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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of a Toothpaste Containing Bioactive Hydroxyapatites and In Vitro Evaluation of Its Efficacy to Remineralize Enamel and to Occlude Dentinal Tubules

1
Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC), National Research Council (CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza, Italy
2
Oral Microbiology and Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, Via Pascal, 36, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2928; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132928
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 20 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials in Implant Dentistry and Regenerative Medicine)
Demineralization of dental hard tissues is a well-known health issue and the primary mechanism responsible for caries and dentinal hypersensitivity. Remineralizing toothpastes are nowadays available to improve conventional oral care formulations regarding the prevention and repair of demineralization. In this paper, we analyzed the chemical-physical features of a commercial toothpaste (Biosmalto Caries Abrasion and Erosion, Curasept S.p.A., Saronno, Italy), with particular attention paid to the water-insoluble fraction which contains the remineralizing bioactive ingredients. Moreover, the efficacy of the toothpaste to induce enamel remineralization and to occlude dentinal tubules has been qualitatively and semiquantitatively tested in vitro on human dental tissues using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Our results demonstrated that the water-insoluble fraction contained silica as well as chitosan and poorly crystalline biomimetic hydroxyapatite doped with carbonate, magnesium, strontium, and fluoride ions. The formulation showed excellent ability to restore demineralized enamel into its native structure by epitaxial deposition of a new crystalline phase in continuity with the native one. It was also able to occlude the dentinal tubules exposed completely by acid-etching. Overall, this study demonstrated that the tested toothpaste contained a biomimetic ionic-substituted hydroxyapatite-based active principle and that, within the in vitro conditions analyzed in this study, it was effective in dental hard tissue remineralization. View Full-Text
Keywords: toothpaste; remineralization; enamel; dentin; caries; hydroxyapatite; fluoride; dental hypersensitivity toothpaste; remineralization; enamel; dentin; caries; hydroxyapatite; fluoride; dental hypersensitivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Degli Esposti, L.; Ionescu, A.C.; Brambilla, E.; Tampieri, A.; Iafisco, M. Characterization of a Toothpaste Containing Bioactive Hydroxyapatites and In Vitro Evaluation of Its Efficacy to Remineralize Enamel and to Occlude Dentinal Tubules. Materials 2020, 13, 2928.

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