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Open AccessArticle

Tissue Response to a Porous Collagen Matrix Used for Soft Tissue Augmentation

1
Robert K. Schenk Laboratory of Oral Histology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Medicine, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, 08190 Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
4
Department of Aesthetic Dentistry, Istituto Stomatologico Italiano, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
5
UOC Chirurgia Maxillofacciale e Odontostomatologia, Università di Milano, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda, 20122 Ospedale, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(22), 3721; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12223721
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 11 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
A short inflammatory phase and fast ingrowth of blood vessels and mesenchymal cells are essential for tissue integration of a biomaterial. Macrophages play a key role in this process. We investigated invasion of macrophages, blood vessels, and proliferating cells into a highly porous and volume-stable collagen matrix (VCMX) used for soft tissue augmentation around teeth and dental implants. The biomaterial was implanted in submucosal pouches in the canine maxilla, and the tissue response was analyzed at six different time points. Immunohistochemistry was done for proliferating cells (PCNA), macrophages (MAC387), multinucleated giant cells (CD86), and blood vessels (TGM2). Blood rapidly filled the VCMX pores. During the first week, MAC387+ cells populated the VCMX pores, blood vessels and PCNA+ cells invaded the VCMX, and CD86+ scattered cells were observed. At 15 days, MAC387+ cells were scanty, blood vessels had completely invaded the VCMX, the number of proliferating cells peaked, and fibroblasts appeared. At 30 days, MAC387+ were absent, the numbers of proliferating and CD86+ cells had declined, while blood vessel and fibroblast numbers were high. At 90 days, residual VCMX was well-integrated in soft connective tissue. In conclusion, the VCMX elicited a short inflammatory phase followed by rapid tissue integration. View Full-Text
Keywords: VCMX; Fibro-Gide; collagen matrix; immunohistochemistry; GTR; GBR; volume-stable collagen matrix VCMX; Fibro-Gide; collagen matrix; immunohistochemistry; GTR; GBR; volume-stable collagen matrix
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caballé-Serrano, J.; Zhang, S.; Ferrantino, L.; Simion, M.; Chappuis, V.; Bosshardt, D.D. Tissue Response to a Porous Collagen Matrix Used for Soft Tissue Augmentation. Materials 2019, 12, 3721.

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