Titanium offers excellent biocompatibility and extraordinary mechanical properties. As a result, it is used as a material for dental implants. Implants infected by peri-implantitis can be cleaned for successful re-osseointegration. Optimal surface properties, such as roughness and wettability, have a significant impact on cell adhesion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts on the surface of repeatedly cleaned nanostructured titanium samples. Human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 were seeded on nanostructured titanium specimens manufactured from rods produced by the equal channel angular pressing. For surface characterization, roughness and wettability were measured. Cell adhesion after 2 h as well as cell proliferation after 48 h from plating was assessed. We have found that this repeated cleaning of titanium surface reduced cell adhesion as well as proliferation. These events depend on interplay of surface properties, such as wettability, roughness and topography. It is difficult to distinguish which factors are responsible for these events and further investigations will be required. However, even after the several rounds of repeated cleaning, there was a certain rate of adhesion and proliferation recorded. Therefore the attempts to save failing implants by using in situ cleaning are promising.
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