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Open AccessArticle

Residual Stresses and Surface Roughness Analysis of Truncated Cones of Steel Sheet Made by Single Point Incremental Forming

1
Institute of Technology and Material Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Mäsiarska 74, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, State School of Higher Vocational Education, Rynek 1, 38-400 Krosno, Poland
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Department of Manufacturing and Production Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, al. Powst. Warszawy 8, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Department of Materials Forming and Processing, Rzeszow University of Technology, al. Powst. Warszawy 8, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
5
Centre for Innovative Technologies, University of Rzeszów, ul. Pigonia 1, 35-959 Rzeszów, Poland
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Institute of Technology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, al. Rejtana 16c, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
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Department of Machining and Manufacturing Technology, University of Žilina, Univerzitna 1, 010-26 Žilina, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2020, 10(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10020237
Received: 31 December 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 10 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
The dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of metal components formed by the Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) process are greatly affected by the prevailing state of residual stress. An X-ray diffraction method has been applied to achieve an understanding of the residual stress formation caused by the SPIF process of deep drawing a quality steel sheet drawpiece. The test object for an analysis of residual stress distribution was a conical truncated drawpiece with a slope angle of 71° and base diameter of the cone of 65 mm. The forming process has been carried out on a 3-axis HAAS TM1P milling machine. Uniaxial tensile tests have been carried out in the universal tensile testing machine to characterize the material tested. It was found that the inner surface of the drawpiece revealed small linear grooves as a result of the interaction of the tool tip with the workpiece. By contrast, the outer surface was free of grooves which are a source of premature cracking. The stress profile exhibits a nonlinear distribution due to different strengthening of the material along the generating line of the truncated conical drawpiece. The SPIF parts experienced a maximum residual stress value of about 84.5 MPa.
Keywords: mechanical engineering; truncated cone; incremental sheet forming; SPIF mechanical engineering; truncated cone; incremental sheet forming; SPIF
MDPI and ACS Style

Slota, J.; Krasowski, B.; Kubit, A.; Trzepiecinski, T.; Bochnowski, W.; Dudek, K.; Neslušan, M. Residual Stresses and Surface Roughness Analysis of Truncated Cones of Steel Sheet Made by Single Point Incremental Forming. Metals 2020, 10, 237.

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