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Article

Ellagic Acid Recovery by Solid State Fermentation of Pomegranate Wastes by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Comparison

1
Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, via Cintia 4, I-80126 Naples, Italy
2
Bioprocesses and Bioproducts Research Group, Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
3
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2- 20133, Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luisella Verotta and Alessandra Napolitano
Molecules 2019, 24(20), 3689; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203689
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
Fermentation in solid state culture (SSC) has been the focus of increasing interest because of its potential for industrial applications. In previous studies SSC of pomegranate wastes by Aspergillus niger has been extensively developed and optimized for the recovery of ellagic acid (EA), a high value bioactive. In this study we comparatively investigated the SSC of powdered pomegranate husks by A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and evaluated the recovery yields of EA by an ultrasound and microwave-assisted 7:3 water/ethanol extraction. Surprisingly enough, the yields obtained by S. cerevisiae fermentation (4% w/w) were found 5-fold higher than those of the A. niger fermented material, with a 10-fold increase with respect to the unfermented material. The EA origin was traced by HPLC analysis that showed a significant decrease in the levels of punicalagin isomers and granatin B and formation of punicalin following fermentation. Other extraction conditions that could warrant a complete solubilization of EA were evaluated. Using a 1:100 solid to solvent ratio and DMSO as the solvent, EA was obtained in 4% yields from S. cerevisiae fermented husks at a high purity degree. Hydrolytic treatment of S. cerevisiae fermented pomegranate husks afforded a material freed of the polysaccharides components that gave recovery yields of EA up to 12% w/w. View Full-Text
Keywords: solid state fermentation; Aspergillus niger; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; ellagic acid; ellagitannins; ultrasound microwave-assisted extraction; acid hydrolysis solid state fermentation; Aspergillus niger; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; ellagic acid; ellagitannins; ultrasound microwave-assisted extraction; acid hydrolysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moccia, F.; Flores-Gallegos, A.C.; Chávez-González, M.L.; Sepúlveda, L.; Marzorati, S.; Verotta, L.; Panzella, L.; Ascacio-Valdes, J.A.; Aguilar, C.N.; Napolitano, A. Ellagic Acid Recovery by Solid State Fermentation of Pomegranate Wastes by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Comparison. Molecules 2019, 24, 3689. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203689

AMA Style

Moccia F, Flores-Gallegos AC, Chávez-González ML, Sepúlveda L, Marzorati S, Verotta L, Panzella L, Ascacio-Valdes JA, Aguilar CN, Napolitano A. Ellagic Acid Recovery by Solid State Fermentation of Pomegranate Wastes by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Comparison. Molecules. 2019; 24(20):3689. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203689

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moccia, Federica, Adriana C. Flores-Gallegos, Mónica L. Chávez-González, Leonardo Sepúlveda, Stefania Marzorati, Luisella Verotta, Lucia Panzella, Juan A. Ascacio-Valdes, Cristobal N. Aguilar, and Alessandra Napolitano. 2019. "Ellagic Acid Recovery by Solid State Fermentation of Pomegranate Wastes by Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A Comparison" Molecules 24, no. 20: 3689. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203689

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