Special Issue "Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Eugenio Velasco-Ortega
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad de Sevilla, Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, Sevilla, Spain
Interests: dental Implants; surface implants; titanium; regenerative materials for oral surgery; implant dentistry; bone substitutes in dentistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The introduction of new materials in implant dentistry and regenerative medicine has contributed to the development of this field of health sciences.  Today, the use of dental implants is a predictible treatment of edentulous patients. The characterization of macroscopic design and microscopic surface of dental implants has improved  the biologic mechanisms of osseointegration.  Biomechanical behavior assesses the functional response of components of prosthetic dental implants. The clinical applications of materials in regenerative medicine, as bone grafts and substitutes  (i.e. xenografts, alografts, aloplastic), have increased the healing of  hard and soft tissues after surgery of bone defects and have reduced the time of treatment of patients.

I invite you to submit research papers, short communications or systemic reviews within the scope of this Special Issue. Original contributions can range from scientific basis, experimental studies and clinical applications of materials in implant dentistry and regenerative medicine.

Prof. Dr. Eugenio Velasco-Ortega
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • titanium
  • implant titanium surface
  • resistance of implant materials
  • biomechanical behaviour of dental implants
  • cellular adhesion in implant surface
  • animal research of implant materials
  • bone substitutes
  • bone regeneration
  • bone grafts
  • stem cells in regenerative medicine
  • clinical applications of dental implants
  • clinical applications of bone regeneration

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Control of Peri-Implant Mucous Inflammation by Using Chlorhexidine or Ultraviolet C Radiation for Cleaning Healing Abutments. Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051124 - 03 Mar 2020
Abstract
Two-phase implants must be exposed to the external environment after the period of osteointegration has elapsed. For this purpose, a healing abutment is placed passing through the mucosa while forming the emergence profile. The continuous connection and disconnection can lead to an alteration [...] Read more.
Two-phase implants must be exposed to the external environment after the period of osteointegration has elapsed. For this purpose, a healing abutment is placed passing through the mucosa while forming the emergence profile. The continuous connection and disconnection can lead to an alteration in the tissue maturation, both because of the contact of bacterial plaque and because of the mechanical trauma that involves its manipulation, manifesting with different degrees of erythema or bleeding. To assess whether this epithelium disruption can be counteracted, a blinded study design was developed on 150 unitary implant patients divided into three groups (n = 50), applying chlorhexidine (group 1), ultraviolet C (UV-C) at a wavelength of 254 nm (group 2)and no treatment as a control group (group 3), during each of the disconnections and connections during the prosthodontic treatment (1 time per week for four weeks). All groups showed a better epithelium aspect at the end of the evaluation. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the degree of inflammation, the UV-C treated group had the lowest plaque accumulation, and the highest was for the chlorhexidine-treated group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Rough Surface Platforms on the Mucosal Attachment and the Marginal Bone Loss of Implants: A Dog Study
Materials 2020, 13(3), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030802 - 10 Feb 2020
Abstract
The preservation of peri-implant tissues is an important factor for implant success. This study aimed to assess the influence of the surface features of a butt-joint platform on soft-tissue attachment and bone resorption after immediate or delayed implant placement. All premolars and first [...] Read more.
The preservation of peri-implant tissues is an important factor for implant success. This study aimed to assess the influence of the surface features of a butt-joint platform on soft-tissue attachment and bone resorption after immediate or delayed implant placement. All premolars and first molars of eight Beagle dogs were extracted on one mandible side. Twelve-weeks later, the same surgery was developed on the other side. Five implants with different platform surface configurations were randomly inserted into the post-extracted-sockets. On the healed side, the same five different implants were randomly placed. Implants were inserted 1 mm subcrestal to the buccal bony plate and were connected to abutments. The primary outcome variables were the supracrestal soft tissue (SST) adaptation and the bone resorption related to the implant shoulder. The SST height was significantly larger in immediate implants (IC95% 3.9–4.9 mm) compared to delayed implants (IC95% 3.1–3.5 mm). Marginal bone loss tended to be higher in immediate implants (IC95% 0.4–0.9 mm) than in delayed implants (IC95% 0.3–0.8 mm). Linear-regression analysis suggested that the SST height was significantly affected by the configuration of the platform (0.3–1.9 mm). Roughened surface platforms resulted in higher SST height when compared to machined surface platforms. Marginal bone loss was less pronounced in roughened designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Repeated Exposure of Nanostructured Titanium to Osteoblasts with Respect to Peri-Implantitis
Materials 2020, 13(3), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030697 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
Titanium offers excellent biocompatibility and extraordinary mechanical properties. As a result, it is used as a material for dental implants. Implants infected by peri-implantitis can be cleaned for successful re-osseointegration. Optimal surface properties, such as roughness and wettability, have a significant impact on [...] Read more.
Titanium offers excellent biocompatibility and extraordinary mechanical properties. As a result, it is used as a material for dental implants. Implants infected by peri-implantitis can be cleaned for successful re-osseointegration. Optimal surface properties, such as roughness and wettability, have a significant impact on cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts on the surface of repeatedly cleaned nanostructured titanium samples. Human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 were seeded on nanostructured titanium specimens manufactured from rods produced by the equal channel angular pressing. For surface characterization, roughness and wettability were measured. Cell adhesion after 2 h as well as cell proliferation after 48 h from plating was assessed. We have found that this repeated cleaning of titanium surface reduced cell adhesion as well as proliferation. These events depend on interplay of surface properties, such as wettability, roughness and topography. It is difficult to distinguish which factors are responsible for these events and further investigations will be required. However, even after the several rounds of repeated cleaning, there was a certain rate of adhesion and proliferation recorded. Therefore the attempts to save failing implants by using in situ cleaning are promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Titanium Implant Surface Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Chemical Composition
Materials 2020, 13(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020314 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
The implant surface features affect the osseointegration process. Different surface treatment methods have been applied to improve the surface topography and properties. Trace of different elements may appear on the implant surface, which can modify surface properties and may affect the body’s response. [...] Read more.
The implant surface features affect the osseointegration process. Different surface treatment methods have been applied to improve the surface topography and properties. Trace of different elements may appear on the implant surface, which can modify surface properties and may affect the body’s response. The aim was to evaluate the roughness based on the surface treatment received and the amount and type of trace elements found. Ninety implants (nine different surface treatment) were evaluated. Roughness parameters were measured using white-light-interferometry (WLI). The arithmetical mean for Ra, Rq, Rt, and Rz of each implant system was calculated, and Fisher’s exact test was applied, obtaining Ra values between 0.79 and 2.89 µm. Surface chemical composition was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at two times: as received by the manufacturer (AR) and after sputter-cleaning (SC). Traces of several elements were found in all groups, decreasing in favor of the Ti concentration after the sputter-cleaning. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that the surface treatment influences the roughness and the average percentage of the trace elements on the implant surface. The cleaning process at the implant surface should be improved by the manufacturer before assembling the implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Donor-site Morbidity after Retromolar Bone Harvesting Using a Standardised Press Fit Cylinder Protocol
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223802 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
Precise fitting and immobilisation of bone transplants at the recipient site is of utmost importance for the healing process. With the help of the standardised Osseo Transfer System, the recipient site is adjusted to the graft, rather than vice versa as it is [...] Read more.
Precise fitting and immobilisation of bone transplants at the recipient site is of utmost importance for the healing process. With the help of the standardised Osseo Transfer System, the recipient site is adjusted to the graft, rather than vice versa as it is typically done. The aim of this study was to analyse donor-site morbidity after harvesting cylindrical bone grafts from the retromolar region using the Osseo Transfer System. The patient satisfaction with the surgical procedures was also evaluated. All patients treated with this standardised reconstruction method between 2006 and 2013 at the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Giessen, were included in this study. Complications were recorded and evaluated. Bone graft success and patient satisfaction were documented with a questionnaire, and then confirmed by clinical and radiological follow-up examinations. Fifty-four patients were treated and 64 harvested cylindrical autologous bone grafts were transplanted. In all cases, dental implants could be inserted after bone healing. One patient lost an implant, associated with failure of the bone graft. Six patients who were examined continued to show neurological disorders in locally limited areas. No complete or long-term damage of the inferior alveolar nerve occurred. More than 94% (n = 52) of the patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the results and would recommend this surgical treatment to other patients. The standardised Osseo Transfer was an effective treatment option for small and mid-sized alveolar ridge augmentations. A low donor-site morbidity rate and a high transplant success rate were verified. The Osseo Transfer System demonstrated to be a reliable surgical technique without major complications. We highly recommend this surgical augmentation procedure as a surgical treatment for local bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Tissue Response to a Porous Collagen Matrix Used for Soft Tissue Augmentation
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223721 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A short inflammatory phase and fast ingrowth of blood vessels and mesenchymal cells are essential for tissue integration of a biomaterial. Macrophages play a key role in this process. We investigated invasion of macrophages, blood vessels, and proliferating cells into a highly porous [...] Read more.
A short inflammatory phase and fast ingrowth of blood vessels and mesenchymal cells are essential for tissue integration of a biomaterial. Macrophages play a key role in this process. We investigated invasion of macrophages, blood vessels, and proliferating cells into a highly porous and volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX) used for soft tissue augmentation around teeth and dental implants. The biomaterial was implanted in submucosal pouches in the canine maxilla, and the tissue response was analyzed at six different time points. Immunohistochemistry was done for proliferating cells (PCNA), macrophages (MAC387), multinucleated giant cells (CD86), and blood vessels (TGM2). Blood rapidly filled the VCMX pores. During the first week, MAC387+ cells populated the VCMX pores, blood vessels and PCNA+ cells invaded the VCMX, and CD86+ scattered cells were observed. At 15 days, MAC387+ cells were scanty, blood vessels had completely invaded the VCMX, the number of proliferating cells peaked, and fibroblasts appeared. At 30 days, MAC387+ were absent, the numbers of proliferating and CD86+ cells had declined, while blood vessel and fibroblast numbers were high. At 90 days, residual VCMX was well-integrated in soft connective tissue. In conclusion, the VCMX elicited a short inflammatory phase followed by rapid tissue integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Deformation of the Internal Connection of Narrow Implants after Insertion in Dense Bone: An in Vitro Study
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111833 - 06 Jun 2019
Abstract
Implant connections must resist surgical and prosthetic procedures without deformation. This study evaluated the deformation of different internal connections (IC) of narrow dental implants (NDI) after their insertion in artificial dense bone. Thirty NDI, with different IC geometries, Group A (internal hexagon), Group [...] Read more.
Implant connections must resist surgical and prosthetic procedures without deformation. This study evaluated the deformation of different internal connections (IC) of narrow dental implants (NDI) after their insertion in artificial dense bone. Thirty NDI, with different IC geometries, Group A (internal hexagon), Group B (tri-channeled), and Group C (four-channeled), with the same length and similar narrow diameters, were inserted in type II density bone blocks. Drilling protocols for dense bone from each implant manufacturer were followed. The Insertion torque (IT), connection length, vertex angles, and wall deformations were analyzed before and after the insertion of the implants. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Tukey post-test were used for statistical comparisons. IT values were higher for Group A, surface damage, and titanium particles were observed in the IC in all the groups. Angle deformations between 5 and 70 degrees were present in all the groups, and the walls of Group B connection were the most affected by deformations (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this experiment, it can be concluded that narrow diameter implants will suffer deformation of the implant connection and will also experience surface damage and titanium particle release when inserted in type II bone density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Application of Statins in the Regeneration of Bone Defects. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182992 - 16 Sep 2019
Abstract
This systematic review aims to analyze the effect of the local application of statins in the regeneration of non-periodontal bone defects. A systematic study was conducted with the Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scielo databases for in vivo animal studies published up to [...] Read more.
This systematic review aims to analyze the effect of the local application of statins in the regeneration of non-periodontal bone defects. A systematic study was conducted with the Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scielo databases for in vivo animal studies published up to and including February 2019. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. The local application of the drug increased the percentage of new bone formation, bone density, bone healing, bone morphogenetic protein 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, progenitor endothelial cells and osteocalcin. Meta-analyses showed a statistically significant increase in the percentage of new bone formation when animals were treated with local statins, in contrast to the no introduction of filling material or the introduction of polylactic acid, both in an early (4–6 weeks) and in a late period (12 weeks) (mean difference 39.5%, 95% confidence interval: 22.2–56.9, p <0.001; and mean difference 43.3%, 95% confidence interval: 33.6–52.9, p < 0.001, respectively). Basing on the animal model, the local application of statins promotes the healing of critical bone size defects due to its apparent osteogenic and angiogenic effects. However, given the few studies and their heterogenicity, the results should be taken cautiously, and further pilot studies are necessary, with radiological and histological evaluations to translate these results to humans and establish statins’ effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Bone Loss in Implants Placed at Subcrestal and Crestal Level: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010154 - 05 Jan 2019
Abstract
Background: To assess differences in marginal bone loss in implants placed at subcrestal versus crestal level. Methods: An electronic and a manual research of articles written in English from Jaunary 2010 to January 2018 was performed by two independent reviewers. Clinical trials comparing [...] Read more.
Background: To assess differences in marginal bone loss in implants placed at subcrestal versus crestal level. Methods: An electronic and a manual research of articles written in English from Jaunary 2010 to January 2018 was performed by two independent reviewers. Clinical trials comparing bone loss for implants placed at crestal and subcrestal level were included. Pooled estimates from comparable studies were analyzed using a continuous random-effects model meta-analysis with the objective of assessing differences in crestal bone loss between the two vertical positions. Results: 16 studies were included; 10 studies did not encounter statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to bone loss. Three articles found greater bone loss in subcrestal implants; while 3 found more bone loss in crestal implants. A meta-analysis for randomized control trial (RCT) studies reported an average and non-statistically different crestal bone loss of 0.028 mm. Conclusions: A high survival rate and a comparable bone loss was obtained both for crestal and subcrestal implants’ placement. Quantitative analysis considering a homogenous sample confirms that both vertical positions are equally valid in terms of perimplant bone loss. However, with respect to soft tissue; in presence of a thin tissue; a subcrestal placement of the implant should be preferred as it may reduce the probability for the implant to become exposed in the future and thus avoid the risk of suffering from peri-implant pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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