Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 13587

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Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Camden, NJ 08103, USA
Interests: microbiology; gastroenterology; gut microbiome
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of infections which affects almost half of the world adult population, leading to complications, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, non-ulcer dyspepsia, and adenocarcinoma. Eradication remains a major challenge, mainly due to the antibiotic resistance. There is also a need to develop rapid and widely accessible diagnostic methodologies to detect strains of H. pylori that are resistant to specific antibiotics. The progression of infection by H. pylori, development of its antibiotic resistance, and effective treatment options are influenced by a number of factors, including host physiology. Understanding these aspects is, therefore, crucial for the eradication of this bacterium.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a collection of articles that showcase the “Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori”. As the Guest Editor of this Special Issue, I invite you to submit an original research article, review article, or short communication related to diagnosis and/or treatment of H. pylori.

Prof. Dr. Sangita Phadtare
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Helicobacter pylori
  • antibiotic resistance
  • eradication
  • diagnosis
  • bacterial infection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2003 KiB  
Article
Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection: Potential Implications for Future Gastric Cancer Risk
by Marcel Nkuize, Stéphane De Wit, Pieter Demetter, Pierre Eisendrath and Jean Vanderpas
Microorganisms 2023, 11(4), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11040887 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
Objective: Helicobacter pylori and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both pandemic infections with variable geographic prevalence rates. H. pylori–HIV co-infection at the regional and sub-regional levels with a perspective on gastric cancer incidence is discussed. Design: Based on PRISMA guidelines, national data [...] Read more.
Objective: Helicobacter pylori and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are both pandemic infections with variable geographic prevalence rates. H. pylori–HIV co-infection at the regional and sub-regional levels with a perspective on gastric cancer incidence is discussed. Design: Based on PRISMA guidelines, national data for H. pylori, HIV, and H. pylori–HIV co-infection were collected for the general population through December 2019. Joint temporal and geographical data for H. pylori and HIV infections in 48 countries were available and used to generate H. pylori–HIV co-infection estimates by cross-sectional analysis. These data were compared with gastric carcinoma statistics for the same countries. Results: The estimated global prevalence rate of H. pylori–HIV co-infection was 1.7 per 1000 people, representing 12.6 million people. Prevalence according to region was, in decreasing order, sub-Saharan Africa 21.9‰, Eastern Europe/Central Asia 4.3‰, Latin America/Caribbean 2.0 ‰, North America/Western/Southern/Northern Europe 1.1‰, Asia/Pacific 0.8‰, and North Africa/Middle East 0.1 ‰. The incidence and mortality rates for gastric carcinoma were higher in East/Pacific Asia, Southern/Andean Latin America, and Eastern Europe regions, and the incidence appeared to be 1.8-fold greater in H. pylori–HIV-infected people in East Asia. Conclusions: The population at risk of H. pylori–HIV co-infection is estimated to be 12.6 million people (2015 reference year). The heterogeneity of H. pylori–HIV co-infection across regions and sub-regions does not show a clear association with gastric carcinoma. Other methodological approaches with analytical studies (cohort, case–control) are required to measure the potential effect of H. pylori infection and its treatment on the incidence of gastric carcinoma in the large HIV–H. pylori-positive cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori)
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17 pages, 6588 KiB  
Article
Validation of Multiplex PCR and Serology Detecting Helicobacter Species in Mice
by Julia Butt, Mareike Schmitz, Bernhard Berkus, Katja Schmidt and Daniela Höfler
Microorganisms 2023, 11(2), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11020249 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1798
Abstract
High-throughput multiplexed assays are needed to simplify detection of Helicobacter species in experimental infection and routine health monitoring of laboratory mice. Therefore, fluorescent bead-based hybridization assays for Helicobacter sp. DNA and serology were developed. Multiplex PCR amplicons (H. hepaticus, H. bilis, [...] Read more.
High-throughput multiplexed assays are needed to simplify detection of Helicobacter species in experimental infection and routine health monitoring of laboratory mice. Therefore, fluorescent bead-based hybridization assays for Helicobacter sp. DNA and serology were developed. Multiplex PCR amplicons (H. hepaticus, H. bilis, H. typhlonius, H. pylori, H. muridarum, H. pullorum, H. cinaedi, H. heilmanii, C. jejuni) and antibodies against H. pylori, H. hepaticus, H. bilis were assessed in naturally and experimentally infected mice, and results compared to conventional PCR. Species-specific and sensitive detection of seven Helicobacter spp. <100 copies/PCR, and of two species <1000 copies/PCR was successfully established in the Helicobacter multiplex DNA finder. The novel assay was highly comparable with conventional PCR (kappa = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.94–1.00). Antibody detection of H. hepaticus and H. bilis showed low sensitivity (71% and 62%, respectively) and cross-reactivity in H. typhlonius-infected mice. Infection experiments showed that antibodies develop earliest two weeks after DNA detection in feces. In conclusion, detection of Helicobacter antibodies showed low sensitivity depending on the timing relative to infection. However, Helicobacter multiplex DNA finder is a sensitive and specific high-throughput assay applicable in routine health monitoring for laboratory animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori)
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Review

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13 pages, 450 KiB  
Review
Issues Related to the Treatment of H. pylori Infection in People Living with HIV and Receiving Antiretrovirals
by Marcel Nkuize and Stéphane De Wit
Microorganisms 2022, 10(8), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10081541 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in people living with HIV is associated with several challenges, including those related to drug metabolism which plays a major role in treatment efficacy. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes involved in the metabolism of anti- [...] Read more.
Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in people living with HIV is associated with several challenges, including those related to drug metabolism which plays a major role in treatment efficacy. In this review, we will discuss the enzymes involved in the metabolism of anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-HIV drugs to provide a basis for understanding the potential for interactions between these drug classes. We will also provide a clinical perspective on other issues related to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori and HIV infections such as comorbidities, adherence, and peer communication. Finally, based on our understanding of the interplay between the above issues, we propose a new concept “Antimicrobial susceptibility testing-drug interaction-supports-referent physician” (AISR), to provide a framework for improving rates of H. pylori eradication in people living with HIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori)
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20 pages, 800 KiB  
Review
Clinical Factors Implicated in Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Patients
by Brian White, Maria Winte, Joshua DeSipio and Sangita Phadtare
Microorganisms 2022, 10(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10020322 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3841
Abstract
Helicobacter pylori is a common gastric pathogen associated with multiple clinical syndromes, including cancer. Eradication rates of H. pylori remain suboptimal despite the progress made in the past few decades in improving treatment strategies. The low eradication rates are mainly driven by antibiotic [...] Read more.
Helicobacter pylori is a common gastric pathogen associated with multiple clinical syndromes, including cancer. Eradication rates of H. pylori remain suboptimal despite the progress made in the past few decades in improving treatment strategies. The low eradication rates are mainly driven by antibiotic resistance of H. pylori. Non-invasive molecular testing to identify patients with antibiotic-resistant H. pylori represents a promising therapeutic avenue, however this technology currently remains limited by availability, costs, and lack of robust validation. Moreover, there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that resistance-testing-based treatment approaches are superior to appropriately designed empiric strategies. Consensus guidelines recommend use of proven locally effective regimens; however, eradication data are inconsistently generated in several regions of the world. In this review, we describe several clinical factors associated with increased rates of antibiotic resistant H. pylori, including history of previous antibiotic exposure, increasing age, female gender, ethnicity/race, extent of alcohol use, and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Assessment of these factors may aid the clinician in choosing the most appropriate empiric treatment strategy for each patient. Future study should aim to identify locally effective therapies and further explore the clinical factors associated with antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori)
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Other

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11 pages, 2648 KiB  
Case Report
Detection of Helicobacter pylori from Extracted Teeth of a Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
by Masakazu Hamada, Ryota Nomura, Saaya Matayoshi, Yuko Ogaya, Hiroyasu Kameyama, Narikazu Uzawa and Kazuhiko Nakano
Microorganisms 2022, 10(11), 2285; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10112285 - 17 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3203
Abstract
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by isolated cryptogenic thrombocytopenia due to a transient or persistent reduction in platelet count. Many patients with ITP have shown improved platelet count after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. However, there have been no studies [...] Read more.
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by isolated cryptogenic thrombocytopenia due to a transient or persistent reduction in platelet count. Many patients with ITP have shown improved platelet count after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. However, there have been no studies regarding H. pylori in the oral cavity of patients with ITP. Here, we describe a patient with ITP whose oral samples exhibited H. pylori. A 64-year-old woman with ITP came to our hospital with chief complaints that required oral surgery, including tooth extraction and cystectomy. Bacterial DNA from H. pylori was confirmed on the extracted tooth, but was not detected in the saliva taken at the time. Bacterial DNA from H. pylori was detected on the suture around the extraction socket, which was removed at 10 days post-operation. However, H. pylori DNA was not detected in other oral samples at 10 or 30 days post-operation. A urea breath test was carried out in the gastrointestinal clinic at 60 days post-operation, which revealed no presence of H. pylori in the gastrointestinal tract. These results suggest that teeth with severe bacterial infections may be a potential reservoir of H. pylori for patients with ITP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Helicobacter pylori)
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