The Implication of Psychoactive Substance Consumption

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmaceutical Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 November 2024 | Viewed by 4214

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), Covilhã, Portugal
2. Pharmaco-Toxicology Laboratory, UBIMedical, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
3. Centro Académico Clínico das Beiras (CACB)—Grupo de Problemas Relacionados com Toxicofilias, Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: toxicology; analytical method development; recreational drugs; natural psychoactive substances; therapeutic drug monitoring; sample preparation; alternative samples; miniaturized extraction procedures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Beira Interior (CICS-UBI), Covilhã, Portugal
2. Pharmaco-Toxicology Laboratory, UBIMedical, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal
3. Centro Académico Clínico das Beiras (CACB)—Grupo de Problemas Relacionados com Toxicofilias, Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: toxicology; analytical method development; recreational drugs; natural psychoactive substances; therapeutic drug monitoring; sample preparation; alternative samples; miniaturized extraction procedures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many new psychoactive substances are close relatives or analogues of drugs that were first discovered in the pharmaceutical sector. Although psychoactive substances are still discussed as potentially harmful illegal substances for recreational purposes, they have also been researched as potential medicines. Numerous studies suggest substances like ketamine as promising therapeutic approaches in contemporary psychiatry. Its efficacy for treating depression, nicotine and alcohol addictions, and psychological distress associated with life-threatening diseases has been noteworthy. However, this psychoactive substance is also acknowledged to cause agitation, depression, cognitive difficulties, unconsciousness, and amnesia.

In this Special Issue, we welcome both original research and review articles that focus on psychoactive substances’ toxicity, as well as promising therapeutic findings. 

Dr. Tiago Rosado
Prof. Dr. Eugenia Gallardo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • psychoactive substances
  • recreational drugs
  • therapeutic potential
  • toxicity
  • analytical approaches
  • consumption

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

16 pages, 2019 KiB  
Review
α-Pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP) and α-Pyrrolidinoisohexanophenone (α-PiHP): A Review
by Pedro Dinis, João Franco and Cláudia Margalho
Life 2024, 14(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14040429 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
New Psychoactive Substances are currently a serious and growing problem affecting public health worldwide. By 2022, 1184 of these substances had been identified over a period of 16 years. Within these, α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP) and α-pyrrolidinoisohexanophenone (α-PiHP) have emerged, two synthetic cathinones from the [...] Read more.
New Psychoactive Substances are currently a serious and growing problem affecting public health worldwide. By 2022, 1184 of these substances had been identified over a period of 16 years. Within these, α-pyrrolidinohexanophenone (α-PHP) and α-pyrrolidinoisohexanophenone (α-PiHP) have emerged, two synthetic cathinones from the pyrovalerone derivates subgroup that are positional isomers of each other. Alpha-PHP appeared on the Japanese illicit drug market in 2014 and, two years later, α-PiHP was identified for the first time in China. They were placed in schedule II on the list of Psychotropic Substances under International Control in 2020 and in March 2023, respectively. Both cathinones have no therapeutic potential for medical use and therefore are abused for recreational habits, which can lead to fatalities. The most frequent adverse effects reported are cardiac, psychiatric, and neurologic, and fatal intoxications have already been described. In Portugal, their consumption and consequent seizures are more prevalent on the archipelagos, which has been aggravating the health situation. In conclusion, these types of substances are a challenge for forensic toxicology since they are easily synthesized, modified, and placed on the market. Therefore, more studies to develop analytical methods to detect them and more comprehensive legislation should be applied. Thus, this review aimed to address the legislative, physicochemical, toxicological, and analytical aspects of both substances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Implication of Psychoactive Substance Consumption)
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19 pages, 689 KiB  
Review
The Therapeutic Potential of Amphetamine-like Psychostimulants
by Bruno Pires, Luana M. Rosendo, Ana Teresa Brinca, Ana Y. Simão, Mário Barroso, Tiago Rosado and Eugenia Gallardo
Life 2023, 13(11), 2180; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13112180 - 8 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
This review delves into the therapeutic applications of amphetamine-type stimulants such as lisdexamphetamine dimesylate, mixed amphetamine salts, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), dextroamphetamine, and phentermine. These compounds have been investigated for their potential in treating a range of psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), [...] Read more.
This review delves into the therapeutic applications of amphetamine-type stimulants such as lisdexamphetamine dimesylate, mixed amphetamine salts, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), dextroamphetamine, and phentermine. These compounds have been investigated for their potential in treating a range of psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug dependence, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obesity. Lisdexamphetamine dimesylate has shown promise in effectively treating ADHD symptoms in both children and adults. Additionally, it has been explored as a potential treatment for drug dependency and withdrawal, demonstrating encouraging results. Mixed amphetamine salts have also exhibited efficacy in reducing ADHD symptoms in adults. Future research should explore their potential use in treating bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence, considering the associated risks and benefits. MDMA-assisted psychotherapy has emerged as an innovative approach to treating PTSD, leading to sustained reductions in symptoms and even promoting post-traumatic growth. Furthermore, it has shown promise in managing anxiety related to life-threatening illnesses. Dextroamphetamine and phentermine have demonstrated efficacy in treating cocaine and opioid dependence, ADHD, and obesity. However, careful consideration and monitoring by medical professionals are essential due to the potential risks and benefits associated with them. In conclusion, amphetamine-type stimulants present a promising avenue for therapeutic interventions in various psychiatric conditions. Nevertheless, further research is necessary to comprehensively understand their mechanisms of action, dosage requirements, and long-term effects in different patient populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Implication of Psychoactive Substance Consumption)
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