Special Issue "Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Eugenio Velasco-Ortega
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, Master in Implant Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
Interests: dental implants; surface implants; titanium; regenerative materials for oral surgery; Implant Dentistry; bone substitutes in dentistry
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The introduction of new materials in implant dentistry and regenerative medicine has contributed to the development of this field of health sciences.  Today, the use of dental implants is a predictible treatment of edentulous patients. The characterization of macroscopic design and microscopic surface of dental implants has improved  the biologic mechanisms of osseointegration.  Biomechanical behavior assesses the functional response of components of prosthetic dental implants. The clinical applications of materials in regenerative medicine, as bone grafts and substitutes  (i.e. xenografts, alografts, aloplastic), have increased the healing of  hard and soft tissues after surgery of bone defects and have reduced the time of treatment of patients.

I invite you to submit research papers, short communications or systemic reviews within the scope of this Special Issue. Original contributions can range from scientific basis, experimental studies and clinical applications of materials in implant dentistry and regenerative medicine.

Prof. Dr. Eugenio Velasco-Ortega
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • titanium
  • implant titanium surface
  • resistance of implant materials
  • biomechanical behaviour of dental implants
  • cellular adhesion in implant surface
  • animal research of implant materials
  • bone substitutes
  • bone regeneration
  • bone grafts
  • stem cells in regenerative medicine
  • clinical applications of dental implants
  • clinical applications of bone regeneration

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Multi-Phosphonate Coating of Titanium Surfaces on Osteogenic Potential
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245777 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 553
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel multi-phosphonate (MP) coating strategy of dental implant surfaces on the expression of osteogenesis-related factors in vitro. MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and human periodontal ligament [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a novel multi-phosphonate (MP) coating strategy of dental implant surfaces on the expression of osteogenesis-related factors in vitro. MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) were cultured separately on titanium disks with and without MP coating. Cell attachment was visualized by focal adhesion and actin cytoskeleton staining. The proliferation and gene expression of the markers related to osteogenesis and bone turnover were measured after 48 and 120 h of cell culture. Actin cytoskeleton assembly and focal adhesion were similar between test surfaces within each cell type but differed from those on tissue culture plastic (TCP). The proliferation of MG-63 cells and PDLSCs was comparable on all surfaces, while BM-MSCs showed an increase on tissue culture plastic (TCP) versus titanium. The gene expression of osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand was higher in MG-63 cells grown on MP-coated surfaces. At the same time, osteocalcin was decreased compared to the other surfaces. Collagen type I gene expression after 120 h was significantly lower in hPDLSCs cultivated on MP-coated surfaces. Within the limitations of this study, MP coating on titanium surfaces might have a slight beneficial effect on bone turnover in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Histological and Nanomechanical Properties of a New Nanometric Hydroxiapatite Implant Surface. An In Vivo Study in Diabetic Rats
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5693; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245693 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 460
Abstract
Implant therapy is a predictable treatment to replace missing teeth. However, the osseointegration process may be negatively influenced by systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Microtopography and implant surface developments are strategies associated to better bone repair. This study aimed to evaluate, [...] Read more.
Implant therapy is a predictable treatment to replace missing teeth. However, the osseointegration process may be negatively influenced by systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Microtopography and implant surface developments are strategies associated to better bone repair. This study aimed to evaluate, in healthy and diabetic rats, histomorphometric (bone to implant contact = %BIC; and bone area fraction occupancy = %BAFO) and nanomechanical (elastic modulus = EM; and hardness = H) bone parameters, in response to a nanometric hydroxyapatite implant surface. Mini implants (machined = MAC; double acid etched = DAE, and with addition of nano-hydroxyapatite = NANO) were installed in tibias of healthy and diabetic rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 and 30 days. NANO surface presented higher %BIC and %BAFO when compared to MAC and DAE (data evaluated as a function of implant surface). NANO surface presented higher %BIC and %BAFO, with statistically significant differences (data as a function of time and implant surface). NANO surface depicted higher EM and H values, when compared to machined and DAE surfaces (data as a function of time and implant surface). Nano-hydroxyapatite coated implants presented promising biomechanical results and could be an important tool to compensate impaired bone healing reported in diabetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Autogenous Dentin Graft in Bone Defects after Lower Third Molar Extraction: A Split-Mouth Clinical Trial
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143090 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 718
Abstract
Various biomaterials are currently used for bone regeneration, with autogenous bone being considered the gold standard material because of its osteogenic, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive properties. In recent years, the use of autogenous dentin as a graft material has been described. This split-mouth clinical [...] Read more.
Various biomaterials are currently used for bone regeneration, with autogenous bone being considered the gold standard material because of its osteogenic, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive properties. In recent years, the use of autogenous dentin as a graft material has been described. This split-mouth clinical trial assesses the efficacy of autogenous dentin for the regeneration of periodontal defects caused by bone loss associated with impacted lower third molar extraction. Fifteen patients underwent bilateral extraction surgery (30 third molars) using dentin as a graft material on the test side, and leaving the control side to heal spontaneously, comparing the evolution of the defects by evaluating probing depth at three and six months post-operatively. Bone density and alveolar bone crest maintenance were also evaluated six months after surgery, and pain, inflammation, mouth opening capacity on the second and seventh days after surgery. Probing depth, radiographic bone density, and alveolar bone crest maintenance showed significant differences between the test and control sides. Autogenous dentin was found to be an effective biomaterial for bone regeneration after impacted lower third molar extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of a Toothpaste Containing Bioactive Hydroxyapatites and In Vitro Evaluation of Its Efficacy to Remineralize Enamel and to Occlude Dentinal Tubules
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132928 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Demineralization of dental hard tissues is a well-known health issue and the primary mechanism responsible for caries and dentinal hypersensitivity. Remineralizing toothpastes are nowadays available to improve conventional oral care formulations regarding the prevention and repair of demineralization. In this paper, we analyzed [...] Read more.
Demineralization of dental hard tissues is a well-known health issue and the primary mechanism responsible for caries and dentinal hypersensitivity. Remineralizing toothpastes are nowadays available to improve conventional oral care formulations regarding the prevention and repair of demineralization. In this paper, we analyzed the chemical-physical features of a commercial toothpaste (Biosmalto Caries Abrasion and Erosion, Curasept S.p.A., Saronno, Italy), with particular attention paid to the water-insoluble fraction which contains the remineralizing bioactive ingredients. Moreover, the efficacy of the toothpaste to induce enamel remineralization and to occlude dentinal tubules has been qualitatively and semiquantitatively tested in vitro on human dental tissues using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Our results demonstrated that the water-insoluble fraction contained silica as well as chitosan and poorly crystalline biomimetic hydroxyapatite doped with carbonate, magnesium, strontium, and fluoride ions. The formulation showed excellent ability to restore demineralized enamel into its native structure by epitaxial deposition of a new crystalline phase in continuity with the native one. It was also able to occlude the dentinal tubules exposed completely by acid-etching. Overall, this study demonstrated that the tested toothpaste contained a biomimetic ionic-substituted hydroxyapatite-based active principle and that, within the in vitro conditions analyzed in this study, it was effective in dental hard tissue remineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Volumetric Changes in Morse Taper Connections After Implant Placement in Dense Bone. In-Vitro Study
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2306; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102306 - 16 May 2020
Viewed by 659
Abstract
The stability of the implant–abutment interface is crucial for the maintenance of the implant index integrity. Several factors are capable of inducing deformation in implant–abutment connection, such as the actual insertion of the implant into the bone. This study aimed to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The stability of the implant–abutment interface is crucial for the maintenance of the implant index integrity. Several factors are capable of inducing deformation in implant–abutment connection, such as the actual insertion of the implant into the bone. This study aimed to evaluate the deformations produced in the connection after the insertion of the implant. Ten implants with two different implant carriers (Type A: carrier attached to platform and Type B: carrier attached inside the index-connection) were placed in artificial Type II bone, and volumetric changes were evaluated for different connection features with a 3D digital microscope. ANOVA (analysis of variance), Wilcoxon, and Tukey HSD post-test were used for statistical comparisons. Type A implants presented deformation at the platform level (inner slot angles and slot width), but no volumetric changes were observed inside the connection. Type B implants presented deformation in three parameters inside the connection (outer channel length, coronal step width, and coronal step length). Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that more deformation is expected at the internal connection when the implant carrier engages this area. The engagement area should be as far away as possible from the index connection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Study on Bone Heating during Drilling of the Implant Site: Material, Design and Wear of the Surgical Drill
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081921 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 725
Abstract
Objective: An in vitro study was made to compare mean thermal variation according to the material, design and wear of the surgical drills used during dental implant site preparation. Material and methods: Three study groups (stainless steel drills with straight blades; diamond-like carbon-coated [...] Read more.
Objective: An in vitro study was made to compare mean thermal variation according to the material, design and wear of the surgical drills used during dental implant site preparation. Material and methods: Three study groups (stainless steel drills with straight blades; diamond-like carbon-coated drills with straight blades; and diamond-like carbon-coated drills with twisted blades) were tested to compare material, design and wear of the surgical drill in terms of overall mean values (complete sequence of drills) and specific mean values (each drill separately). The groups comprised four drills: initial, pilot, progressive and final drill. Implant site configuration was performed through an intermittent and gradual drilling technique without irrigation at 800 rpm in standardized synthetic blocks. Maximum axial loading of two kilograms was controlled by an automatic press. Each surgical drill was submitted to 50 drillings and was sterilized every five uses. A thermographic camera analyzed the mean thermal changes. The software-controlled automatic press kept systematic drilling, axial loading and operational speed constant without any human intervention. Student’s t-test, ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were performed. The level of significance was 5% (p = 0.05). Results: The overall mean comparison between the stainless steel and diamond-like carbon-coated materials showed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05), though specific mean comparison showed statistically significant differences between the drills of the different groups (p < 0.05). The twisted blades exhibited less overall and specific mean thermal variation than straight blades for the progressive and final drills (p < 0.01). In addition, the initial and pilot drills showed a greater mean thermal change than the progressive and final drills. The mean thermal variation was seen to increase during the 50 drillings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the drill material did not significantly influence the overall mean thermal variation except for the pilot drill. The drill design affected overall and specific mean thermal variation since the twisted blades heated less than the straight blades. The initial and pilot drills increased the specific mean thermal variation with respect to the progressive and final drills. In addition, all drills in each group produced a gradual increase in mean temperature during the 50 drillings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Generation of Novel Functionalized Biomaterials for Use in Oral and Dental Regenerative Medicine Applications
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1692; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071692 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Recent advances in tissue engineering offer innovative clinical alternatives in dentistry and regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering combines human cells with compatible biomaterials to induce tissue regeneration. Shortening the fabrication time of biomaterials used in tissue engineering will contribute to treatment improvement, and biomaterial [...] Read more.
Recent advances in tissue engineering offer innovative clinical alternatives in dentistry and regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering combines human cells with compatible biomaterials to induce tissue regeneration. Shortening the fabrication time of biomaterials used in tissue engineering will contribute to treatment improvement, and biomaterial functionalization can be exploited to enhance scaffold properties. In this work, we have tested an alternative biofabrication method by directly including human oral mucosa tissue explants within the biomaterial for the generation of human bioengineered mouth and dental tissues for use in tissue engineering. To achieve this, acellular fibrin–agarose scaffolds (AFAS), non-functionalized fibrin-agarose oral mucosa stroma substitutes (n-FAOM), and novel functionalized fibrin-agarose oral mucosa stroma substitutes (F-FAOM) were developed and analyzed after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of in vitro development to determine extracellular matrix components as compared to native oral mucosa controls by using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrate that functionalization speeds up the biofabrication method and contributes to improve the biomimetic characteristics of the scaffold in terms of extracellular matrix components and reduce the time required for in vitro tissue development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Bone Regeneration and Soft Tissue Enhancement Around Zygomatic Implants: Retrospective Case Series
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071577 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Purpose: To present a case series of zygomatic implants combined with bone regeneration and soft tissue enhancement techniques to reduce the risk of biological delayed complications such as maxillary sinusitis and soft tissue recession. Materials and methods: Zygomatic implants placed simultaneously with different [...] Read more.
Purpose: To present a case series of zygomatic implants combined with bone regeneration and soft tissue enhancement techniques to reduce the risk of biological delayed complications such as maxillary sinusitis and soft tissue recession. Materials and methods: Zygomatic implants placed simultaneously with different bone regeneration techniques (buccal, palatal and buccal-palatal bone regeneration) and soft tissue enhancement techniques (pediculate and free connective tissue graft) were followed for at least 12 months. The following information was collected: patient age and sex, number of zygomatic implants, zygomatic implant success rate, zygomatic implant position according to classification of the Zygomatic Anatomy Guide Approach (ZAGA), sinus membrane perforation, type and outcome of the bone regeneration or the soft tissue enhancement technique, bone gain (width and length along the zygomatic implant) and keratinized buccal mucosa width, duration of follow-up, loading protocol (immediate or delayed) and biological complications (maxillary sinusitis and soft tissue recession). Results: Thirty-one zygomatic implants placed in 19 patients were included. All implants were successful and none of the implants presented biological complications. The bone regeneration technique was successful in 30 of 31 cases with a mean palatal bone width of 3 mm, buccal bone width of 2.65 mm, palatal bone length of 6.5 mm and buccal bone length of 8.3 mm. The success rate of soft tissue enhancement was 100% and it established at least 2 mm of keratinized buccal mucosa width in all implants. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, bone regeneration and soft tissue enhancement techniques were useful to establish more favorable conditions of the peri-implant tissues around zygomatic implants. This could prevent biological complications such as maxillary sinusitis and soft tissue recessions. Prospective and randomized controlled clinical trials with longer follow-up periods are advisable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Control of Peri-Implant Mucous Inflammation by Using Chlorhexidine or Ultraviolet C Radiation for Cleaning Healing Abutments. Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
Materials 2020, 13(5), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13051124 - 03 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Two-phase implants must be exposed to the external environment after the period of osteointegration has elapsed. For this purpose, a healing abutment is placed passing through the mucosa while forming the emergence profile. The continuous connection and disconnection can lead to an alteration [...] Read more.
Two-phase implants must be exposed to the external environment after the period of osteointegration has elapsed. For this purpose, a healing abutment is placed passing through the mucosa while forming the emergence profile. The continuous connection and disconnection can lead to an alteration in the tissue maturation, both because of the contact of bacterial plaque and because of the mechanical trauma that involves its manipulation, manifesting with different degrees of erythema or bleeding. To assess whether this epithelium disruption can be counteracted, a blinded study design was developed on 150 unitary implant patients divided into three groups (n = 50), applying chlorhexidine (group 1), ultraviolet C (UV-C) at a wavelength of 254 nm (group 2)and no treatment as a control group (group 3), during each of the disconnections and connections during the prosthodontic treatment (1 time per week for four weeks). All groups showed a better epithelium aspect at the end of the evaluation. Although there were no statistically significant differences in the degree of inflammation, the UV-C treated group had the lowest plaque accumulation, and the highest was for the chlorhexidine-treated group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Rough Surface Platforms on the Mucosal Attachment and the Marginal Bone Loss of Implants: A Dog Study
Materials 2020, 13(3), 802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030802 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 829
Abstract
The preservation of peri-implant tissues is an important factor for implant success. This study aimed to assess the influence of the surface features of a butt-joint platform on soft-tissue attachment and bone resorption after immediate or delayed implant placement. All premolars and first [...] Read more.
The preservation of peri-implant tissues is an important factor for implant success. This study aimed to assess the influence of the surface features of a butt-joint platform on soft-tissue attachment and bone resorption after immediate or delayed implant placement. All premolars and first molars of eight Beagle dogs were extracted on one mandible side. Twelve-weeks later, the same surgery was developed on the other side. Five implants with different platform surface configurations were randomly inserted into the post-extracted-sockets. On the healed side, the same five different implants were randomly placed. Implants were inserted 1 mm subcrestal to the buccal bony plate and were connected to abutments. The primary outcome variables were the supracrestal soft tissue (SST) adaptation and the bone resorption related to the implant shoulder. The SST height was significantly larger in immediate implants (IC95% 3.9–4.9 mm) compared to delayed implants (IC95% 3.1–3.5 mm). Marginal bone loss tended to be higher in immediate implants (IC95% 0.4–0.9 mm) than in delayed implants (IC95% 0.3–0.8 mm). Linear-regression analysis suggested that the SST height was significantly affected by the configuration of the platform (0.3–1.9 mm). Roughened surface platforms resulted in higher SST height when compared to machined surface platforms. Marginal bone loss was less pronounced in roughened designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Repeated Exposure of Nanostructured Titanium to Osteoblasts with Respect to Peri-Implantitis
Materials 2020, 13(3), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030697 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
Titanium offers excellent biocompatibility and extraordinary mechanical properties. As a result, it is used as a material for dental implants. Implants infected by peri-implantitis can be cleaned for successful re-osseointegration. Optimal surface properties, such as roughness and wettability, have a significant impact on [...] Read more.
Titanium offers excellent biocompatibility and extraordinary mechanical properties. As a result, it is used as a material for dental implants. Implants infected by peri-implantitis can be cleaned for successful re-osseointegration. Optimal surface properties, such as roughness and wettability, have a significant impact on cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts on the surface of repeatedly cleaned nanostructured titanium samples. Human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 were seeded on nanostructured titanium specimens manufactured from rods produced by the equal channel angular pressing. For surface characterization, roughness and wettability were measured. Cell adhesion after 2 h as well as cell proliferation after 48 h from plating was assessed. We have found that this repeated cleaning of titanium surface reduced cell adhesion as well as proliferation. These events depend on interplay of surface properties, such as wettability, roughness and topography. It is difficult to distinguish which factors are responsible for these events and further investigations will be required. However, even after the several rounds of repeated cleaning, there was a certain rate of adhesion and proliferation recorded. Therefore the attempts to save failing implants by using in situ cleaning are promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the Titanium Implant Surface Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Chemical Composition
Materials 2020, 13(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020314 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
The implant surface features affect the osseointegration process. Different surface treatment methods have been applied to improve the surface topography and properties. Trace of different elements may appear on the implant surface, which can modify surface properties and may affect the body’s response. [...] Read more.
The implant surface features affect the osseointegration process. Different surface treatment methods have been applied to improve the surface topography and properties. Trace of different elements may appear on the implant surface, which can modify surface properties and may affect the body’s response. The aim was to evaluate the roughness based on the surface treatment received and the amount and type of trace elements found. Ninety implants (nine different surface treatment) were evaluated. Roughness parameters were measured using white-light-interferometry (WLI). The arithmetical mean for Ra, Rq, Rt, and Rz of each implant system was calculated, and Fisher’s exact test was applied, obtaining Ra values between 0.79 and 2.89 µm. Surface chemical composition was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at two times: as received by the manufacturer (AR) and after sputter-cleaning (SC). Traces of several elements were found in all groups, decreasing in favor of the Ti concentration after the sputter-cleaning. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that the surface treatment influences the roughness and the average percentage of the trace elements on the implant surface. The cleaning process at the implant surface should be improved by the manufacturer before assembling the implant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Donor-site Morbidity after Retromolar Bone Harvesting Using a Standardised Press Fit Cylinder Protocol
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3802; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223802 - 19 Nov 2019
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Precise fitting and immobilisation of bone transplants at the recipient site is of utmost importance for the healing process. With the help of the standardised Osseo Transfer System, the recipient site is adjusted to the graft, rather than vice versa as it is [...] Read more.
Precise fitting and immobilisation of bone transplants at the recipient site is of utmost importance for the healing process. With the help of the standardised Osseo Transfer System, the recipient site is adjusted to the graft, rather than vice versa as it is typically done. The aim of this study was to analyse donor-site morbidity after harvesting cylindrical bone grafts from the retromolar region using the Osseo Transfer System. The patient satisfaction with the surgical procedures was also evaluated. All patients treated with this standardised reconstruction method between 2006 and 2013 at the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Giessen, were included in this study. Complications were recorded and evaluated. Bone graft success and patient satisfaction were documented with a questionnaire, and then confirmed by clinical and radiological follow-up examinations. Fifty-four patients were treated and 64 harvested cylindrical autologous bone grafts were transplanted. In all cases, dental implants could be inserted after bone healing. One patient lost an implant, associated with failure of the bone graft. Six patients who were examined continued to show neurological disorders in locally limited areas. No complete or long-term damage of the inferior alveolar nerve occurred. More than 94% (n = 52) of the patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the results and would recommend this surgical treatment to other patients. The standardised Osseo Transfer was an effective treatment option for small and mid-sized alveolar ridge augmentations. A low donor-site morbidity rate and a high transplant success rate were verified. The Osseo Transfer System demonstrated to be a reliable surgical technique without major complications. We highly recommend this surgical augmentation procedure as a surgical treatment for local bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Tissue Response to a Porous Collagen Matrix Used for Soft Tissue Augmentation
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223721 - 11 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
A short inflammatory phase and fast ingrowth of blood vessels and mesenchymal cells are essential for tissue integration of a biomaterial. Macrophages play a key role in this process. We investigated invasion of macrophages, blood vessels, and proliferating cells into a highly porous [...] Read more.
A short inflammatory phase and fast ingrowth of blood vessels and mesenchymal cells are essential for tissue integration of a biomaterial. Macrophages play a key role in this process. We investigated invasion of macrophages, blood vessels, and proliferating cells into a highly porous and volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX) used for soft tissue augmentation around teeth and dental implants. The biomaterial was implanted in submucosal pouches in the canine maxilla, and the tissue response was analyzed at six different time points. Immunohistochemistry was done for proliferating cells (PCNA), macrophages (MAC387), multinucleated giant cells (CD86), and blood vessels (TGM2). Blood rapidly filled the VCMX pores. During the first week, MAC387+ cells populated the VCMX pores, blood vessels and PCNA+ cells invaded the VCMX, and CD86+ scattered cells were observed. At 15 days, MAC387+ cells were scanty, blood vessels had completely invaded the VCMX, the number of proliferating cells peaked, and fibroblasts appeared. At 30 days, MAC387+ were absent, the numbers of proliferating and CD86+ cells had declined, while blood vessel and fibroblast numbers were high. At 90 days, residual VCMX was well-integrated in soft connective tissue. In conclusion, the VCMX elicited a short inflammatory phase followed by rapid tissue integration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Deformation of the Internal Connection of Narrow Implants after Insertion in Dense Bone: An in Vitro Study
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1833; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111833 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Implant connections must resist surgical and prosthetic procedures without deformation. This study evaluated the deformation of different internal connections (IC) of narrow dental implants (NDI) after their insertion in artificial dense bone. Thirty NDI, with different IC geometries, Group A (internal hexagon), Group [...] Read more.
Implant connections must resist surgical and prosthetic procedures without deformation. This study evaluated the deformation of different internal connections (IC) of narrow dental implants (NDI) after their insertion in artificial dense bone. Thirty NDI, with different IC geometries, Group A (internal hexagon), Group B (tri-channeled), and Group C (four-channeled), with the same length and similar narrow diameters, were inserted in type II density bone blocks. Drilling protocols for dense bone from each implant manufacturer were followed. The Insertion torque (IT), connection length, vertex angles, and wall deformations were analyzed before and after the insertion of the implants. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Tukey post-test were used for statistical comparisons. IT values were higher for Group A, surface damage, and titanium particles were observed in the IC in all the groups. Angle deformations between 5 and 70 degrees were present in all the groups, and the walls of Group B connection were the most affected by deformations (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this experiment, it can be concluded that narrow diameter implants will suffer deformation of the implant connection and will also experience surface damage and titanium particle release when inserted in type II bone density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
3-D Cell Culture Systems in Bone Marrow Tissue and Organoid Engineering, and BM Phantoms as In Vitro Models of Hematological Cancer Therapeutics—A Review
Materials 2020, 13(24), 5609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13245609 - 09 Dec 2020
Viewed by 517
Abstract
We review the state-of-the-art in bone and marrow tissue engineering (BMTE) and hematological cancer tissue engineering (HCTE) in light of the recent interest in bone marrow environment and pathophysiology of hematological cancers. This review focuses on engineered BM tissue and organoids as in [...] Read more.
We review the state-of-the-art in bone and marrow tissue engineering (BMTE) and hematological cancer tissue engineering (HCTE) in light of the recent interest in bone marrow environment and pathophysiology of hematological cancers. This review focuses on engineered BM tissue and organoids as in vitro models of hematological cancer therapeutics, along with identification of BM components and their integration as synthetically engineered BM mimetic scaffolds. In addition, the review details interaction dynamics of various BM and hematologic cancer (HC) cell types in co-culture systems of engineered BM tissues/phantoms as well as their relation to drug resistance and cytotoxicity. Interaction between hematological cancer cells and their niche, and the difference with respect to the healthy niche microenvironment narrated. Future perspectives of BMTE for in vitro disease models, BM regeneration and large scale ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for transplantation and therapy are explained. We conclude by overviewing the clinical application of biomaterials in BM and HC pathophysiology and its challenges and opportunities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
The Application of Statins in the Regeneration of Bone Defects. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2992; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182992 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
This systematic review aims to analyze the effect of the local application of statins in the regeneration of non-periodontal bone defects. A systematic study was conducted with the Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scielo databases for in vivo animal studies published up to [...] Read more.
This systematic review aims to analyze the effect of the local application of statins in the regeneration of non-periodontal bone defects. A systematic study was conducted with the Pubmed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scielo databases for in vivo animal studies published up to and including February 2019. Fifteen articles were included in the analysis. The local application of the drug increased the percentage of new bone formation, bone density, bone healing, bone morphogenetic protein 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, progenitor endothelial cells and osteocalcin. Meta-analyses showed a statistically significant increase in the percentage of new bone formation when animals were treated with local statins, in contrast to the no introduction of filling material or the introduction of polylactic acid, both in an early (4–6 weeks) and in a late period (12 weeks) (mean difference 39.5%, 95% confidence interval: 22.2–56.9, p <0.001; and mean difference 43.3%, 95% confidence interval: 33.6–52.9, p < 0.001, respectively). Basing on the animal model, the local application of statins promotes the healing of critical bone size defects due to its apparent osteogenic and angiogenic effects. However, given the few studies and their heterogenicity, the results should be taken cautiously, and further pilot studies are necessary, with radiological and histological evaluations to translate these results to humans and establish statins’ effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Bone Loss in Implants Placed at Subcrestal and Crestal Level: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials 2019, 12(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010154 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1558
Abstract
Background: To assess differences in marginal bone loss in implants placed at subcrestal versus crestal level. Methods: An electronic and a manual research of articles written in English from Jaunary 2010 to January 2018 was performed by two independent reviewers. Clinical trials comparing [...] Read more.
Background: To assess differences in marginal bone loss in implants placed at subcrestal versus crestal level. Methods: An electronic and a manual research of articles written in English from Jaunary 2010 to January 2018 was performed by two independent reviewers. Clinical trials comparing bone loss for implants placed at crestal and subcrestal level were included. Pooled estimates from comparable studies were analyzed using a continuous random-effects model meta-analysis with the objective of assessing differences in crestal bone loss between the two vertical positions. Results: 16 studies were included; 10 studies did not encounter statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to bone loss. Three articles found greater bone loss in subcrestal implants; while 3 found more bone loss in crestal implants. A meta-analysis for randomized control trial (RCT) studies reported an average and non-statistically different crestal bone loss of 0.028 mm. Conclusions: A high survival rate and a comparable bone loss was obtained both for crestal and subcrestal implants’ placement. Quantitative analysis considering a homogenous sample confirms that both vertical positions are equally valid in terms of perimplant bone loss. However, with respect to soft tissue; in presence of a thin tissue; a subcrestal placement of the implant should be preferred as it may reduce the probability for the implant to become exposed in the future and thus avoid the risk of suffering from peri-implant pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
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