Special Issue "Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 May 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Tomasz Trzepiecinski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Forming and Processing, Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powst. Warszawy 8, 39-959 Rzeszów, Poland
Interests: anisotropic plasticity; computational modeling; constitutive modelling; finite element method (FEM); friction; friction welding; Manufacturing processes; Sheet metal forming, Tribology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to call to your attention the Special Issue of Metals on the "Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials". The plastic forming of metallic materials is the most efficient and an important manufacturing technology in today's industry. Lightweight materials, such as titanium alloys, aluminium alloys and ultra-high-strength steels are used extensively in the automotive, aerospace, transportation, and construction industries leading to increasing demand for advanced innovative forming technologies. Today, numerical simulation is highly focused and provides a better understanding of the innovative forming processes. Computational methods and numerical analysis coupled with the modelling of the structural evolution allow us to reduce time and eliminate experimental tests.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest achievements in various modern metal forming processes and the latest research related to the computational methods for metal forming technologies. Research articles focusing on new developments in the forming of metallic materials are welcome for consideration of publication. I truly believe that this Special Issue will help the metals research community to enhance understanding of the present status and trends of the forming processes of modern metallic materials. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • aerospace and automotive metal forming technologies,
  • computational techniques for metal forming processes,
  • high-speed forming technologies,
  • technology of incremental sheet forming,
  • formability of metallic materials,
  • hydroforming processes,
  • friction and lubrication in metal forming,
  • material behavior modeling of metal forming processes.

Prof. Tomasz Trzepiecinski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Computational methods
  • Constitutive modeling
  • Finite element method
  • Formability
  • Friction
  • Metal forming
  • Metals
  • Microstructure
  • Sheet metal forming

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Residual Stresses and Surface Roughness Analysis of Truncated Cones of Steel Sheet Made by Single Point Incremental Forming
Metals 2020, 10(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020237 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
The dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of metal components formed by the Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) process are greatly affected by the prevailing state of residual stress. An X-ray diffraction method has been applied to achieve an understanding of the residual stress [...] Read more.
The dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of metal components formed by the Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) process are greatly affected by the prevailing state of residual stress. An X-ray diffraction method has been applied to achieve an understanding of the residual stress formation caused by the SPIF process of deep drawing a quality steel sheet drawpiece. The test object for an analysis of residual stress distribution was a conical truncated drawpiece with a slope angle of 71° and base diameter of the cone of 65 mm. The forming process has been carried out on a 3-axis HAAS TM1P milling machine. Uniaxial tensile tests have been carried out in the universal tensile testing machine to characterize the material tested. It was found that the inner surface of the drawpiece revealed small linear grooves as a result of the interaction of the tool tip with the workpiece. By contrast, the outer surface was free of grooves which are a source of premature cracking. The stress profile exhibits a nonlinear distribution due to different strengthening of the material along the generating line of the truncated conical drawpiece. The SPIF parts experienced a maximum residual stress value of about 84.5 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Texture Evolution with Relation to Mechanical Properties of Compared Symmetrically and Asymmetrically Cold Rolled Aluminum Alloy
Metals 2020, 10(2), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020156 - 21 Jan 2020
Abstract
The impact of asymmetric cold rolling was quantitatively assessed for an industrial aluminum alloy AA 5454. The asymmetric rolling resulted in lower rolling forces and higher strains compared to conventional symmetric rolling. In order to demonstrate the positive effect on the mechanical properties [...] Read more.
The impact of asymmetric cold rolling was quantitatively assessed for an industrial aluminum alloy AA 5454. The asymmetric rolling resulted in lower rolling forces and higher strains compared to conventional symmetric rolling. In order to demonstrate the positive effect on the mechanical properties with asymmetric rolling, tensile tests, plastic-strain-ratio tests and hardness measurements were conducted. The improvements to the microstructure and the texture were observed with a light and scanning electron microscope; the latter making use of electron-backscatter diffraction. The result of the asymmetric rolling was a much lower planar anisotropy and a more homogeneous metal sheet with finer grains after annealing to the soft condition. The increased isotropy of the deformed and annealed aluminum sheet is a product of the texture heterogeneity and reduced volume fractions of separate texture components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Deformation Behavior and Experiments on a Light Alloy Seamless Tube via a Tandem Skew Rolling Process
Metals 2020, 10(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010059 - 29 Dec 2019
Abstract
As a process for producing seamless tubes, the tandem skew rolling (TSR) process was proposed. In order to study deformation characteristics and mechanism on tubes obtained by the TSR process, a numerical simulation of the process was analyzed using Deform-3D software. Simulation results [...] Read more.
As a process for producing seamless tubes, the tandem skew rolling (TSR) process was proposed. In order to study deformation characteristics and mechanism on tubes obtained by the TSR process, a numerical simulation of the process was analyzed using Deform-3D software. Simulation results demonstrated the distribution of stress, strain, velocity, and temperature of a seamless tube in the stable stage during the TSR process. Actual experiments of carbon steel 1045, high strength steel 42CrMo, and magnesium alloy AZ31 were carried out in a TSR testing mill. The results demonstrated that the TSR process is qualified for producing tubes of high quality, with an accuracy of ±0.2 mm in wall thickness and ±0.35 mm in diameter. This process is suitable for manufacturing seamless tubes that are difficult to deform or that have been deformed in a narrow range of temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A 3D FEM-Based Numerical Analysis of the Sheet Metal Strip Flowing Through Drawbead Simulator
Metals 2020, 10(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010045 - 25 Dec 2019
Abstract
Drawbeads are elements of the stamping die and they are used to compensate material flow resistance around the perimeter of the drawpiece or to change the stress state in specific regions of the drawpiece. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical [...] Read more.
Drawbeads are elements of the stamping die and they are used to compensate material flow resistance around the perimeter of the drawpiece or to change the stress state in specific regions of the drawpiece. This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical analyses of tests of sheet metal flowing through a drawbead. The tests have been carried out using a special tribological simulator of the drawbead. Experimental tests to determine the coefficient of friction (COF) have been carried out for three widths of sheet metal strip and two drawbead heights. The three-dimensional (3D) elastic-plastic numerical computations were performed using the MSC. Marc program. Special attention was given to the effect of material flow through the drawbead on the distribution of the normal stress on the tool-sheet interface. The mesh sensitivity analysis based on the value of the drawing force of the specimen being pulled through the drawbead allowed an optimal mesh size to be determined. The errors between the numerically predicted values of the COF and the values experimentally determined ranged from about 0.95% to 7.1% in the cases analysed. In the case of a drawbead height of 12 mm, the numerical model overestimated the value of the COF for all specimen widths analysed. By contrast, in the case of a drawbead height of 18 mm, all experimentally determined friction coefficients are underestimated by Finite Element Method (FEM). This was explained by the different character of sheet deformation under friction and frictionless conditions. An increase in the drawbead height, with the same sheet width, increases the value of the COF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Coefficient of Friction in Steel Sheets Forming
Metals 2019, 9(9), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9090988 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to compare the tribological properties of a deep drawing quality steel sheet using the three commonly used friction tests, i.e., the strip drawing test, draw bead test, and bending under tension test. All tests have been carried [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to compare the tribological properties of a deep drawing quality steel sheet using the three commonly used friction tests, i.e., the strip drawing test, draw bead test, and bending under tension test. All tests have been carried out using a specially designed friction simulator. The test material was a 0.8-mm-thick DC04 steel sheet, commonly used in the automotive industry. Uniaxial tensile tests have been carried out to characterise the mechanical properties of the specimens. Furthermore, measurements of the sheet surface topography have been carried out to characterise the tribological properties of the specimens. The friction tests have been conducted under different pressure and lubrication conditions, surface roughnesses of tools represented by counter-samples, and orientations of the specimens according to the direction of the sheet rolling. A comparative analysis of the results of the friction tests revealed different values of friction. In the strip drawing test, the value of the coefficient of friction decreases as the contact pressure increases for both dry and lubricated conditions. In the draw bead test, the specimens oriented along the rolling direction demonstrated a higher value of the coefficient of friction compared to the samples cut transverse to the rolling direction. In contrast to the strip drawing test, the specimens tested in the bending under tension test exhibit a tendency to an increase in the value of the coefficient of friction with the increasing contact pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Heat Treatment on the Workability of Modified 9Cr-2W Steel with Higher B Content
Metals 2019, 9(8), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080904 - 18 Aug 2019
Abstract
In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the fracture behavior of alloy B steel with boron (B) contents as high as 130 ppm was investigated. The Alloy B are derived from Gr.92 steel with outstanding creep characteristics. The amounts of minor [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the fracture behavior of alloy B steel with boron (B) contents as high as 130 ppm was investigated. The Alloy B are derived from Gr.92 steel with outstanding creep characteristics. The amounts of minor alloying elements such as B, N, Nb, Ta, and C were optimized to achieve better mechanical properties at high temperatures. Hence, workability of the alloy B and Gr.92 were compared. An increase in the B content affected the phase transformation temperature and texture of the steel. The development of the {111}<uvw> components in γ-fibers depended on the austenite fraction of the steel after the phase transformation. An increase in the B content of the steel increased its α-to-γ phase transformation temperature, thus preventing the occurrence of sufficient transformation under the normalizing condition. Cracks occurred at the point of the elastic-to-plastic deformation transition in the normal direction during the rolling process, thereby resulting in failure. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid intermediate heat treatment conditions, in which γ-fibers do not fully develop, i.e., to avoid an imperfect normalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Springback Calibration of a U-Shaped Electromagnetic Impulse Forming Process
Metals 2019, 9(5), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050603 - 24 May 2019
Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) finite-element model (FEM), including quasi-static stamping, sequential coupling for electromagnetic forming (EMF) and springback, was established to analyze the springback calibration by electromagnetic force. Results show that the tangential stress at the sheet bending region is reduced, and even the [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional (3D) finite-element model (FEM), including quasi-static stamping, sequential coupling for electromagnetic forming (EMF) and springback, was established to analyze the springback calibration by electromagnetic force. Results show that the tangential stress at the sheet bending region is reduced, and even the direction of tangential stress at the bending region is changed after EMF. The springback can be significantly reduced with a higher discharge voltage. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment results, and the simulation method has a high accuracy in predicting the springback of quasi-static stamping and electromagnetic forming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Developments and Trends in the Friction Testing for Conventional Sheet Metal Forming and Incremental Sheet Forming
Metals 2020, 10(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10010047 - 25 Dec 2019
Abstract
Friction is the main phenomenon that has a huge influence on the flow behavior of deformed material in sheet metal forming operations. Sheet metal forming methods are one of the most popular processes of obtaining finished products, especially in aerospace, automobile, and defense [...] Read more.
Friction is the main phenomenon that has a huge influence on the flow behavior of deformed material in sheet metal forming operations. Sheet metal forming methods are one of the most popular processes of obtaining finished products, especially in aerospace, automobile, and defense industries. Methods of sheet forming are carried out at different temperatures. So, it requires tribological tests that suitably represent the contact phenomena related to the temperature. The knowledge of the friction properties of the sheet is required for the proper design of the conditions of manufacturing processes and tools. This paper summarizes the methods used to describe friction conditions in conventional sheet metal forming and incremental sheet forming that have been developed over a period of time. The following databases have been searched: WebofKowledge, Scopus, Baztool, Bielefield Academic Search Engine, DOAJ Directory of Open Access Journals, eLibrary.ru, FreeFullPdf, GoogleScholar, INGENTA, Polish Scientific Journals Database, ScienceDirect, Springer, WorldCat, WorldWideScience. The English language is selected as the main source of review. However, in a limited scope, databases in Polish and Russian languages are also used. Many methods of friction testing for tribological studies are selected and presented. Some of the methods are observed to have a huge potential in characterizing frictional resistance. The application of these methods and main results have also been provided. Parameters affecting the frictional phenomena and the role of friction have also been explained. The main disadvantages and limitations of the methods of modeling the friction phenomena in specific areas of material to be formed have been discussed. The main findings are as follows—The tribological tests can be classified into direct and indirect measurement tests of the coefficient of friction (COF). In indirect methods of determination, the COF is determined based on measuring other physical quantities. The disadvantage of this type of methods is that they allow the determination of the average COF values, but they do not allow measuring and determining the real friction resistance. In metal forming operations, there exist high local pressures that intensify the effects of adhesion and plowing in the friction resistance. In such conditions, due to the plastic deformation of the material tested, the usage of the formula for the determination of the COF based on the Coulomb friction model is limited. The applicability of the Coulomb friction model to determine the COF is also very limited in the description of contact phenomena in hot SMF due to the high shear of adhesion in total contact resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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