Bone is a vascularized and connective tissue. The cortical bone is the main part responsible for the support and protection of the remaining systems and organs of the body. The trabecular spongy bone serves as the storage of ions and bone marrow. As a dynamic tissue, bone is in a constant remodelling process to adapt to the mechanical demands and to repair small lesions that may occur. Nevertheless, due to the increased incidence of bone disorders, the need for bone grafts has been growing over the past decades and the development of an ideal bone graft with optimal properties remains a clinical challenge. This review addresses the bone properties (morphology, composition, and their repair and regeneration capacity) and puts the focus on the potential strategies for developing bone repair and regeneration materials. It describes the requirements for designing a suitable scaffold material, types of materials (polymers, ceramics, and composites), and techniques to obtain the porous structures (additive manufacturing techniques like robocasting or derived from marine skeletons) for bone tissue engineering applications. Overall, the main objective of this review is to gather the knowledge on the materials and methods used for the production of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and to highlight the potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons as promising alternative bone graft substitute materials without any further mineralogical changes, or after partial or total transformation into calcium phosphate.
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