Aeromonas and Plesiomonas

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2023) | Viewed by 5864

Special Issue Editors

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
Interests: antimicrobial resistance; aeromonads; wastewater; One Health; Escherichia coli; photodynamic inactivation
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Microbial Immunochemistry and Vaccines, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: microbial immunology; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Plesiomonas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite submissions to a Special Issue of the journal Microorganisms, focused on ‘Aeromonas and Plesiomonas’. This topic is also the focus of the 13th International Symposium on Aeromonas and Plesiomonas, which will be held at the Hirszfeld Institute in Wroclaw, Poland, from June 21st to 23rd, 2023.

Although Aeromonas and Plesiomonas belong to two different families, these two genera share many commonalities. Both genera of bacteria are ubiquitous within fresh and brackish aquatic environments and have the capability of infecting cold- and warm-blooded animals. Overfishing and rising seafood demand stress the importance of aquaculture in ensuring global food security. However, diseases caused by both microorganisms in this sector are responsible for significant economic losses, stressing the need for preventative treatments. Clinically, Plesiomonas and Aeromonas species have been identified as emerging foodborne pathogens associated with multiple gastroenteritis outbreaks globally, as well as extra-intestinal infections. Due to their co-existence in multiple ecosystems, the emergence of multi-drug resistance among these microorganisms presents a clinical challenge, as well as a potential vehicle to transfer antimicrobial resistance genes from the environment to other clinically relevant pathogens. Both the inter- and intra-species conjugative transfer of plasmids among Aeromonas species further stresses their potential role in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance as intermediaries to One Health components.

This Special Issue is dedicated to enhancing our understanding of Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. We welcome submissions of original research articles, review articles, and short communications on a broad array of topics including, but not limited to, virulence, antimicrobial resistance, treatment and prevention, and bioremediation.

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Dr. Troy Skwor
Dr. Marta Kaszowska
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Aeromonas
  • Plesiomonas
  • infection
  • foodborne pathogens
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • virulence
  • treatment and prevention
  • bioremediation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 5995 KiB  
Article
First Report and Characterization of a Plasmid-Encoded blaSFO-1 in a Multi-Drug-Resistant Aeromonas hydrophila Clinical Isolate
by Troy Skwor, Dan Christopher Jones, Caitlin Cahak and Ryan J. Newton
Microorganisms 2024, 12(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12030494 - 29 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance remains one of the most pressing public health issues facing the world today. At the forefront of this battle lies the ever-increasing identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases within human pathogens, conferring resistance towards broad-spectrum and last-resort antimicrobials. This study was [...] Read more.
Antibiotic resistance remains one of the most pressing public health issues facing the world today. At the forefront of this battle lies the ever-increasing identification of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases within human pathogens, conferring resistance towards broad-spectrum and last-resort antimicrobials. This study was prompted due to the identification of a pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila isolate (strain MAH-4) collected from abdominal fluid, which presented a robust resistance pattern against second-, third-, and fourth-generation cephalosporins, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, and beta lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Whole genome sequencing was performed and identified a 328 kb plasmid (pMAH4) encoding 10 antibiotic resistance genes, including blaSFO-1, blaTEM-1, and blaOXA-1 of A. hydrophia MAH-4. This is the first report of beta-lactamase SFO-1 within a clinical strain of Aeromonas. Due to the remarkable sequence identity of pMAH4 to plasmids associated with Enterobacterales genera like Klebsiella and the extensive capabilities of Aeromonas for horizontal gene transfer, our identification of a clinical isolate encoding SFO-1 on a plasmid suggests antibiotic resistance gene mobility between Enterobacterales and non-Enterobacterales species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeromonas and Plesiomonas)
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16 pages, 2409 KiB  
Article
Repositioning of the Antihyperlipidemic Drug Fenofibrate for the Management of Aeromonas Infections
by Roberto M. Guerra, Maria José Figueras, Isabel Pujol-Bajador and Ana Fernández-Bravo
Microorganisms 2024, 12(3), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms12030465 - 25 Feb 2024
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Fenofibrate is a fibric acid derivative used as an antihyperlipidemic drug in humans. Its active metabolite, fenofibric acid, acts as an agonist to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), a transcription factor involved in different metabolic pathways. Some studies have reported the potential [...] Read more.
Fenofibrate is a fibric acid derivative used as an antihyperlipidemic drug in humans. Its active metabolite, fenofibric acid, acts as an agonist to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), a transcription factor involved in different metabolic pathways. Some studies have reported the potential protective role of this drug in cell lines and in vivo models against bacterial and viral infections. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of fenofibrate in the macrophage cell line J744A.1 against infections produced by Aeromonas, a pathogen for humans whose resistance to antibiotics has increased in recent decades. Macrophages were infected at MOI 10 with four strains of Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from human clinical samples and subsequently treated with fenofibrate. It was observed that fenofibrate-treated macrophages showed lower levels of cytotoxicity and intracellular bacteria compared to non-treated macrophages. In addition, the viability of treated macrophages was dependent on the dose of fenofibrate used. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis by RT-qPCR revealed significant differences in the expression of the PPAR-α gene and immune-related genes TNF-α, CCL3, and BAX in fenofibrate-treated macrophages compared to the macrophages without treatment. This study provides evidence that fenofibrate offered some protection in vitro in macrophages against Aeromonas infection. However, further studies are needed with other bacteria to determine its potential antibacterial effect and the route by which this protection is achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeromonas and Plesiomonas)
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13 pages, 914 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Cefuroxime Susceptibility on Aeromonas Necrotizing Fasciitis Outcomes
by Tsung-Yu Huang, Shu-Fang Kuo, Yao-Hung Tsai, Jiun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Ti Peng, Yao-Kuang Huang, Chien-Hui Hung, Yen-Yao Li, Hsing-Jung Li, Cheng-Ting Hsiao and Wei-Hsiu Hsu
Microorganisms 2023, 11(11), 2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11112776 - 15 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Despite aggressive antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement, Aeromonas necrotizing fasciitis (NF) can lead to high amputation and mortality rates. Our study compares the different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) via Epsilometer tests (E-tests) between non-survivors and survivors of Aeromonas NF of limbs. A [...] Read more.
Despite aggressive antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement, Aeromonas necrotizing fasciitis (NF) can lead to high amputation and mortality rates. Our study compares the different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) via Epsilometer tests (E-tests) between non-survivors and survivors of Aeromonas NF of limbs. A prospective review of 16 patients with Aeromonas NF was conducted for 3.5 years in a tertiary coastal hospital. E-tests were conducted for 15 antimicrobial agents to determine the MIC value for Aeromonas species. These patients were divided into non-survival and survival groups. The clinical outcomes, demographics, comorbidities, presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and microbiological results between the two periods were compared. A total of four patients died, whereas 12 survived, resulting in a 25% mortality rate. A higher proportion of bloodstream infections (100% vs. 41.7%; p = 0.042), monomicrobial infections (100% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.021), shock (100% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.021), serous bullae (50% vs. 0%; p = 0.009), liver cirrhosis (100% vs. 25%; p = 0.009), chronic kidney disease (100% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.021), lower susceptibility to cefuroxime (25% vs. 83.3%; p = 0.028), and ineffective antibiotic prescriptions (75% vs. 16.7%; p = 0.029) was observed in non-survivors. Aeromonas NF is an extremely rare skin and soft-tissue infection that is associated with high mortality, bacteremia, antibiotic resistance, and polymicrobial infection. Therefore, antibiotic regimen selection is rendered very challenging. To improve clinical outcomes and irrational antimicrobial usage, experienced microbiologists can help physicians identify specific pathogens and test MIC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeromonas and Plesiomonas)
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13 pages, 2259 KiB  
Article
Interaction of pAsa5 and pAsa8 Plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida
by Pierre-Étienne Marcoux, Sarah B. Girard, Kim C. Fournier, Catherine A. Tardif, Ariane Gosselin and Steve J. Charette
Microorganisms 2023, 11(11), 2685; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11112685 - 2 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
The plasmid known as pAsa5 is present in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen. The pAsa5 plasmid carries genes that are essential for the bacterium’s virulence. Recombination events are known to occur in pAsa5, resulting in the loss of certain segments [...] Read more.
The plasmid known as pAsa5 is present in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen. The pAsa5 plasmid carries genes that are essential for the bacterium’s virulence. Recombination events are known to occur in pAsa5, resulting in the loss of certain segments or the acquisition of additional genetic elements. For example, the transposon carried by the large pAsa8 plasmid was found to be inserted into the pAsa5 plasmid in the SHY16-3432 strain, enabling the addition of antibiotic resistance genes to this plasmid, which does not normally possess any. In this study, we present the isolation of additional strains carrying pAsa8. Further analyses of these strains revealed that a fusion between pAsa5 and the complete version of pAsa8 is possible. The pAsa8 transposon insertion in pAsa5 seen in the SHY16-3432 strain appears to be an aberrant event compared to the fusion of the two full-length plasmids. A 22-nucleotide sequence, present in both plasmids, serves as the site for the fusion of the two plasmids. Moreover, it is possible to introduce pAsa8 through conjugation into naive strains of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and once the plasmid is within a new strain, the fusion with pAsa5 is detectable. This study reveals a previously unexplored aspect of pAsa5 plasmid biology, highlighting an additional risk for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeromonas and Plesiomonas)
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13 pages, 4284 KiB  
Article
A Class 4-like Chromosomal Integron Found in Aeromonas sp. Genomospecies paramedia Isolated from Human Feces
by Jesús Baltazar-Cruz, Rogelio Rojas-Rios, Violeta Larios-Serrato, Itza Mendoza-Sanchez, Everardo Curiel-Quesada and Abigail Pérez-Valdespino
Microorganisms 2023, 11(10), 2548; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms11102548 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Integrons are genetic elements that store, express and exchange gene cassettes. These elements are characterized by containing a gene that codes for an integrase (intI), a cassette integration site (attI) and a variable region holding the cassettes. Using bioinformatics [...] Read more.
Integrons are genetic elements that store, express and exchange gene cassettes. These elements are characterized by containing a gene that codes for an integrase (intI), a cassette integration site (attI) and a variable region holding the cassettes. Using bioinformatics and molecular biology methods, a functional integron found in Aeromonas sp. 3925, a strain isolated from diarrheal stools, is described. To confirm the integron class, a phylogenetic analysis with amino acid sequences was conducted. The integrase was associated to class 4 integrases; however, it is clearly different from them. Thus, we classified the associated element as a class 4-like integron. We found that the integrase activity is not under the control of the SOS or catabolic repression, since the expression was not increased in the presence of mitomycin or arabinose. The class-4-like integron is located on the chromosome and contains two well-defined gene cassettes: aadA1 that confers resistance to streptomycin and lpt coding for a lipoprotein. It also includes eight Open Reading frames (ORFs) with unknown functions. The strain was characterized through a Multilocus Phylogenetic Analyses (MLPA) of the gyrB, gyrA, rpoD, recA, dnaJ and dnaX genes. The phylogenetic results grouped it into a different clade from the species already reported, making it impossible to assign a species. We resorted to undertaking complete genome sequencing and a phylogenomic analysis. Aeromonas sp. 3925 is related to A. media and A. rivipollensis clusters, but it is clearly different from these species. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) analyses suggested that this isolate belongs to the genomospecies paramedia. This paper describes the first class 4-like integron in Aeromonas and contributes to the establishment of genomospecies paramedia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aeromonas and Plesiomonas)
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