Next Article in Journal
Purification, Preliminary Structure and Antitumor Activity of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Streptococcus thermophilus CH9
Next Article in Special Issue
State-of-the-Art Extraction Methodologies for Bioactive Compounds from Algal Biome to Meet Bio-Economy Challenges and Opportunities
Previous Article in Journal
Applications of Metal-Organic Frameworks in Food Sample Preparation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Increasing Antiradical Activity of Polyphenols from Lotus Seed Epicarp by Probiotic Bacteria Bioconversion
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2897;

Phosphorus Solubilization by Bacillus Species

Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-372 Wroclaw, Poland
Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna Street, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luisella Verotta and Alessandra Napolitano
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2926 KB, uploaded 6 November 2018]   |  


Microbial solubilization applies the natural ability of a microorganism to liberate phosphorus from unavailable structures. The main mechanism recognized to be responsible for the solubilization of phosphorus is the production of different types of organic acids. Three kinds of Bacillus species and three types of raw materials (poultry bones, fish bones, and ash) were tested for solubilization. The following parameters were compared for all discussed cases: pH, specific growth rate, solubilization factor, released phosphorus concentration, and total and individual concentration of organic acids. Utilization of ash brought about the highest specific and maximum specific growth rates. A decrease in pH was observed in most of the discussed cases with the exception of fish bones. At the same time, fish bones had the highest concentration of released P2O5 and the highest total concentration of produced organic acids (gluconic, lactic, acetic, succinic, and propionic) in all discussed cases. The tested Bacillus species produced the mentioned acids with the exception of B. megaterium, where propionic acid was not present. The lactic and acetic acids were those produced in the highest amount. The kind of raw materials and type of Bacillus species used in solubilization had a strong influence on the kind of organic acids that were detected in the broth culture and its total concentration, which had a direct influence on the amount of released phosphorus. The combination of Bacillus megaterium with the fish bones at 5 g/L is proposed as the pair that gives the highest concentration of released phosphorus (483 ± 5 mg/L). View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial solubilization; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus subtilis; Bacillus cereus; organic acids; solubilization factor microbial solubilization; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus subtilis; Bacillus cereus; organic acids; solubilization factor

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saeid, A.; Prochownik, E.; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, J. Phosphorus Solubilization by Bacillus Species. Molecules 2018, 23, 2897.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top