Next Article in Journal
Direct Transformation of Metallized Paper into Al-Si Nano-Rod and Al Nano-Particles Using Thermal Micronizing Technique
Next Article in Special Issue
Cationic Substitutions in Hydroxyapatite: Current Status of the Derived Biofunctional Effects and Their In Vitro Interrogation Methods
Previous Article in Journal
Combination of Phase Matching and Phase-Reversal Approaches for Thermal Damage Assessment by Second Harmonic Lamb Waves
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Migration of Human MSCs through Fibrin Hydrogels as a Tool for Formulation Optimisation
Open AccessReview

Biofabrication of Electrospun Scaffolds for the Regeneration of Tendons and Ligaments

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering and Architecture, Alma Mater Studiorum—Università di Bologna, 40131 Bologna, Italy
2
Health Sciences and Technologies—Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR), Alma Mater Studiorum—Università di Bologna, 40064 Ozzano dell’Emilia, Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101963
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
Tendon and ligament tissue regeneration and replacement are complex since scaffolds need to guarantee an adequate hierarchical structured morphology, and non-linear mechanical properties. Moreover, to guide the cells’ proliferation and tissue re-growth, scaffolds must provide a fibrous texture mimicking the typical of the arrangement of the collagen in the extracellular matrix of these tissues. Among the different techniques to produce scaffolds, electrospinning is one of the most promising, thanks to its ability to produce fibers of nanometric size. This manuscript aims to provide an overview to researchers approaching the field of repair and regeneration of tendons and ligaments. To clarify the general requirements of electrospun scaffolds, the first part of this manuscript presents a general overview concerning tendons’ and ligaments’ structure and mechanical properties. The different types of polymers, blends and particles most frequently used for tendon and ligament tissue engineering are summarized. Furthermore, the focus of the review is on describing the different possible electrospinning setups and processes to obtain different nanofibrous structures, such as mats, bundles, yarns and more complex hierarchical assemblies. Finally, an overview concerning how these technologies are exploited to produce electrospun scaffolds for tendon and ligament tissue applications is reported together with the main findings and outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrospinning; tendons and ligaments; scaffolds; biofabrication; hierarchical structure; non-linear mechanical properties electrospinning; tendons and ligaments; scaffolds; biofabrication; hierarchical structure; non-linear mechanical properties
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Sensini, A.; Cristofolini, L. Biofabrication of Electrospun Scaffolds for the Regeneration of Tendons and Ligaments. Materials 2018, 11, 1963.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop