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Special Issue "Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2022) | Viewed by 18442

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde | Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: plant extracts; biological activities of natural products; bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
CICS-UBI Health Sciences Research Centre, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: plant extracts; essential oils; polyphenols; antioxidant and antimicrobial properties; functional films
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
1. Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), 6201-506 Covilhã, Portugal
2. Laboratório de Farmaco-Toxicologia, UBIMedical, Universidade da Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), 6201-506 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: toxicology; analytical method development; recreational drugs; natural psychoactive substances; therapeutic drug monitoring; sample preparation; alternative samples; miniaturized extraction procedures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Due to the great success of the first Special Issue on Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond, it is our pleasure to announce this second edition.

Natural products present a great variety of chemical and structural properties, and in recent years, new developments concerning these compounds have widened the horizon of research applications, aiming at obtaining new agents for human therapy. However, their beneficial effects on human health are far from the only features of these products, as recreational or abusive consumption of certain compounds of natural origin is also alarming.

With this Special Issue, we aim to categorize the state of the art concerning scientific research on natural products, including their applications as compounds of added value to human health.

Presenting a very broad scope, this Special Issue welcomes full papers, short communications, and review articles on, but not limited to, physiologically active compounds (namely from terrestrial or marine plants); secondary metabolites of microorganisms (for instance, antibiotics and mycotoxins); biochemical studies, isolation, structure elucidation, and chemical synthetic pathways of novel compounds of natural origin; pharmacology of naturally occurring compounds; and the development of new detection and quantification methods. Meta-analyses and articles that use bioinformatic tools are welcome.

This issue should serve as a text for academia, or as a reference tool for researchers, particularly those working in the fields of medicinal chemistry, toxicology, phytochemistry, natural product chemistry, and health and industry professionals.

Prof. Dr. Ana Paula Duarte
Dr. Ângelo Luís
Prof. Dr. Eugenia Gallardo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Natural products
  • Secondary metabolites
  • Drug discovery
  • Therapeutic properties
  • Recreational use
  • Analysis

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II
Molecules 2022, 27(19), 6140; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27196140 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 544
Abstract
Historically, natural products have contributed to drug discovery as a source of active molecules due to their great diversity and structural complexity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)

Research

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Article
The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Chaga Extracts Obtained by Different Extraction Methods against LPS-Induced RAW 264.7
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4207; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134207 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Chaga, a sclerotia formed by the Inonotus obliquus fungus, has been widely recognized for a number of medicinal properties. Although numerous scientific investigations have been published describing various biological activities of chaga from different geographical locations, little work has focused on chaga harvested [...] Read more.
Chaga, a sclerotia formed by the Inonotus obliquus fungus, has been widely recognized for a number of medicinal properties. Although numerous scientific investigations have been published describing various biological activities of chaga from different geographical locations, little work has focused on chaga harvested in the USA or extraction techniques to maximize anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of chaga collected in Maine (USA) extracted using traditional aqueous (hot water steeping) methods against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chaga extracts obtained from both conventional (ethanol/water) extraction methods and an accelerated solvent extraction method (ASE) at optimized conditions were compared to aqueous extracts (tea) obtained from chaga in the powder form (P) and powder form in tea bags (B) based on their effect on both nitric oxide (NO) production and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, in particular, the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-β (IL-1β). Phenolic acid extracts from chaga and individual phenolic acid standards were also investigated for their effect on the same parameters. Results indicated that various chaga extracts have significant anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect was through a decrease in the production of NO and the downregulation of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages. ASE1 (novel, optimized ethanol/water extraction) and P6 (six-minute steeping of powder in 100 °C water) extracts showed the highest inhibitory activity on NO production and on the expression of the inflammatory cytokines, compared to extracts obtained by conventional extraction methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity of Commercial Essential Oils and Hydrolates Obtained from Portuguese Forest Logging and Thinning
Molecules 2022, 27(11), 3572; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27113572 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1229
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) and hydrolates (Hds) are natural sources of biologically active ingredients with broad applications in the cosmetic industry. In this study, nationally produced (mainland Portugal and Azores archipelago) EOs (11) and Hds (7) obtained from forest logging and thinning of Eucalyptus [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) and hydrolates (Hds) are natural sources of biologically active ingredients with broad applications in the cosmetic industry. In this study, nationally produced (mainland Portugal and Azores archipelago) EOs (11) and Hds (7) obtained from forest logging and thinning of Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Cryptomeria japonica, were chemically evaluated, and their bioactivity and sensorial properties were assessed. EOs and Hd volatiles (HdVs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 1,8-Cineole was dominant in E. globulus EOs and HdVs, and α- and β-pinene in P. pinaster EOs. Limonene and α-pinene led in P. pinea and C. japonica EOs, respectively. P. pinaster and C. japonica HVs were dominated by α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, ORAC and ROS. C. japonica EO showed the highest antioxidant activity, whereas one of the E. globulus EOs showed the lowest. Antimicrobial activity results revealed different levels of efficacy for Eucalyptus and Pinus EOs while C. japonica EO showed no antimicrobial activity against the selected strains. The perception and applicability of emulsions with 0.5% of EOs were evaluated through an in vivo sensory study. C. japonica emulsion, which has a fresh and earthy odour, was chosen as the most pleasant fragrance (60%), followed by P. pinea emulsion (53%). In summary, some of the studied EOs and Hds showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and they are possible candidates to address the consumers demand for more sustainable and responsibly sourced ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
Protective Effects of Green Tea Supplementation against Lead-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27030993 - 01 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
The use of natural products as therapeutic agents is rapidly growing recently. In the current study, we investigated the protective effects of green tea supplementation on lead-induced toxicity in mice. Forty albino mice were divided into four groups as follows: A: control group; [...] Read more.
The use of natural products as therapeutic agents is rapidly growing recently. In the current study, we investigated the protective effects of green tea supplementation on lead-induced toxicity in mice. Forty albino mice were divided into four groups as follows: A: control group; B: green tea receiving group; C: lead-intoxicated group; and D: lead-intoxicated group supplemented with green tea. At the end of the experiment, the animals were tested for neurobehavioral and biochemical alterations. Green tea was analyzed through Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. We found that supplementation with green tea ameliorated the lead-associated increase in body weight and blood glucose. Green tea supplementation also changed the blood picture that was affected due to lead toxicity and ameliorated lead-induced dyslipidemia. The group of mice that were supplemented with green tea has shown positive alterations in locomotory, anxiety, memory, and learning behaviors. The GC/MS analysis revealed many active ingredients among which the two most abundant were caffeine and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester. We concluded that green tea supplementation has several positive effects on the lead-induced neurotoxicity in mice and that these effects may be attributed to its main two active ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
Nutraceutical Content and Genetic Diversity Share a Common Pattern in New Pomegranate Genotypes
Molecules 2022, 27(2), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27020389 - 08 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
The nutraceutical value of pomegranate in the treatment of many diseases is well-documented and is linked to its richness in phenolic compounds. This study aims to evaluate the nutraceutical and genetic diversity of novel pomegranate genotypes (G1–G5) in comparison to leading commercial pomegranate [...] Read more.
The nutraceutical value of pomegranate in the treatment of many diseases is well-documented and is linked to its richness in phenolic compounds. This study aims to evaluate the nutraceutical and genetic diversity of novel pomegranate genotypes (G1–G5) in comparison to leading commercial pomegranate varieties, i.e., ‘Wonderful’, ‘Primosole’, ‘Dente di Cavallo’ and ‘Valenciana’. Morphometric measurements were carried out on fruits, accompanied by chemical characterization (total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, carbohydrates and minerals) and the development of four new polymorphic SSR markers involved in the flavonoid pathway. The cultivars displayed a marked variability in the weight and shape of the fruits, as well as in the weight of the arils and juice yield. The highest level of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was found in ‘Wonderful’ and G4, while the lowest was in ‘Dente di Cavallo’. Furthermore, the results showed that pomegranate juice is an excellent source of minerals, especially potassium, which plays a key role in organ functioning. The new flavonoid-related markers effectively differentiated the cultivars with the same diversity pattern as morpho-chemical characterization, so the SSRs developed in the present study can be used as a rapid tool for the identification of pomegranate cultivars with relevant nutraceutical traits, such as the new genotypes investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
HPLC-DAD Based Polyphenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Pharmacological Attributes of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.
Molecules 2022, 27(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27010068 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
The current study was intended to explore the phytochemical profiling and therapeutic activities of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. Crude extracts of different plant parts were subjected to the determination of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, and protein kinase inhibitory potential by using solvents of varying [...] Read more.
The current study was intended to explore the phytochemical profiling and therapeutic activities of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall. Crude extracts of different plant parts were subjected to the determination of antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, and protein kinase inhibitory potential by using solvents of varying polarity ranges. Maximum phenolic content was notified in distilled water extracts of the stem (DW-S) and leaf (DW-L) while the highest flavonoid content was obtained in ethyl acetate leaf (EA-L) extract. HPLC-DAD analysis confirmed the presence of various polyphenols, quantified in the range of 0.02 ± 0.36 to 2.05 ± 0.18 μg/mg extract. Maximum DPPH scavenging activity was expressed by methanolic extract of the stem (MeOH-S). The highest antioxidant capacity and reducing power was shown by MeOH-S and leaf methanolic extract (MeOH-L), respectively. Proficient antibacterial activity was shown by EA-L extract against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Remarkable α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition potential was expressed by ethyl acetate fruit (EA-F) and n-Hexane leaf (nH-L) extracts, respectively. In case of brine shrimp lethality assay, 41.67% of the extracts (LC50 < 50 µg/mL) were considered as extremely cytotoxic. The test extracts also showed mild antifungal and protein kinase inhibition activities. The present study explores the therapeutic potential of P. roxburghii and calls for subsequent studies to isolate new bioactive leads through bioactivity-guided isolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br Manifests Extraction Medium Reliant Disparity in Phytochemical and Pharmacological Analysis
Molecules 2021, 26(24), 7530; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26247530 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2178
Abstract
Solubility of phytoconstituents depends on the polarity of the extraction medium used, which might result in the different pharmacological responses of extracts. In line with this, ethnomedicinally important food plant (i.e., Caralluma tuberculata extracts) have been made in fourteen distinct solvent systems that [...] Read more.
Solubility of phytoconstituents depends on the polarity of the extraction medium used, which might result in the different pharmacological responses of extracts. In line with this, ethnomedicinally important food plant (i.e., Caralluma tuberculata extracts) have been made in fourteen distinct solvent systems that were then analyzed phytochemically via total phenolic amount estimation, total flavonoid amount estimation, and HPLC detection and quantification of the selected polyphenols. Test extracts were then subjected to a battery of in vitro assays i.e., antioxidants (DDPH scavenging, antioxidant capacity, and reducing power estimation), antimicrobial (antibacterial, antifungal, and antileishmanial), cytotoxic (brine shrimps, THP-1 human leukemia cell lines and normal lymphocytes), and protein kinase inhibition assays. Maximum phenolic and flavonoid contents were computed in distilled water–acetone and acetone extracts (i.e., 16 ± 1 μg/mg extract and 8 ± 0.4/mg extract, respectively). HPLC-DAD quantified rutin (0.58 µg/mg extract) and gallic acid (0.4 µg/mg extract) in methanol–ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, respectively. Water–acetone extract exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging of 36 ± 1%. Total reducing potential of 76.0 ± 1 μg/mg extract was shown by ethanol chloroform while maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted by the acetone extract (92.21 ± 0.70 μg/mg extract). Maximal antifungal effect against Mucor sp., antileishmanial, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, THP-1 cell line cytotoxicity, and protein kinase inhibitory activities were shown by ethyl acetate-methanol (MIC: 50 µg/disc), n-hexane (IC50: 120.8 ± 3.7 µg/mL), ethyl acetate (LD50: 29.94 ± 1.6 µg/mL), distilled water–acetone (IC50: 118 ± 3.4 µg/mL) and methanol–chloroform (ZOI: 19 ± 1 mm) extracts, respectively. Our findings show the dependency of phytochemicals and bioactivities on the polarity of the extraction solvent and our preliminary screening suggests the C. tuberculata extract formulations to be tested and used in different ailments, however, detailed studies remain necessary for corroboration with our results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
Profiling of Antifungal Activities and In Silico Studies of Natural Polyphenols from Some Plants
Molecules 2021, 26(23), 7164; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26237164 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1550
Abstract
A worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections, emergence of new fungal strains, and antifungal resistance to commercially available antibiotics indicate the need to investigate new treatment options for fungal diseases. Therefore, the interest in exploring the antifungal activity of medicinal plants [...] Read more.
A worldwide increase in the incidence of fungal infections, emergence of new fungal strains, and antifungal resistance to commercially available antibiotics indicate the need to investigate new treatment options for fungal diseases. Therefore, the interest in exploring the antifungal activity of medicinal plants has now been increased to discover phyto-therapeutics in replacement to conventional antifungal drugs. The study was conducted to explore and identify the mechanism of action of antifungal agents of edible plants, including Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum tamala, Amomum subulatum, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Mentha piperita, Coriandrum sativum, Lactuca sativa, and Brassica oleraceae var. italica. The antifungal potential was assessed via the disc diffusion method and, subsequently, the extracts were assessed for phytochemicals and total antioxidant activity. Potent polyphenols were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antifungal mechanism of action was evaluated in silico. Cinnamomum zeylanicum exhibited antifungal activity against all the tested strains while all plant extracts showed antifungal activity against Fusarium solani. Rutin, kaempferol, and quercetin were identified as common polyphenols. In silico studies showed that rutin displayed the greatest affinity with binding pocket of fungal 14-alpha demethylase and nucleoside diphosphokinase with the binding affinity (Kd, −9.4 and −8.9, respectively), as compared to terbinafine. Results indicated that Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum tamala exert their antifungal effect possibly due to kaempferol and rutin, respectively, or possibly by inhibition of nucleoside diphosphokinase (NDK) and 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51), while Amomum subulatum and Trigonella foenum graecum might exhibit antifungal potential due to quercetin. Overall, the study demonstrates that plant-derived products have a high potential to control fungal infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Refined Fractions from Cyclocarya paliurus Leaves on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Molecules 2021, 26(22), 6886; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26226886 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
To identify the chemical components responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinsk (Juglandaceae) leaves, an ethanol extract (CPE) and a water extract (CPW) of C. paliurus leaves, as well as their total flavonoids (CPF), triterpenoids (CPT) and crude polysaccharides (CPP), [...] Read more.
To identify the chemical components responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic effect of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinsk (Juglandaceae) leaves, an ethanol extract (CPE) and a water extract (CPW) of C. paliurus leaves, as well as their total flavonoids (CPF), triterpenoids (CPT) and crude polysaccharides (CPP), were prepared and assessed on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. After being orally administrated once a day for 24 days, CPF (300 mg/kg), CPP (180 mg/kg), or CPF+CPP (300 mg/kg CPF + 180 mg/kg CPP) treatment reversed STZ-induced body weight and muscle mass losses. The glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests suggested that CPF, CPP, and CPF+CPP showed anti-hyperglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, CPF enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. CPF and CPP suppressed inflammatory cytokine levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Additionally, CPF and CPP improved STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy assessed by H&E staining, blood urea nitrogen content, and urine creatinine level. The molecular networking and Emperor analysis results indicated that CPF showed potential anti-hyperglycemic effects, and HPLC–MS/MS analysis indicated that CPF contains 3 phenolic acids and 9 flavonoids. In contrast, CPT (650 mg/kg) and CPC (300 mg/kg CPF + 180 mg/kg CPP + 650 mg/kg CPT) did not show anti-hyperglycemic effect. Taken together, polysaccharides and flavonoids are responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. paliurus leaves, and the clinical application of C. paliurus need to be refined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Article
In Vitro Study of the Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility of the Main Compounds Present in Ayahuasca Beverages
Molecules 2021, 26(18), 5555; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26185555 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1626
Abstract
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage that contains the psychoactive compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine and β-carboline alkaloids. This study aims at determining in vitro the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of the main compounds present in decoctions of four individual plants, in a commercial [...] Read more.
Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage that contains the psychoactive compound N,N-dimethyltryptamine and β-carboline alkaloids. This study aims at determining in vitro the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of the main compounds present in decoctions of four individual plants, in a commercial mixture and in four mixtures of two individual plants used in the preparation of Ayahuasca. The samples were subjected to an in vitro digestion process, and the Caco-2 cell line was used as an absorption model. The integrity and permeability of the cell monolayer were evaluated, as well as the cytotoxicity of the extracts. After digestion and cell incubation, the compounds absorbed by the cell monolayer were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector. The results showed that compounds such as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, Harmine, Harmaline, Harmol, Harmalol and Tetrahydroharmine were released from the matrix during the in vitro digestion process, becoming bioaccessible. Similarly, some of these compounds, after being incubated with the cell monolayer, were absorbed, becoming bioavailable. The extracts did not show cytotoxicity after cell incubation, and the integrity and permeability of the cell monolayer were not compromised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Review

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Review
Pharmacological Profile, Bioactivities, and Safety of Turmeric Oil
Molecules 2022, 27(16), 5055; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27165055 - 09 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
The pharmacological attributes of turmeric have been extensively described and frequently related to the action of curcuminoids. However, there is also scientific evidence of the contribution of turmeric oil. Since the oil does not contain curcuminoids in its composition, it is crucial to [...] Read more.
The pharmacological attributes of turmeric have been extensively described and frequently related to the action of curcuminoids. However, there is also scientific evidence of the contribution of turmeric oil. Since the oil does not contain curcuminoids in its composition, it is crucial to better understand the therapeutic role of other constituents in turmeric. The present review discusses the pharmacokinetics of turmeric oil, pointing to the potential application of its active molecules as therapeutic compounds. In addition, the bioactivities of turmeric oil and its safety in preclinical and clinical studies were revised. This literature-based research intends to provide an updated overview to promote further research on turmeric oil and its constituents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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Review
Essential Oils in Respiratory Mycosis: A Review
Molecules 2022, 27(13), 4140; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27134140 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Respiratory mycosis is a major health concern, due to the expanding population of immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients and the increasing resistance to conventional antifungals and their undesired side-effects, thus justifying the development of new therapeutic strategies. Plant metabolites, namely essential oils, represent promising [...] Read more.
Respiratory mycosis is a major health concern, due to the expanding population of immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients and the increasing resistance to conventional antifungals and their undesired side-effects, thus justifying the development of new therapeutic strategies. Plant metabolites, namely essential oils, represent promising preventive/therapeutic strategies due to their widely reported antifungal potential. However, regarding fungal infections of the respiratory tract, information is disperse and no updated compilation on current knowledge is available. Therefore, the present review aims to gather and systematize relevant information on the antifungal effects of several essential oils and volatile compounds against the main type of respiratory mycosis that impact health care systems. Particular attention is paid to Aspergillus fumigatus, the main pathogen involved in aspergillosis, Candida auris, currently emerging as a major pathogen in certain parts of the world, and Cryptococcus neoformans, one of the main pathogens involved in pulmonary cryptococcosis. Furthermore, the main mechanisms of action underlying essential oils’ antifungal effects and current limitations in clinical translation are presented. Overall, essential oils rich in phenolic compounds seem to be very effective but clinical translation requires more comprehensive in vivo studies and human trials to assess the efficacy and tolerability of these compounds in respiratory mycosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products: Therapeutic Properties and Beyond II)
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