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Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2897; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112897

Phosphorus Solubilization by Bacillus Species

1
Department of Advanced Material Technologies, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-372 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna Street, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luisella Verotta and Alessandra Napolitano
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives from Bioprocessing: Sources and Production)
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Abstract

Microbial solubilization applies the natural ability of a microorganism to liberate phosphorus from unavailable structures. The main mechanism recognized to be responsible for the solubilization of phosphorus is the production of different types of organic acids. Three kinds of Bacillus species and three types of raw materials (poultry bones, fish bones, and ash) were tested for solubilization. The following parameters were compared for all discussed cases: pH, specific growth rate, solubilization factor, released phosphorus concentration, and total and individual concentration of organic acids. Utilization of ash brought about the highest specific and maximum specific growth rates. A decrease in pH was observed in most of the discussed cases with the exception of fish bones. At the same time, fish bones had the highest concentration of released P2O5 and the highest total concentration of produced organic acids (gluconic, lactic, acetic, succinic, and propionic) in all discussed cases. The tested Bacillus species produced the mentioned acids with the exception of B. megaterium, where propionic acid was not present. The lactic and acetic acids were those produced in the highest amount. The kind of raw materials and type of Bacillus species used in solubilization had a strong influence on the kind of organic acids that were detected in the broth culture and its total concentration, which had a direct influence on the amount of released phosphorus. The combination of Bacillus megaterium with the fish bones at 5 g/L is proposed as the pair that gives the highest concentration of released phosphorus (483 ± 5 mg/L). View Full-Text
Keywords: microbial solubilization; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus subtilis; Bacillus cereus; organic acids; solubilization factor microbial solubilization; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus subtilis; Bacillus cereus; organic acids; solubilization factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Saeid, A.; Prochownik, E.; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, J. Phosphorus Solubilization by Bacillus Species. Molecules 2018, 23, 2897.

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