Varieties of Kiwifruit
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050888
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
The quality and safety of food are important guarantees for the health and legal rights of consumers. As an important special fruitcrop, there are frequently shoddy practices in the kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) market, which harms the interests of consumers. However, there [...] Read more.
The quality and safety of food are important guarantees for the health and legal rights of consumers. As an important special fruitcrop, there are frequently shoddy practices in the kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) market, which harms the interests of consumers. However, there is lack of rapid and accurate identification methods for commercial kiwifruit varieties. Here, twelve common commercial varieties of kiwifruit were morphologically discriminated. DNA barcodes of chloroplast regions psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, rpoB, rpoC1, ycf1b, trnL and rpl32_trnL(UAG), the nuclear region At103 and intergenic region ITS2 were amplified. Divergences and phylogenetic trees were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship of these twelve commercial kiwifruit varieties. The results showed that matK, ITS2 and rpl32_trnL(UAG) can be utilized as molecular markers to identify CuiYu, JinYan, HuangJinGuo, ChuanHuangJin, HuaYou, YaTe, XuXiang and HongYang. This provides experimental and practical basis to scientifically resolve kiwifruit-related judicial disputes and legal trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Alternative Ultrasound-Assisted Method for the Extraction of the Bioactive Compounds Present in Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.)
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050882
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
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Abstract
The bioactive compounds in myrtle berries, such as phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, have shown a potentially positive effect on human health. Efficient extraction methods are to be used to obtain maximum amounts of such beneficial compounds from myrtle. For that reason, this study [...] Read more.
The bioactive compounds in myrtle berries, such as phenolic compounds and anthocyanins, have shown a potentially positive effect on human health. Efficient extraction methods are to be used to obtain maximum amounts of such beneficial compounds from myrtle. For that reason, this study evaluates the effectiveness of a rapid ultrasound-assisted method (UAE) to extract anthocyanins and phenolic compounds from myrtle berries. The influence of solvent composition, as well as pH, temperature, ultrasound amplitude, cycle and solvent-sample ratio on the total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins content in the extracts obtained were evaluated. The response variables were optimized by means of a Box-Behnken design. It was found that the double interaction of the methanol composition and the cycle, the interaction between methanol composition and temperature, and the interaction between the cycle and solvent-sample ratio were the most influential variables on the extraction of total phenolic compounds (92.8% methanol in water, 0.2 s of cycle, 60 °C and 10:0.5 mL:g). The methanol composition and the interaction between methanol composition and pH were the most influential variables on the extraction of anthocyanins (74.1% methanol in water at pH 7). The methods that have been developed presented high repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD < 5%) and the bioactive compounds show a high recovery with short extraction times. Both methods were used to analyze the composition of the bioactive compounds in myrtle berries collected from different locations in the province of Cadiz (Spain). The results obtained by UAE were compared to those achieved in a previous study where microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) methods were employed. Similar extraction yields were obtained for phenolic compounds and anthocyanins by MAE and UAE under optimal conditions. However, UAE presents the advantage of using milder conditions for the extraction of anthocyanins from myrtle, which makes of this a more suitable method for the extraction of these degradable compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Flavor Profile Evolution of Bottle Aged Rosé and White Wines Sealed with Different Closures
Molecules 2019, 24(5), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24050836
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 27 February 2019
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Abstract
Bottle aging is the final stage before wines are drunk, and is considered as a maturation time when many chemical changes occur. To get a better understanding of the evolution of wines’ flavor profile, the flavor compounds (phenolic and volatile compounds), dissolved oxygen [...] Read more.
Bottle aging is the final stage before wines are drunk, and is considered as a maturation time when many chemical changes occur. To get a better understanding of the evolution of wines’ flavor profile, the flavor compounds (phenolic and volatile compounds), dissolved oxygen (DO), and flavor characters (OAVs and chromatic parameters) of rosé and dry white wines bottled with different closures were determined after 18 months’ bottle aging. The results showed the main phenolic change trends of rosé wines were decreasing while the trends of white wines were increasing, which could be the reason for their unique DO changing behaviors. Volatile compounds could be clustered into fluctuating, increasing, and decreasing groups using k-means algorithm. Most volatile compounds, especially some long-chain aliphatic acid esters (octanoates and decanoates), exhibited a lower decrease rate in rosé wines sealed with natural corks and white wines with screw caps. After 18 months of bottle aging, wines treated with natural corks and their alternatives could be distinguished into two groups based on flavor compounds via PLS-DA. As for flavor characters, the total intensity of aroma declined obviously compared with their initial counterparts. Rosé wines exhibit visual difference in color, whereas such a phenomenon was not observed in white wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of 27 β-Blockers and Metabolites in Milk Powder by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole Orbitrap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2019, 24(4), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040820
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 19 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents an application of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) for the analysis of 27 β-blockers and metabolites in milk powder. Homogenized milk power samples were extracted by acetonitrile and purified by using Oasis [...] Read more.
This paper presents an application of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) for the analysis of 27 β-blockers and metabolites in milk powder. Homogenized milk power samples were extracted by acetonitrile and purified by using Oasis PRiME HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges. The Ascentis® C8 chromatographic column was used to separate the analytes. The quantification was achieved by using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with carazolol-d7 and propranolol-d7 as the internal standards. The results show an exceptional linear relationship with the concentrations of analytes over wide concentration ranges (0.5–500 μg kg−1) as all the fitting coefficients of determination r2 are > 0.995. All the limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) values were within the respective range of 0.2–1.5 μg kg−1 and 0.5–5.0 μg kg−1. Overall average recoveries were able to reach 66.1–100.4% with the intra- and inter-day variability under 10%. This method has been successfully applied to the screening of β-blockers and metabolites in commercial milk powders. At the same time, the corresponding characteristic fragmentation behavior of the 27 compounds was explored. The characteristic product ions were determined and applied to the actual samples screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of the Pol Gene as a Species-Specific Diagnostic Marker for Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Detection of Tricholoma matsutake
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030455
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Tricholoma matsutake is a rare, precious, and wild edible fungus that could not be cultivated artificially until now. This situation has given way to the introduction of fake T. matsutake commodities to the mushroom market. Among the methods used to detect food adulteration, [...] Read more.
Tricholoma matsutake is a rare, precious, and wild edible fungus that could not be cultivated artificially until now. This situation has given way to the introduction of fake T. matsutake commodities to the mushroom market. Among the methods used to detect food adulteration, amplification of species-specific diagnostic marker is particularly important and accurate. In this study, the Pol gene is reported as a species-specific diagnostic marker to identify three T. matsutake varieties and 10 other types of edible mushrooms through qualitative and quantitative PCR. The PCR results did not reveal variations in the amplified region, and the detection limits of qualitative and quantitative PCR were found to be 8 ng and 32 pg, respectively. Southern blot showed that the Pol gene exists as a single copy in the T. matsutake genome. The method that produced the purest DNA of T. matsutake in this study was also determined, and the high-concentration salt precipitation method was confirmed to be the most suitable among the methods tested. The assay proposed in this work is applicable not only to the detection of raw materials but also to the examination of processed products containing T. matsutake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Small Molecular Weight Aldose (d-Glucose) and Basic Amino Acids (l-Lysine, l-Arginine) Increase the Occurrence of PAHs in Grilled Pork Sausages
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123377
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: Amino acids and carbohydrates are widely used as additives in the food industry. These compounds have been proven to be an influencing factor in the production of chemical carcinogenic compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the effect of the properties of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Amino acids and carbohydrates are widely used as additives in the food industry. These compounds have been proven to be an influencing factor in the production of chemical carcinogenic compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the effect of the properties of the amino acids and carbohydrates on the production of PAHs is still little known. (2) Methods: We added different (i) R groups (the R group represents an aldehyde group in a glucose molecule or a ketone group in a fructose molecule); (ii) molecular weight carbohydrates; (iii) polarities, and (iv) acid-base amino acids to pork sausages. The effects of the molecular properties of carbohydrates and amino acids on the formation of PAHs in grilled pork sausages were investigated. (3) Results: The results showed that a grilled sausage with aldehyde-based d-glucose was capable of producing more PAHs than a sausage with keto-based d-fructose. A higher PAH content was determined in the grilled pork sausage when the smaller molecular weight, d-glucose, was added compared with the sausage where the larger molecular weight, 4-(α-d-glucosido)-d-glucose and cellulose were added. The addition of basic amino acids (l-lysine, l-arginine) was capable of producing more PAHs compared with the addition of acidic amino acids (l-glutamic acid, l-aspartate). When amino acid containing a benzene ring was added, a smaller volume of PAHs was produced compared with the addition of other amino acids. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that systematic consideration of molecule properties is necessary when using food additives (amino acids and carbohydrates) for food processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Spectrum-Effect Relationships between High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Fingerprints and the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Collagen Peptides
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3257; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123257
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
A total of 13 batches of collagen peptide samples were extracted, isolated, and purified from chicken sternal cartilage under various process parameters. The fingerprint profiles of 13 batches of collagen peptides were established by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the amino acid [...] Read more.
A total of 13 batches of collagen peptide samples were extracted, isolated, and purified from chicken sternal cartilage under various process parameters. The fingerprint profiles of 13 batches of collagen peptides were established by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the amino acid profiles and molecular weight distributions of collagen peptides were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the peptide samples were measured using the 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and an assay of the oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the degenerative cartilage cells from the knee joint of rat C518 (C518 cell line). The anti-inflammatory activities of the peptide samples were assessed by measuring the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in C518 cells. Subsequently, the spectrum-effect relationships between HPLC fingerprints and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of collagen peptides were investigated using grey relational analysis (GRA). Fifteen common peaks were obtained from the HPLC fingerprints of collagen peptides. Each collagen peptide sample had a characteristic set of amino acid types and contents. All of the hydrolysates of the collagen peptides were primarily composed of fractions II (500–1000 Da) and III (1000–3000 Da). Collagen peptides exhibited good scavenging activity on ABTS radical, DPPH radical, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. Collagen peptides were also effective against H2O2-induced cellular oxidative damage in C518 cells. The antioxidant activity of collagen peptides was due to the low molecular weight and the presence of antioxidant and hydrophobic amino acid residues within its sequence. Collagen peptides significantly inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and PGE2 in C518 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of collagen peptides may include increased synthesis of the key components of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inhibited apoptosis of chondrocytes. The GRA results showed that peaks 2, 3, and 8 were the main components contributing to the antioxidant activity of the collagen peptides, whereas peaks 11 and 14 were the main components contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity of the collagen peptides. The components of peaks 8 and 14 were identified as GPRGPPGPVGP and VAIQAVLSLYASGR by UPLC-MS/MS. Those identified collagen peptides offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) due to their antioxidative stress and due to them disturbing the catabolism and anabolism processes in arthrodial cartilage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Phytochemical and Biological Characteristics of Mexican Chia Seed Oil
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123219
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 6 December 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this research was to investigate the chemical profile, nutritional quality, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of Mexican chia seed oil (CSO) in vitro. Chemical characterization of CSO indicated the content of α-linolenic acid (63.64% of total fatty acids) to be the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the chemical profile, nutritional quality, antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of Mexican chia seed oil (CSO) in vitro. Chemical characterization of CSO indicated the content of α-linolenic acid (63.64% of total fatty acids) to be the highest, followed by linoleic acid (19.84%), and saturated fatty acid (less than 11%). Trilinolenin content (53.44% of total triacylglycerols (TAGs)) was found to be the highest among seven TAGs in CSO. The antioxidant capacity of CSO, evaluated with ABTS•+ and DPPH methods, showed mild antioxidant capacity when compared with Tocopherol and Catechin. In addition, CSO was found to lower triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 25.8% and 72.9%respectively in a HepG2 lipid accumulation model. As CSO exhibits these chemical and biological characteristics, it is a potential resource of essential fatty acids for human use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of New Analytical Microwave-Assisted Extraction Methods for Bioactive Compounds from Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.)
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112992
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
The phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in myrtle berries are responsible for its beneficial health properties. In the present study, a new, microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from myrtle pulp has been developed. Different extraction variables, including [...] Read more.
The phenolic compounds and anthocyanins present in myrtle berries are responsible for its beneficial health properties. In the present study, a new, microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of both phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from myrtle pulp has been developed. Different extraction variables, including methanol composition, pH, temperature, and sample–solvent ratio were optimized by applying a Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. Methanol composition and pH were the most influential variables for the total phenolic compounds (58.20% of the solvent in water at pH 2), and methanol composition and temperature for anthocyanins (50.4% of solvent at 50 °C). The methods developed showed high repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD < 5%). Both methods were applied to myrtle berries collected in two different areas of the province of Cadiz (Spain). Hierarchical clustering analysis results show that the concentration of bioactive compounds in myrtle is related to their geographical origin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Essential Oils from Humulus Lupulus scCO2 Extract by Hydrodistillation and Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2866; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112866
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 3 November 2018
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Abstract
Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of essential oils obtained from the Humulus lupulus scCO2 (sc-supercritical) extract: microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). As a result, the best conditions for the maximum essential oil production were determined [...] Read more.
Two different extraction methods were used for a comparative study of essential oils obtained from the Humulus lupulus scCO2 (sc-supercritical) extract: microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD). As a result, the best conditions for the maximum essential oil production were determined for the MAHD method at 335 W microwave power for 30 min at water to raw material ratio of 8:3. The obtained essential oils were enriched in β-myrcene in the amount of 74.13%–89.32% (wt%). Moreover, the first application for determination of the above-mentioned volatile compounds by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with photo-diode array detection (PDA) is presented, which in comparison with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) resulted in similar values for β-myrcene and α-humulene in obtained samples within less than 1 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Simultaneous Identification and Dynamic Analysis of Saccharides during Steam Processing of Rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema by HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2855; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112855
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 29 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Abstract
The sweet rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema are widely used as a tonic and functional food. A sensitive and rapid analytical method was developed for simultaneous identification and dynamic analysis of saccharides during steam processing in P. cyrtonema using HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. Fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, [...] Read more.
The sweet rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema are widely used as a tonic and functional food. A sensitive and rapid analytical method was developed for simultaneous identification and dynamic analysis of saccharides during steam processing in P. cyrtonema using HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS. Fructose, sorbitol, glucose, galactose, sucrose, and 1-kestose were identified, as well as a large number of oligosaccharides constituted of fructose units through β-(2→1) or β-(2→6). Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides were decomposed to monosaccharides during a steaming process, since the contents of glucose, galactose, and fructose were increased, while those of sucrose, 1-kestose, and polysaccharides were decreased. The high content of fructose was revealed to be the main determinant for increasing the level of sweetness after steaming. The samples of different repeated steaming times were shown to be well grouped and gradually shift along the PC1 (72.4%) axis by principal component analysis. The small-molecule saccharides, especially fructose, could be considered as markers for the steaming process of rhizomes of P. cyrtonema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Nutritional Traits and Phytochemical Composition of Artisan Jams Produced in Comoros Islands: Using Indigenous Fruits with High Health-Impact as an Example of Biodiversity Integration and Food Security in Rural Development
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2707; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102707
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 20 October 2018
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Abstract
In the Comoros Islands, as in other developing countries, malnutrition and food insecurity affect a very large percentage of the population. Developing fruit-based products in order to make profit, reduce poverty and improve indigenous people diet could be very important for local population [...] Read more.
In the Comoros Islands, as in other developing countries, malnutrition and food insecurity affect a very large percentage of the population. Developing fruit-based products in order to make profit, reduce poverty and improve indigenous people diet could be very important for local population of countries as Comoros Islands. The aim of the present work was to study the chemical composition of jams and jellies produced from seven fruit species harvested in Grand Comore Island. The following parameters were studied sugars and organic acids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of the main phytochemicals. Antioxidant activity was also measured. A multivariate approach (Principal Component Analysis) was performed in order to better characterize the products and to set a potential analytical tool for jam characterisation. Results showed that the analysed products are a good source of polyphenolic constituents, as caffeic and gallic acids, catechin and quercetin and volatile compounds, as limonene and γ-terpinene: these molecules may be considered as suitable markers for these fruit-derived products as characterizing the chromatographic patterns. The characterisation of these products and their nutritional and nutraceutical traits is important as valorisation of local food production for poverty reduction and rural development. Further benefits of this approach include the maintenance of local agro-biodiversity as raw material for fruit-based products and the strengthening of food security practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Sensor Based on Polyelectrolyte Composite Film Decorated Glassy Carbon Electrode for Detection of Nitrite in Curing Food at Sub-Micromolar Level
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2580; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102580
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
To ensure food quality and safety, developing cost-effective, rapid and precision analytical techniques for quantitative detection of nitrite is highly desirable. Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on the sodium cellulose sulfate/poly (dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (NaCS/PDMDAAC) composite film modified glass carbon electrode [...] Read more.
To ensure food quality and safety, developing cost-effective, rapid and precision analytical techniques for quantitative detection of nitrite is highly desirable. Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on the sodium cellulose sulfate/poly (dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride) (NaCS/PDMDAAC) composite film modified glass carbon electrode (NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE) was proposed toward the detection of nitrite at sub-micromolar level, aiming to make full use of the inherent properties of individual component (biocompatible, low cost, good electrical conductivity for PDMDAAC; non-toxic, abundant raw materials, good film forming ability for NaCS) and synergistic enhancement effect. The NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE was fabricated by a simple drop-casting method. Electrochemical behaviors of nitrite at NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimum conditions, the NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE exhibits a wide linear response region of 4.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1~1.5 × 10−4 mol·L−1 and a low detection 1imit of 43 nmol·L−1. The NaCS/PDMDAAC shows a synergetic enhancement effect toward the oxidation of nitrite, and the sensing performance is much better than the previous reports. Moreover, the NaCS/PDMDAAC also shows good stability and reproducibility. The NaCS/PDMDAAC/GCE was successfully applied to the determination of nitrite in ham sausage with satisfactory results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
The Content of Biogenic Amines in Croatian Wines of Different Geographical Origins
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102570
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 26 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Samples of white and red wines produced in two different wine-growing regions, coastal (Dalmatia) and continental (Hrvatsko zagorje) of Croatia, were analysed for biogenic amines content. Biogenic amines content was determined, and its concentration levels were associated with the geographical origin of the [...] Read more.
Samples of white and red wines produced in two different wine-growing regions, coastal (Dalmatia) and continental (Hrvatsko zagorje) of Croatia, were analysed for biogenic amines content. Biogenic amines content was determined, and its concentration levels were associated with the geographical origin of the wine. Due to its high sensitivity, HPLC method with ultraviolet detector was used, including the derivatisation step with dansyl chloride. The method was applied to detect and quantify 11 biogenic amines in 48 red and white wines. It was found that both Dalmatian red and white wines are characterised by tryptamine (0.23–1.22 mg L−1), putrescine (0.41–7.5 mg L−1) and ethanolamine (2.87–24.32 mg L−1). White wines from the Hrvatsko zagorje region are characterised by content of isopentylamine (0.31–1.47 mg L−1), putrescine (0.27–1.49 mg L−1) and ethanolamine (3.80–17.96 mg L−1). In contrast to white wines from the Hrvatsko zagorje region, in the red wines, all biogenic amines except ethylamine, were found and equally presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification and Confirmation of Fifteen Carbamate Pesticide Residues by Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Enhanced Product Ion Scan Modes via LC-MS/MS QTRAP System
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2496; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102496
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 29 September 2018
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Abstract
In this research, fifteen carbamate pesticide residues were systematically analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry on a QTRAP 5500 system in both multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan modes. The carbamate pesticide residues were extracted [...] Read more.
In this research, fifteen carbamate pesticide residues were systematically analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry on a QTRAP 5500 system in both multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and enhanced product ion (EPI) scan modes. The carbamate pesticide residues were extracted from a variety of samples by QuEChERS method and separated by a popular reverse phase column (Waters BEH C18). Except for the current conformation criteria including selected ion pairs, retention time and relative intensities from MRM scan mode, the presence of carbamate pesticide residues in diverse samples, especially some doubtful cases, could also be confirmed by the matching of carbamate pesticide spectra via EPI scan mode. Moreover, the fragmentation routes of fifteen carbamates were firstly explained based on the mass spectra obtained by a QTRAP system; the characteristic fragment ion from a neutral loss of CH3NCO (−57 Da) could be observed. The limits of detection and quantification for fifteen carbamates were 0.2–2.0 μg kg−1 and 0.5–5.0 μg kg−1, respectively. For the intra- (n = 3) and inter-day (n = 15) precisions, the recoveries of fifteen carbamates from spiked samples ranged from 88.1% to 118.4%, and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all below 10%. The method was applied to pesticide residues detection in fruit, vegetable and green tea samples taken from local markets, in which carbamates were extensively detected but all below the standard of maximum residue limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Selection and Identification of Novel Aptamers Specific for Clenbuterol Based on ssDNA Library Immobilized SELEX and Gold Nanoparticles Biosensor
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092337
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
We describe a multiple combined strategy to discover novel aptamers specific for clenbuterol (CBL). An immobilized ssDNA library was used for the selection of specific aptamers using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Progress was monitored using real-time quantitative PCR [...] Read more.
We describe a multiple combined strategy to discover novel aptamers specific for clenbuterol (CBL). An immobilized ssDNA library was used for the selection of specific aptamers using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Progress was monitored using real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the enriched library was sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. Candidate aptamers were picked and preliminarily identified using a gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) biosensor. Bioactive aptamers were characterized for affinity, circular dichroism (CD), specificity and sensitivity. The Q-PCR amplification curve increased and the retention rate was about 1% at the eighth round. Use of the AuNPs biosensor and CD analyses determined that six aptamers had binding activity. Affinity analysis showed that aptamer 47 had the highest affinity (Kd = 42.17 ± 8.98 nM) with no cross reactivity to CBL analogs. Indirect competitive enzyme linked aptamer assay (IC-ELAA) based on a 5′-biotin aptamer 47 indicated the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.18 ± 0.02 ng/L (n = 3), and it was used to detect pork samples with a mean recovery of 83.33–97.03%. This is the first report of a universal strategy including library fixation, Q-PCR monitoring, high-throughput sequencing, and AuNPs biosensor identification to select aptamers specific for small molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Electrochemical Sensors Based on Cuprous Oxide-Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Modified Electrode toward Sensitive Detection of Sunset Yellow
Molecules 2018, 23(9), 2130; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092130
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Control and detection of sunset yellow is an utmost demanding issue, due to the presence of potential risks for human health if excessively consumed or added. Herein, cuprous oxide-electrochemically reduced graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O-ErGO/GCE) was developed for the [...] Read more.
Control and detection of sunset yellow is an utmost demanding issue, due to the presence of potential risks for human health if excessively consumed or added. Herein, cuprous oxide-electrochemically reduced graphene nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O-ErGO/GCE) was developed for the determination of sunset yellow. The Cu2O-ErGO/GCE was fabricated by drop-casting Cu2O-GO dispersion on the GCE surface following a potentiostatic reduction of graphene oxide (GO). Scanning electron microscope and X-ray powder diffractometer was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the modification materials, such as Cu2O nanoparticles and Cu2O-ErGO nanocomposites. The electrochemical behavior of sunset yellow on the bare GCE, ErGO/GCE, and Cu2O-ErGO/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry, respectively. The analytical parameters (including pH value, sweep rate, and accumulation parameters) were explored systematically. The results show that the anodic peak currents of Cu2O-ErGO /GCE are 25-fold higher than that of the bare GCE, due to the synergistic enhancement effect between Cu2O nanoparticles and ErGO sheets. Under the optimum detection conditions, the anodic peak currents are well linear to the concentrations of sunset yellow, ranging from 2.0 × 10−8 mol/L to 2.0 × 10−5 mol/L and from 2.0 × 10−5 mol/L to 1.0 × 10−4 mol/L with a low limit of detection (S/N = 3, 6.0 × 10−9 mol/L). Moreover, Cu2O-ErGO/GCE was successfully used for the determination of sunset yellow in beverages and food with good recovery. This proposed Cu2O-ErGO/GCE has an attractive prospect applications on the determination of sunset yellow in diverse real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Analysis of Enantiomers in Products of Food Interest
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061119
Received: 21 February 2019 / Revised: 11 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 21 March 2019
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Abstract
The separation of enantiomers has been started in the past and continues to be a topic of great interest in various fields of research, mainly because these compounds could be involved in biological processes such as, for example, those related to human health. [...] Read more.
The separation of enantiomers has been started in the past and continues to be a topic of great interest in various fields of research, mainly because these compounds could be involved in biological processes such as, for example, those related to human health. Great attention has been devoted to studies for the analysis of enantiomers present in food products in order to assess authenticity and safety. The separation of these compounds can be carried out utilizing analytical techniques such as gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, and other methods. The separation is performed mainly employing chromatographic columns containing particles modified with chiral selectors (CS). Among the CS used, modified polysaccharides, glycopeptide antibiotics, and cyclodextrins are currently applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Synthesis and Structural Identification of a Biaryl Ether-Linked Zearalenone Dimer
Molecules 2018, 23(10), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23102624
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
A new dimer of the food-relevant mycotoxin zearalenone was isolated after electrochemical and chemical oxidation. The structure was determined as a 16-O-15′-biaryl ether-linked dimer based on spectroscopic analyses (1H- and 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC, and HSQCAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis (Q-TOF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Food Analysis)
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