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Open AccessArticle

Small Molecular Weight Aldose (d-Glucose) and Basic Amino Acids (l-Lysine, l-Arginine) Increase the Occurrence of PAHs in Grilled Pork Sausages

1
School of Food Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui Province, China
2
Key Laboratory on Deep Processing of Agricultural Products for Anhui Province, Hefei 230009, Anhui Province, China
3
Engineering Research Centre of Bio-Process, Ministry of Education, Hefei 230009, Anhui Province, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Gentili
Molecules 2018, 23(12), 3377; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23123377
Received: 22 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Food Analysis)
(1) Background: Amino acids and carbohydrates are widely used as additives in the food industry. These compounds have been proven to be an influencing factor in the production of chemical carcinogenic compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the effect of the properties of the amino acids and carbohydrates on the production of PAHs is still little known. (2) Methods: We added different (i) R groups (the R group represents an aldehyde group in a glucose molecule or a ketone group in a fructose molecule); (ii) molecular weight carbohydrates; (iii) polarities, and (iv) acid-base amino acids to pork sausages. The effects of the molecular properties of carbohydrates and amino acids on the formation of PAHs in grilled pork sausages were investigated. (3) Results: The results showed that a grilled sausage with aldehyde-based d-glucose was capable of producing more PAHs than a sausage with keto-based d-fructose. A higher PAH content was determined in the grilled pork sausage when the smaller molecular weight, d-glucose, was added compared with the sausage where the larger molecular weight, 4-(α-d-glucosido)-d-glucose and cellulose were added. The addition of basic amino acids (l-lysine, l-arginine) was capable of producing more PAHs compared with the addition of acidic amino acids (l-glutamic acid, l-aspartate). When amino acid containing a benzene ring was added, a smaller volume of PAHs was produced compared with the addition of other amino acids. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that systematic consideration of molecule properties is necessary when using food additives (amino acids and carbohydrates) for food processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acids; carbohydrates; acidity; polarity; molecular weight amino acids; carbohydrates; acidity; polarity; molecular weight
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Nie, W.; Cai, K.-Z.; Li, Y.-Z.; Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Chen, C.-G.; Xu, B.-C. Small Molecular Weight Aldose (d-Glucose) and Basic Amino Acids (l-Lysine, l-Arginine) Increase the Occurrence of PAHs in Grilled Pork Sausages. Molecules 2018, 23, 3377.

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