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Special Issue "Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 August 2022 | Viewed by 6320

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Adam Cwudziński
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Department of Metallurgy and Metals Technology, Faculty of Production Engineering and Materials Technology, Czestochowa University of Technology, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: extractive metallurgy; steel continuous casting; tundish metallurgy; physical and numerical modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Lifeng Zhang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China
Interests: nonmetallic inclusions in steel; modeling of the transport phenomena during metallurgy process; thermodynamics and kinetics of metallurgical reactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In metals technology, the extractive metallurgy, as a metallurgical stage, ensures the required chemical conditions for advanced products. During extractive metallurgy, high- and low-temperature units are used for smelting, leaching, electrowinning, treating and casting of metals. Extractive metallurgy is characterised by thermodynamic and kinetic relationships between all components. Therefore, investigations on interactions of hetero-phases system are essential and fundamental. Heterogeneous systems cover solid, liquid and gaseous components such as metal alloys, slags, bubbles, refractories, nonmetallic inclusions and electrodes. The flow of liquid metal or solvent in the metallurgical units create a varied hydrodynamic structure and a varied mass transport rate between liquid–solid–gas phases. Moreover, concentrations of local elements create no equilibrium of thermodynamic states. Hence, knowledge on phenomena occurring during extractive metallurgy is fundamental for a deeper insight to the nature of metals technology. In general, research activities in this field can be divided into three categories: laboratory tests on water models or high-temperature low-scale stands, industrial trials, and numerical simulations using advanced mathematical models. The determined development of the advanced metal technology contributes to the optimization of the existing process engineering to search for new solutions in the area of the metals industry.

Dr. Adam Cwudziński
Prof. Dr. Lifeng Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pyrometallurgy
  • hydrometallurgy
  • thermodynamics
  • kinetics
  • hydrodynamics
  • metal baths
  • slags
  • gas bubbles
  • nonmetallic inclusions
  • compounds interactions
  • physical modeling
  • numerical simulations
  • industry trials

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
Impact of Rotor Material Wear on the Aluminum Refining Process
Materials 2022, 15(13), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15134425 - 23 Jun 2022
Viewed by 246
Abstract
The paper presents the results of tests carried out during the refining of the AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy in industrial conditions at the FDU stand. In the tests, three different rotors made of classical graphite, fine-grained graphite and classical graphite with SiC spraying were tested [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of tests carried out during the refining of the AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy in industrial conditions at the FDU stand. In the tests, three different rotors made of classical graphite, fine-grained graphite and classical graphite with SiC spraying were tested for the degree of wear. A series of tests was conducted for five cases—0% to 100% of consumption every 25%—corresponding to the cycles of the refining process. The number of cycles corresponding to 100% wear of each rotor was determined as 1112. The results of the rotor wear profile for all types of graphite after the assumed cycles are presented. Comparison of CAD models of new rotors and 3D scans of rotors in the final stage of operation revealed material losses during operational tests. The study assessed the efficiency of the rotor in terms of its service life as well as work efficiency. It was estimated on the basis of the calculated values of the Dichte Index (DI) and the density of the samples solidified in the vacuum. The structure of samples before and after refining at various stages of rotor wear is also presented, and the results are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Recycling Vanadium and Proton-Exchange Membranes from Waste Vanadium Flow Batteries through Ion Exchange and Recast Methods
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3749; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113749 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 329
Abstract
This study aims to provide a system to recycle vanadium resources and recover membranes from waste proton-exchange membranes. This research is divided into two parts. To begin, ion exchange batch and column experiments were applied to adsorb vanadium in a membrane. In this [...] Read more.
This study aims to provide a system to recycle vanadium resources and recover membranes from waste proton-exchange membranes. This research is divided into two parts. To begin, ion exchange batch and column experiments were applied to adsorb vanadium in a membrane. In this process, the waste membrane was initially dissolved in a 50% ethanol solution, and the suspension obtained by dispersing the membrane had 74 mg/L of vanadium. Then, Dowex G26 resin was used to adsorb vanadium from the membrane dispersion in the ion-exchange process. The adsorptive behavior and optimal parameters were explored in this study. The vanadium ions were then eluted by HCl to obtain an enrichment solution, and the V2O5 was received through precipitation and calcination methods. After obtaining the vanadium-free dispersion, the recycled membrane was prepared by recasting it in the second part. The characteristics of the recycled membrane, such as the moisture, FTIR spectra, ion-exchange capacity, and ion conductivity, are discussed. The results revealed that the adsorption capacity of vanadium through Dowex G26 was 81.86 mg/g. The eluting efficiency of HCl was 97.5%, and the optimal parameters of the precipitation and calcination processes were set as pH 5, NH4Cl:V = 2:1, and 350 °C. The moisture of the recycled membrane was 25.98%, and the IEC was 0.565 meq/g. The consequences of FTIR and ion conductivity demonstrated that the vanadium in the recycled membrane was eliminated by the ion-exchange method; however, the microstructure of the recycled membrane was influenced during ion exchange and recasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Modelling of the Flow in the Process of Washing Out Automotive Catalyst Carriers with the PbLi Alloy
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093119 - 26 Apr 2022
Viewed by 357
Abstract
The process of platinum recovery from used car catalysts is highly desirable for both economic and environmental reasons. From the many available methods of processing used car catalysts, the article conducted both numerical and experimental studies using a device based on the collector [...] Read more.
The process of platinum recovery from used car catalysts is highly desirable for both economic and environmental reasons. From the many available methods of processing used car catalysts, the article conducted both numerical and experimental studies using a device based on the collector metal method with lead as a modified medium through a magnetohydrodynamic pump for washing platinum from the channels of the ceramic catalyst carrier. It was assumed that lead alloys with the addition of lithium increase the extraction of platinum from thin catalytic layers and accelerate the platinum dissolution reaction in the Pb-Li alloy, which is the result of a greater affinity of lithium for platinum compared to lead. This assumption was verified by numerical simulations as well as laboratory tests. Tests were carried out for the secondary supply voltage range between 40 and 60 V and the catalyst flushing time between 240 and 480 s. Graphical results of the research were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
The Supported Boro-Additive Effect for the Selective Recovery of Dy Elements from Rare-Earth-Elements-Based Magnets
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093032 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 524
Abstract
Liquid metal extraction (LME) for recycling rare-earth elements from magnets is studied, in the present study, to examine its suitability as an environmentally friendly alternative for a circular economy. While Nd (neodymium) extraction efficiency can easily reach almost 100%, based on the high [...] Read more.
Liquid metal extraction (LME) for recycling rare-earth elements from magnets is studied, in the present study, to examine its suitability as an environmentally friendly alternative for a circular economy. While Nd (neodymium) extraction efficiency can easily reach almost 100%, based on the high reactivity of Mg (magnesium), Dy (dysprosium) extraction has been limited because of the Dy–Fe intermetallic phase as the main extractive bottleneck. In the present paper, the boro-additive effect is designed thermodynamically and examined in the ternary and quinary systems to improve the selectivity of recovery. Based on the strong chemical affinity between B (boron) and Fe, the effect of excess boron, which is produced by the depletion of B in FeB by Mg, successfully resulted in the formation of Fe2B instead of Dy–Fe bonding. However, the growth of the Fe2B layer, which is the reason for the isolated Mg, leads to the production of other byproducts, rare-earth borides (RB4, R = Nd and Dy), as the side effect. By adjusting the ratio of FeB, the extraction efficiency of Dy over 12 h with FeB addition is improved to 80%, which is almost the same extraction efficiency of the conventional LME process over 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Nitric Acid Dissolution of Tennantite, Chalcopyrite and Sphalerite in the Presence of Fe (III) Ions and FeS2
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1545; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041545 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 344
Abstract
This paper describes the nitric acid dissolution process of natural minerals such as tennantite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, with the addition of Fe (III) ions and FeS2. These minerals are typical for the ores of the Ural deposits. The effect of temperature, [...] Read more.
This paper describes the nitric acid dissolution process of natural minerals such as tennantite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, with the addition of Fe (III) ions and FeS2. These minerals are typical for the ores of the Ural deposits. The effect of temperature, nitric acid concentration, time, additions of Fe (III) ions and FeS2 was studied. The highest dissolution degree of sulfide minerals (more than 90%) was observed at a nitric acid concentration of 6 mol/dm3, an experiment time of 60 min, a temperature of 80 °C, a concentration of Fe (III) ions of 16.5 g/dm3, and an addition of FeS2 to the total mass minerals at 1.2:1 ratio. The most significant factors in the break-down of minerals were the nitric acid concentration, the concentration of Fe (III) ions and the amount of FeS2. Simultaneous addition of Fe (III) ions and FeS2 had the greatest effect on the leaching process. It was also established that FeS2 can be an alternative catalytic surface for copper sulfide minerals during nitric acid leaching. This helps to reduce the influence of the passivation layer of elemental sulfur due to the galvanic linkage formed between the minerals, which was confirmed by SEM-EDX. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Recovery of Tantalum and Manganese from Epoxy-Coated Solid Electrolyte Tantalum Capacitors through Selective Leaching and Chlorination Processes
Materials 2022, 15(2), 656; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020656 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Electronic products are ever growing in popularity, and tantalum capacitors are heavily used in small electronic products. Spent epoxy-coated solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors, containing about 22 wt.% of tantalum and 8 wt.% of manganese, were treated with selective leaching by hydrochloric acid and [...] Read more.
Electronic products are ever growing in popularity, and tantalum capacitors are heavily used in small electronic products. Spent epoxy-coated solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors, containing about 22 wt.% of tantalum and 8 wt.% of manganese, were treated with selective leaching by hydrochloric acid and chlorination after removing the epoxy resin, and the products converted, respectively, to Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5. The effects of acid type, acid concentration, liquid–solid ratio, and reaction time were investigated to dissolve the manganese. The optimal selective leaching conditions were determined as 3 mol/L of HCl, 40 mL/g at 25 °C for 32 min. Next, residues of selective leaching after washing and drying were heated with ferrous chloride to convert to pure TaCl5. Mixing 48 wt.% of chloride and 52 wt.% of residues for a total of 5 g was conducted to complete the chlorination process in the tube furnace at 450 °C for 3 h. A total of 2.35 g of Ta was collected and the recovery of Ta achieved 94%. Finally, Mn(OH)2 and TaCl5 were separated and purified as the products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Modeling the Filler Phase Interaction with Solidification Front in Al(TiC) Composite Produced by the In Situ Method
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7560; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247560 - 09 Dec 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
This paper presents simulation results of the interaction of TiC nanoparticle in liquid aluminum. The behavior of the TiC particle in the frontal interaction region stems from the operation of a system of such forces as gravity, viscous flow drag force, and Saffman [...] Read more.
This paper presents simulation results of the interaction of TiC nanoparticle in liquid aluminum. The behavior of the TiC particle in the frontal interaction region stems from the operation of a system of such forces as gravity, viscous flow drag force, and Saffman force. The difference in density between the TiC and the aluminum matrix makes the particle fall, regardless of the radius dimension; while the Saffman force—which accounts for the local velocity gradient of the liquid aluminum—causes that particles with the smallest radii considered in the calculations 6.4 × 10−8 m; 7 × 10−8 m; 7.75 × 10−8 m; 9.85 × 10−8 m are repelled from the solidification front and the particles with 15.03 × 10−8 m are attracted to it. The viscosity growth in the course of casting caused by the lowering temperature reduces this effect, though the trend is maintained. The degree to which the particle is attracted to the front clearly depends on the velocity gradient of the liquid phase. For a very small gradient of 0.00001 m/s, the particle is at its closest position relative to the front. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Hydrothermal Treatment of Arsenopyrite Particles with CuSO4 Solution
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237472 - 06 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 397
Abstract
The nature of the hydrothermal reaction between arsenopyrite particles (FeAsS) and copper sulfate solution (CuSO4) was investigated in this study. The effects of temperature (443–523 K), CuSO4 (0.08–0.96 mol/L) and H2SO4 (0.05–0.6 mol/L) concentrations, reaction time (1–120 [...] Read more.
The nature of the hydrothermal reaction between arsenopyrite particles (FeAsS) and copper sulfate solution (CuSO4) was investigated in this study. The effects of temperature (443–523 K), CuSO4 (0.08–0.96 mol/L) and H2SO4 (0.05–0.6 mol/L) concentrations, reaction time (1–120 min), stirring speed (40–100 rpm) and particle size (10–100 μm) on the FeAsS conversion were studied. The FeAsS conversion was significant at >503 K, and it is suggested that the reaction is characterized by the formation of a thin layer of metallic copper (Cu0) and elemental sulfur (S0) around the unreacted FeAsS core. The shrinking core model (SCM) was applied for describing the process kinetics, and the rate of the overall reaction was found to be controlled by product layer diffusion, while the overall process was divided into two stages: (Stage 1: mixed chemical reaction/product layer diffusion-controlled) interaction of FeAsS with CuSO4 on the mineral’s surface with the formation of Cu1+ and Fe2+ sulfates, arsenous acid, S0, and subsequent diffusion of the reagent (Cu2+) and products (As3+ and Fe2+) through the gradually forming layer of Cu0 and molten S0; (Stage 2: product layer diffusion-controlled) the subsequent interaction of CuSO4 with FeAsS resulted in the formation of a denser and less porous Cu0 and S0 layer, which complicates the countercurrent diffusion of Cu2+, Cu1+, and Fe2+ across the layer to the unreacted FeAsS core. The reaction orders with respect to CuSO4 and H2SO4 were calculated as 0.41 and −0.45 for Stage 1 and 0.35 and −0.5 for Stage 2. The apparent activation energies of 91.67 and 56.69 kJ/mol were obtained for Stages 1 and 2, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Kinetics of Zinc Evaporation from Aluminium Alloys Melted Using VIM and ISM Technologies
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216641 - 04 Nov 2021
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Using a vacuum during the smelting and refining of alloys removes dissolved gasses, as well as impurities with high vapour pressure. When smelting is carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, the intensification of the discussed processes is achieved by intensive mixing of the [...] Read more.
Using a vacuum during the smelting and refining of alloys removes dissolved gasses, as well as impurities with high vapour pressure. When smelting is carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, the intensification of the discussed processes is achieved by intensive mixing of the bath, as well as an enhanced mass exchange surface (liquid metal surface) due to the formation of a meniscus. This is due to the electromagnetic field applied to the liquid metal. This study reports the removal of zinc from the Al-Zn alloy containing 6.3 wt.%. Zn. The experiments were carried out with the use of two types of metallurgical devices: the VIM and ISM furnaces. For the experiments carried out in the crucible induction furnace, reduction in the operating pressure in the furnace from 1000 Pa to 10 Pa, together with the increase in temperature from 953 K to 1103 K, is accompanied by a decrease in zinc content in the alloy from 6 to 96%, compared with the initial value. Simultaneously, the overall mass transfer coefficient kZn increases from 5.15 × 10−6 to −1.49 × 10−4 ms−1. For the experiments carried out in the furnace with a cold crucible (T = 953 K), a reduction in the operating pressure in the furnace from 1000 Pa to 10 Pa resulted in a decrease in zinc content in the alloy from 18 to 80%, compared with the initial value. For comparison, the experiments carried out in the crucible induction furnace at 953 K showed a reduction in zinc content in the alloy from 6 to 50%, which means that more intense zinc evaporation is seen in the furnace with a cold crucible. Comparison of ISM and VIM technologies in the removal efficiency of the Al-Zn alloy indicates a higher removal efficiency using the first technology, which, using the same conditions, achieves 80% of the removal efficiency of the component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
Studies on the Content of Selected Technology Critical Elements (Germanium, Tellurium and Thallium) in Electronic Waste
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3722; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133722 - 02 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
The article draws attention to the problem of the presence of metals: germanium (Ge), tellurium (Te), thallium (Tl), and others (Cd, Ba, Co, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in selected waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). As a result [...] Read more.
The article draws attention to the problem of the presence of metals: germanium (Ge), tellurium (Te), thallium (Tl), and others (Cd, Ba, Co, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in selected waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). As a result of the growing demand for new technologies, the global consumption of TECs has also been increasing. Thus, the amount of metals in circulation, of which the impacts on the environment have not yet been fully understood, is constantly increasing. Due to the low content of these metals in WEEE, they are usually ignored during e-waste analyses. The main aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Ge, Te, and Tl (and other elements) in ground sieve fractions (1.0, 0.5, 0.2, and 0.1 mm) of selected electronic components (solar lamps, solar cell, LED TV screens, LCD screens, photoresistors, photodiodes, phototransistors) and to determine the possible tendency of the concentrations of these metals in fractions. This problem is particularly important because WEEE recycling processes (crushing, grinding, and even collection and transport operations) can lead to dispersion and migration of TCE pollutants into the environment. The quantitative composition of e-waste was identified and confirmed by ICP-MS, ICP-OES and SEM-EDS, and XRD analyses. It was found that Ge, Te, and Tl are concentrated in the finest fractions of ground e-waste, together with Cd and Cr, which may favor the migration of these pollutants in the form of dust during storage and processing of e-waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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Article
On the Rate of Interaction of Sodium Borohydride with Platinum (IV) Chloride Complexes in Alkaline Media
Materials 2021, 14(11), 3137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14113137 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1103
Abstract
In this work, sodium borohydride was used as a strong reductant of traces of platinum complex ions. The investigations of the kinetics of redox reaction between platinum(IV) chloride complex ions and sodium borohydride were carried out. For the first time, the kinetic experiments [...] Read more.
In this work, sodium borohydride was used as a strong reductant of traces of platinum complex ions. The investigations of the kinetics of redox reaction between platinum(IV) chloride complex ions and sodium borohydride were carried out. For the first time, the kinetic experiments were carried out in a basic medium (pH~13), which prevents NaBH4 from decomposition and suppresses the release of hydrogen to the environment. The rate constants of Pt(IV) reduction to Pt(II) ions under different temperatures and concentrations of chloride ions conditions were determined. In alkaline solution (pH~13), the values of enthalpy and entropy of activation are 29.6 kJ/mol and –131 J/mol K. It was also found that oxygen dissolved in the solution strongly affects kinetics of the reduction process. Using collected results, the reduction mechanism was suggested. For the first time, the appearance of diborane as an intermediate product during Pt(IV) ions reduction was suggested. Moreover, the influence of oxygen present in the reacting solution on the rate of reduction reaction was also shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research Progress on the Extractive Metallurgy)
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