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Open AccessArticle

In Situ Real-Time Tracing of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Apples by Solid-Phase Microextraction with Developed Sampling-Rate Calibration

1
Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology (Ministry of Education), College of Food Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Institute of Agricultural Products Processing, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou 450002, China
3
China Light Industry Key Laboratory of Liquor Quality and Safety, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Gentili
Molecules 2019, 24(24), 4444; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244444
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 24 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Food Analysis)
An in situ tracing study based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was conducted to investigate the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides in apples. A matrix-compatible polydimethylsiloxane/poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene)/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was produced to meet the needs of in situ sampling. The fiber had high extraction ability, good sensitivity and accuracy with respect to the analytes in apple pulp, and could be used 85 times. Although the sampling rate was changing over time, quantification was still achieved by the sampling rate calibration method. Some factors that affect its applicability were studied. The limits of detection were 0.18 ng/g for diazinon and 0.20 ng/g for chlorpyrifos, rather lower than the maximum residue limits of the National Food Safety Standard of China (GB 2763-2016) and the European Commission (Reg.(EU) No 834/2013, 2018/686). The accuracy of in situ SPME quantification was verified by comparing with the results obtained by the traditional liquid–liquid extraction method. In this work, the in situ sampling method is developed using apples, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos as a model system; however, this method can be used for in vivo analysis of fruits and vegetables for nutrition and safety monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: in situ tracing; solid-phase microextraction; matrix compatibility; sampling-rate calibration; organophosphorus pesticides; apple in situ tracing; solid-phase microextraction; matrix compatibility; sampling-rate calibration; organophosphorus pesticides; apple
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.-F.; Zhao, L.-L.; Huang, M.-Q.; Li, X.-J.; Pan, S.-Y. In Situ Real-Time Tracing of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Apples by Solid-Phase Microextraction with Developed Sampling-Rate Calibration. Molecules 2019, 24, 4444.

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