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Special Issue "Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 February 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Jose M.F. Ferreira

Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +351-234-370-354
Interests: synthesis of powders by different techniques; structural (oxide- and non-oxide-based) ceramics; functional (piezoelectric, ferroelectric, magnetic, etc.) materials; development of materials for optical and energy related applications; development and processing of materials for applications in biomedicine, especially in dentistry, orthopedics and tissue engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Research efforts are often driven by real needs for new or better materials, processes or systems that do not satisfactorily fulfil expected/desired roles or functions. The discovery of bioactive glasses (BGs) in the late 1960s, intended to replace inert metal and plastic implants that were not well tolerated by the body, represents a remarkable milestone in the field of synthetic and resorbable bone grafts. This discovery has inspired many other investigations, aiming at further exploring the in vitro and in vivo performances of BGs and other inorganic bioactive materials based on calcium phosphates and or inorganic/organic composites by suitably mixing the inorganic components with biopolymer matrices aiming at better mimicking the mechanical behavior and properties of bone tissues. However, successful tissue engineering strategies typically involve a combination of cells and bioactive factors with an implantable porous biomaterial construct to provide an environment conducive to cell differentiation and proliferation. Several processing techniques might be used to generate the 3D porous structure. Printing methods have recently gained tremendous importance, being increasingly applied to inorganic, polymeric and composite acellular materials. However, some of the most exciting developments in the last years are related to: (i) the bioprinting of cellularized constructs from hydrogels to engineer heterogeneously cellular 3D environments that lead to tissues that can mimic specific organ functions; and (ii) multifunctional devices that include in situ drug release and antibacterial activity. Contributions to this Special Issue on the abovementioned topics, but not limited to them, will be welcome.

Prof. Dr. Jose M.F. Ferreira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access bimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive bone graft materials
  • osteoinduction of hMSC
  • porous constructs
  • additive manufacturing techniques
  • bioprinting

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Chitosan/Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) Matrices Obtained by Gamma-Irradiation for Skin Scaffolds: Characterization and Preliminary Cell Response Studies
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2535; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122535
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 13 December 2018
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Abstract
Several studies have shown that chitosan possesses characteristics favorable for promoting dermal regeneration and accelerated wound healing. In this work we have reported the work that has been done on the development and characterization of biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan based matrices to be
[...] Read more.
Several studies have shown that chitosan possesses characteristics favorable for promoting dermal regeneration and accelerated wound healing. In this work we have reported the work that has been done on the development and characterization of biocompatible and biodegradable chitosan based matrices to be used as skin scaffolds. Poly(vinylpyrrrolidone) (PVP) was used as copolymer and a two steps methodology of freeze-drying and gamma irradiation was used to obtain the porous matrices. The influence of PVP content, synthesis procedure and absorbed radiation dose on matrices’ physical, chemical and structural properties was evaluated by ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM, contact angle measurements and degradation behavior. The in vitro cellular viability and proliferation of HFFF2 fibroblast cell line was analyzed as a measure of matrices’ biocompatibility and ability to assist skin regeneration. Results show that over the studied range values, gamma-radiation dose, copolymer concentration and synthesis procedure can be used to tailor the matrices’ morphology in terms of porosity and surface roughness. Early results from biological assays evidence the biocompatibility of the prepared chitosan/PVP matrices since cells adhered to the surface of all matrices (chitosan/PVP (5%) γ-irradiated at 10 kGy presents the higher cellular viability). These features show that the resultant matrices could be a potential suitable scaffold for skin tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Migration of Human MSCs through Fibrin Hydrogels as a Tool for Formulation Optimisation
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091781
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 15 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Control of cell migration is fundamental to the performance of materials for cell delivery, as for cells to provide any therapeutic effect, they must migrate out from the delivery material. Here the influence of fibrinogen concentration on the migration of encapsulated human mesenchymal
[...] Read more.
Control of cell migration is fundamental to the performance of materials for cell delivery, as for cells to provide any therapeutic effect, they must migrate out from the delivery material. Here the influence of fibrinogen concentration on the migration of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from a cell spheroid through fibrin hydrogels is tracked over time. Fibrin was chosen as a model material as it is routinely employed as a haemostatic agent and more recently has been applied as a localised delivery vehicle for potential therapeutic cell populations. The hydrogels consisted of 5 U/mL thrombin and between 5 and 50 mg/mL fibrinogen. Microstructural and viscoelastic properties of different compositions were evaluated using SEM and rheometry. Increasing the fibrinogen concentration resulted in a visibly denser matrix with smaller pores and higher stiffness. hMSCs dispersed within the fibrin gels maintained cell viability post-encapsulation, however, the migration of cells from an encapsulated spheroid revealed that denser fibrin matrices inhibit cell migration. This study provides the first quantitative study on the influence of fibrinogen concentration on 3D hMSC migration within fibrin gels, which can be used to guide material selection for scaffold design in tissue engineering and for the clinical application of fibrin sealants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Demineralized Bone Matrix Coating Si-Ca-P Ceramic Does Not Improve the Osseointegration of the Scaffold
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091580
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to manufacture and evaluate the effect of a biphasic calcium silicophosphate (CSP) scaffold ceramic, coated with a natural demineralized bone matrix (DBM), to evaluate the efficiency of this novel ceramic material in bone regeneration. The DBM-coated CSP
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to manufacture and evaluate the effect of a biphasic calcium silicophosphate (CSP) scaffold ceramic, coated with a natural demineralized bone matrix (DBM), to evaluate the efficiency of this novel ceramic material in bone regeneration. The DBM-coated CSP ceramic was made by coating a CSP scaffold with gel DBM, produced by the partial sintering of different-sized porous granules. These scaffolds were used to reconstruct defects in rabbit tibiae, where CSP scaffolds acted as the control material. Micro-CT and histological analyses were performed to evaluate new bone formation at 1, 3, and 5 months post-surgery. The present research results showed a correlation among the data obtained by micro-CT and the histomorphological results, the gradual disintegration of the biomaterial, and the presence of free scaffold fragments dispersed inside the medullary cavity occupied by hematopoietic bone marrow over the 5-month study period. No difference was found between the DBM-coated and uncoated implants. The new bone tissue inside the implants increased with implantation time. Slightly less new bone formation was observed in the DBM-coated samples, but it was not statistically significant. Both the DBM-coated and the CSP scaffolds gave excellent bone tissue responses and good osteoconductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Printed Structures Filled with Carbon Fibers and Functionalized with Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Media as In Vitro Cell Niches for Promoting Chondrogenesis
Materials 2018, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11010023
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we present a novel approach towards the straightforward, rapid, and low-cost development of biomimetic composite scaffolds for tissue engineering strategies. The system is based on the additive manufacture of a computer-designed lattice structure or framework, into which carbon fibers are
[...] Read more.
In this study, we present a novel approach towards the straightforward, rapid, and low-cost development of biomimetic composite scaffolds for tissue engineering strategies. The system is based on the additive manufacture of a computer-designed lattice structure or framework, into which carbon fibers are subsequently knitted or incorporated. The 3D-printed lattice structure acts as support and the knitted carbon fibers perform as driving elements for promoting cell colonization of the three-dimensional construct. A human mesenchymal stem cell (h-MSC) conditioned medium (CM) is also used for improving the scaffold’s response and promoting cell adhesion, proliferation, and viability. Cell culture results—in which scaffolds become buried in collagen type II—provide relevant information regarding the viability of the composite scaffolds used and the prospective applications of the proposed approach. In fact, the advanced composite scaffold developed, together with the conditioned medium functionalization, constitutes a biomimetic stem cell niche with clear potential, not just for tendon and ligament repair, but also for cartilage and endochondral bone formation and regeneration strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioactive Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Healthcare Applications in Bone Regeneration and Tissue Engineering
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122530
Received: 10 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
The discovery of bioactive glasses (BGs) in the late 1960s by Larry Hench et al. was driven by the need for implant materials with an ability to bond to living tissues, which were intended to replace inert metal and plastic implants that were
[...] Read more.
The discovery of bioactive glasses (BGs) in the late 1960s by Larry Hench et al. was driven by the need for implant materials with an ability to bond to living tissues, which were intended to replace inert metal and plastic implants that were not well tolerated by the body. Among a number of tested compositions, the one that later became designated by the well-known trademark of 45S5 Bioglass® excelled in its ability to bond to bone and soft tissues. Bonding to living tissues was mediated through the formation of an interfacial bone-like hydroxyapatite layer when the bioglass was put in contact with biological fluids in vivo. This feature represented a remarkable milestone, and has inspired many other investigations aiming at further exploring the in vitro and in vivo performances of this and other related BG compositions. This paradigmatic example of a target-oriented research is certainly one of the most valuable contributions that one can learn from Larry Hench. Such a goal-oriented approach needs to be continuously stimulated, aiming at finding out better performing materials to overcome the limitations of the existing ones, including the 45S5 Bioglass®. Its well-known that its main limitations include: (i) the high pH environment that is created by its high sodium content could turn it cytotoxic; (ii) and the poor sintering ability makes the fabrication of porous three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds difficult. All of these relevant features strongly depend on a number of interrelated factors that need to be well compromised. The selected chemical composition strongly determines the glass structure, the biocompatibility, the degradation rate, and the ease of processing (scaffolds fabrication and sintering). This manuscript presents a first general appraisal of the scientific output in the interrelated areas of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics, scaffolds, implant coatings, and tissue engineering. Then, it gives an overview of the critical issues that need to be considered when developing bioactive glasses for healthcare applications. The aim is to provide knowledge-based tools towards guiding young researchers in the design of new bioactive glass compositions, taking into account the desired functional properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Cationic Substitutions in Hydroxyapatite: Current Status of the Derived Biofunctional Effects and Their In Vitro Interrogation Methods
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112081
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 13 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
High-performance bioceramics are required for preventing failure and prolonging the life-time of bone grafting scaffolds and osseous implants. The proper identification and development of materials with extended functionalities addressing socio-economic needs and health problems constitute important and critical steps at the heart of
[...] Read more.
High-performance bioceramics are required for preventing failure and prolonging the life-time of bone grafting scaffolds and osseous implants. The proper identification and development of materials with extended functionalities addressing socio-economic needs and health problems constitute important and critical steps at the heart of clinical research. Recent findings in the realm of ion-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) could pave the road towards significant developments in biomedicine, with an emphasis on a new generation of orthopaedic and dentistry applications, since such bioceramics are able to mimic the structural, compositional and mechanical properties of the bone mineral phase. In fact, the fascinating ability of the HA crystalline lattice to allow for the substitution of calcium ions with a plethora of cationic species has been widely explored in the recent period, with consequent modifications of its physical and chemical features, as well as its functional mechanical and in vitro and in vivo biological performance. A comprehensive inventory of the progresses achieved so far is both opportune and of paramount importance, in order to not only gather and summarize information, but to also allow fellow researchers to compare with ease and filter the best solutions for the cation substitution of HA-based materials and enable the development of multi-functional biomedical designs. The review surveys preparation and synthesis methods, pinpoints all the explored cation dopants, and discloses the full application range of substituted HA. Special attention is dedicated to the antimicrobial efficiency spectrum and cytotoxic trade-off concentration values for various cell lines, highlighting new prophylactic routes for the prevention of implant failure. Importantly, the current in vitro biological tests (widely employed to unveil the biological performance of HA-based materials), and their ability to mimic the in vivo biological interactions, are also critically assessed. Future perspectives are discussed, and a series of recommendations are underlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview Biofabrication of Electrospun Scaffolds for the Regeneration of Tendons and Ligaments
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101963
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (13257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tendon and ligament tissue regeneration and replacement are complex since scaffolds need to guarantee an adequate hierarchical structured morphology, and non-linear mechanical properties. Moreover, to guide the cells’ proliferation and tissue re-growth, scaffolds must provide a fibrous texture mimicking the typical of the
[...] Read more.
Tendon and ligament tissue regeneration and replacement are complex since scaffolds need to guarantee an adequate hierarchical structured morphology, and non-linear mechanical properties. Moreover, to guide the cells’ proliferation and tissue re-growth, scaffolds must provide a fibrous texture mimicking the typical of the arrangement of the collagen in the extracellular matrix of these tissues. Among the different techniques to produce scaffolds, electrospinning is one of the most promising, thanks to its ability to produce fibers of nanometric size. This manuscript aims to provide an overview to researchers approaching the field of repair and regeneration of tendons and ligaments. To clarify the general requirements of electrospun scaffolds, the first part of this manuscript presents a general overview concerning tendons’ and ligaments’ structure and mechanical properties. The different types of polymers, blends and particles most frequently used for tendon and ligament tissue engineering are summarized. Furthermore, the focus of the review is on describing the different possible electrospinning setups and processes to obtain different nanofibrous structures, such as mats, bundles, yarns and more complex hierarchical assemblies. Finally, an overview concerning how these technologies are exploited to produce electrospun scaffolds for tendon and ligament tissue applications is reported together with the main findings and outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview Synthetic and Marine-Derived Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
Materials 2018, 11(9), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11091702
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Bone is a vascularized and connective tissue. The cortical bone is the main part responsible for the support and protection of the remaining systems and organs of the body. The trabecular spongy bone serves as the storage of ions and bone marrow. As
[...] Read more.
Bone is a vascularized and connective tissue. The cortical bone is the main part responsible for the support and protection of the remaining systems and organs of the body. The trabecular spongy bone serves as the storage of ions and bone marrow. As a dynamic tissue, bone is in a constant remodelling process to adapt to the mechanical demands and to repair small lesions that may occur. Nevertheless, due to the increased incidence of bone disorders, the need for bone grafts has been growing over the past decades and the development of an ideal bone graft with optimal properties remains a clinical challenge. This review addresses the bone properties (morphology, composition, and their repair and regeneration capacity) and puts the focus on the potential strategies for developing bone repair and regeneration materials. It describes the requirements for designing a suitable scaffold material, types of materials (polymers, ceramics, and composites), and techniques to obtain the porous structures (additive manufacturing techniques like robocasting or derived from marine skeletons) for bone tissue engineering applications. Overall, the main objective of this review is to gather the knowledge on the materials and methods used for the production of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and to highlight the potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons as promising alternative bone graft substitute materials without any further mineralogical changes, or after partial or total transformation into calcium phosphate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Author: Jose M.F. Ferreira

2. Author: A.R. Boccaccini

3. Author: Sergey V. Dorozhkin

4. Author: Shintaroh Iwanaga

5. Author: Leszek Dobrzański

6. Author: Xiang Zhang

7. Author: Maria Helena Casimiro

8. Author: Enrico Lemma

9. Author: Maria Helena Casimiro

10. Author: Santanu Dhara

11. Title: 

Efficient fabrication of polycaprolactone scaffolds for bioprinted hybrid tissue-engineered constructs

Author: Enrique Sodupe-Ortega 1, Andres Sanz-Garcia 2,3,4,5, Alpha Pernia-Espinoza 1 and Carmen Escobedo-Lucea 2,4,5

Affiliations: 

  1. EDMANS Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of La Rioja, San José de Calasanz 31, Edificio Departamental, 26004 Logroño, Spain
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salamanca, ETSII, Avda. Fernando Ballesteros, 2, 37700 Béjar (Salamanca), Spain
  3. Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Viikinkaari 5 E, P.O. Box 56, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
  4. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
  5. The Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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