Special Issue "Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past few decades, marine natural product research has focused a great deal on sponges. Recently, the number of scientific papers on microbial natural products derived from sponges have been increasing. Although new sources are being explored for collecting sponges for the search of novel compounds for new drugs, there is also an increasing awareness in protecting the environment. Marine natural products scientists have gone through a more ecological and sustainable way to source novel bioactive compounds from sponges. This led scientists to focus more on bioactive secondary metabolites from sponge-derived microorganisms. In the past, it has also been questioned who was the main producer of these unique natural products, considering their structural similarity with microbial metabolites.

In this Special Issue, we would like to revisit the current researches done on bioactive compounds from marine sponges. However, with the current trends in marine natural products research, we would also like to highlight bioactive compounds isolated from sponge-derived microorganisms. I would like to invite colleagues to submit articles on their current research on bioactive compounds from marine sponges, as well as secondary metabolites from sponge-derived or -associated microorganisms.

Dr. RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine sponges
  • sponge-derived microbes
  • bioactive marine natural products

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro and In Vivo Neuroprotective Effects of Stellettin B Through Anti-Apoptosis and the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(6), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17060315 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Pharmaceutical agents for halting the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are lacking. The current available medications only relieve clinical symptoms and may cause severe side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drug candidates for PD. In this study, we demonstrated [...] Read more.
Pharmaceutical agents for halting the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are lacking. The current available medications only relieve clinical symptoms and may cause severe side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel drug candidates for PD. In this study, we demonstrated the neuroprotective activity of stellettin B (SB), a compound isolated from marine sponges. We showed that SB could significantly protect SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cellular damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis and oxidative stress through PI3K/Akt, MAPK, caspase cascade modulation and Nrf2/HO-1 cascade modulation, respectively. In addition, an in vivo study showed that SB reversed 6-OHDA-induced a locomotor deficit in a zebrafish model of PD. The potential for developing SB as a candidate drug for PD treatment is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Antiangiogenic Potential of Solomonamide A Bioactive Precursors: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidences of the Inhibitory Activity of Solo F-OH During Angiogenesis
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(4), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17040228 - 15 Apr 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Marine sponges are a prolific source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the putative antiangiogenic potential of a series of synthetic precursors of Solomonamide A, a cyclic peptide isolated from a marine sponge, was evaluated. By means of an in vitro screening, based [...] Read more.
Marine sponges are a prolific source of bioactive compounds. In this work, the putative antiangiogenic potential of a series of synthetic precursors of Solomonamide A, a cyclic peptide isolated from a marine sponge, was evaluated. By means of an in vitro screening, based on the inhibitory activity of endothelial tube formation, the compound Solo F–OH was selected for a deeper characterization of its antiangiogenic potential. Our results indicate that Solo F–OH is able to inhibit some key steps of the angiogenic process, including the proliferation, migration, and invasion of endothelial cells, as well as diminish their capability to degrade the extracellular matrix proteins. The antiangiogenic potential of Solo F–OH was confirmed by means of two different in vivo models: the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the zebrafish yolk membrane (ZFYM) assays. The reduction in ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in endothelial cells treated with Solo F–OH denotes that this compound could target the upstream components that are common to both pathways. Taken together, our results show a new and interesting biological activity of Solo F–OH as an inhibitor of the persistent and deregulated angiogenesis that characterizes cancer and other pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Sesquiterpenoid Aminoquinone from an Indonesian Marine Sponge
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17030158 - 08 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Sponges are a well-known bioresource for bioactive compounds. In this study, antibacterial activity-guided fractionation of the extract from an Indonesian marine Dactylospongia elegans sponge led to the discovery of four merosesquiterpenoids, namely, a new sesquiterpenoid aminoquinone nakijiquinone V (1), along with [...] Read more.
Sponges are a well-known bioresource for bioactive compounds. In this study, antibacterial activity-guided fractionation of the extract from an Indonesian marine Dactylospongia elegans sponge led to the discovery of four merosesquiterpenoids, namely, a new sesquiterpenoid aminoquinone nakijiquinone V (1), along with illimaquinone (2), smenospongine (3), and dyctioceratine C (4). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR as well as by LC-HRESIMS data analysis. Compounds 24 showed moderate to low antimicrobial activity against Bacillus megaterium DSM32 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/mL, 32 μg/mL, and 64 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 2 and 3 both inhibited Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698 with a MIC of 32 μg/mL. In conclusion, the isolated merosesquiterpenoids, which are known for their cytotoxic effects, showed antibacterial activity and prompt future structure activity relationship (SAR) studies concerning the various bioactivities observed for this group of natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
9-Methylfascaplysin Is a More Potent Aβ Aggregation Inhibitor than the Marine-Derived Alkaloid, Fascaplysin, and Produces Nanomolar Neuroprotective Effects in SH-SY5Y Cells
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020121 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
β-Amyloid (Aβ) is regarded as an important pathogenic target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Aβ can assemble into oligomers and fibrils, and produce neurotoxicity. Therefore, Aβ aggregation inhibitors may have anti-AD therapeutic efficacies. It was found, here, that the [...] Read more.
β-Amyloid (Aβ) is regarded as an important pathogenic target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Aβ can assemble into oligomers and fibrils, and produce neurotoxicity. Therefore, Aβ aggregation inhibitors may have anti-AD therapeutic efficacies. It was found, here, that the marine-derived alkaloid, fascaplysin, inhibits Aβ fibrillization in vitro. Moreover, the new analogue, 9-methylfascaplysin, was designed and synthesized from 5-methyltryptamine. Interestingly, 9-methylfascaplysin is a more potent inhibitor of Aβ fibril formation than fascaplysin. Incubation of 9-methylfascaplysin with Aβ directly reduced Aβ oligomer formation. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that 9-methylfascaplysin might interact with negatively charged residues of Aβ42 with polar binding energy. Hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions between the key amino acid residues of Aβ42 and 9-methylfascaplysin were also suggested. Most importantly, compared with the typical Aβ oligomer, Aβ modified by nanomolar 9-methylfascaplysin produced less neuronal toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. 9-Methylfascaplysin appears to be one of the most potent marine-derived compounds that produces anti-Aβ neuroprotective effects. Given previous reports that fascaplysin inhibits acetylcholinesterase and induces P-glycoprotein, the current study results suggest that fascaplysin derivatives can be developed as novel anti-AD drugs that possibly act via inhibition of Aβ aggregation along with other target mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
5-O-Acetyl-Renieramycin T from Blue Sponge Xestospongia sp. Induces Lung Cancer Stem Cell Apoptosis
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020109 - 11 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the most significant cancers as it accounts for almost 1 in 5 cancer deaths worldwide, with an increasing incident rate. Management of the cancer has been shown to frequently fail due to the ability of the cancer cells [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is one of the most significant cancers as it accounts for almost 1 in 5 cancer deaths worldwide, with an increasing incident rate. Management of the cancer has been shown to frequently fail due to the ability of the cancer cells to resist therapy as well as metastasis. Recent evidence has suggested that the poor response to the current treatment drugs and the ability to undergo metastasis are driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor. The discovery of novel compounds able to suppress CSCs and sensitize the chemotherapeutic response could be beneficial to the improvement of clinical outcomes. Herein, we report for the first time that 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T isolated from the blue sponge Xestospongia sp. mediated lung cancer cell death via the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T induced the death of CSCs as represented by the CSC markers CD44 and CD133, while the stem cell transcription factor Nanog was also found to be dramatically decreased in 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T-treated cells. We also found that such a CSC suppression was due to the ability of the compound to deplete the protein kinase B (AKT) signal. Furthermore, 5-O-acetyl-renieramycin T was able to significantly sensitize cisplatin-mediated apoptosis in the lung cancer cells. Together, the present research findings indicate that this promising compound from the marine sponge is a potential candidate for anti-cancer approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Clerodane Diterpenes from the Marine Sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae Collected in South Brazil
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17010057 - 16 Jan 2019
Abstract
The marine sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae, collected in South Brazil, was selected for detailed investigation considering the results of a screening that pointed to an in vitro antiproliferative effect against non-small cells of human lung cancer (A549) and anti-herpes activity against Herpes Simplex [...] Read more.
The marine sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae, collected in South Brazil, was selected for detailed investigation considering the results of a screening that pointed to an in vitro antiproliferative effect against non-small cells of human lung cancer (A549) and anti-herpes activity against Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (KOS and 29R strains) of ethanolic extracts. The fractionation and chemical investigation of the sponge’s hexanic fraction led to the isolation and structural elucidation of six clerodane diterpenes. The main component was identified as the already-reported raspailol (1), isolated from a sponge of the same genus collected in New Zealand. The structure of a new diterpene (2) with a rearranged skeleton was established by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and 1D and 2D Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments, and named here as raspadiene. Furthermore, four diterpenes were elucidated as isomers of clerodane diterpenes previously obtained from plants, namely kerlinic acid (3), kerlinic acid methyl ester (4), annonene (5), and 6-hydroxyannonene (6). They differ in their stereochemistry, since these diterpenes are characterized by a trans ring fusion at the decalin moiety and the relative configuration of the two methyl groups at C-8 and C-9 in a cis relationship (type trans/cis). The Raspailia diterpenes have a cis ring fusion at the decalin moiety, and the two methyl groups at C-8 and C-9 are in a trans relationship (type cis/trans). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their potential antiproliferative effects on human cancer cell line A549, and it was observed that the diterpenes bearing a hydroxyl group at C-6 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values lower than 25 μM. The evaluation of the potential anti-herpes activity against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS and 29R strains) showed that the more promising results were observed for the new compound 2, since it inhibited HSV-1 (KOS and 29R strains) replication by 83% and 74%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Bromopyrrole Alkaloids from the Sponge Agelas kosrae
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120513 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Two new sceptrin derivatives (1,2) and eight structurally-related known bromopyrrole-bearing alkaloids were isolated from the tropical sponge Agelas kosrae. By a combination of spectroscopic methods, the new compounds, designated dioxysceptrin (1) and ageleste C (2 [...] Read more.
Two new sceptrin derivatives (1,2) and eight structurally-related known bromopyrrole-bearing alkaloids were isolated from the tropical sponge Agelas kosrae. By a combination of spectroscopic methods, the new compounds, designated dioxysceptrin (1) and ageleste C (2), were determined to be structural analogs of each other that differ at the imidazole moiety. Dioxysceptrin was also found to exist as a mixture of α-amido epimers. The sceptrin alkaloids exhibited weak cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Compounds 1 and 2 also moderately exhibited anti-angiogenic and isocitrate lyase-inhibitory activities, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Biochemical and Anti-Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Tumor Cell Properties of Psammaplins
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(11), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16110442 - 10 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Breast tumors reprogram their cellular metabolism, nutrient uptake, and utilization-associated biochemical processes. These processes become further transformed as genetically predisposed metastatic breast tumor cells colonize specific organs. Breast tumor cells often metastasize to the brain, bone, lung and liver. Massagué and colleagues isolated [...] Read more.
Breast tumors reprogram their cellular metabolism, nutrient uptake, and utilization-associated biochemical processes. These processes become further transformed as genetically predisposed metastatic breast tumor cells colonize specific organs. Breast tumor cells often metastasize to the brain, bone, lung and liver. Massagué and colleagues isolated organotropic subclones and established organ-specific gene signatures associated with lung-, bone-, and brain-specific metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells. Using these genetically characterized metastatic subclones specific to lung (LM4175), bone (BoM1833), and brain (BrM-2a), we evaluated marine natural products for the ability to differentially suppress metastatic breast cancer cells in a target organ-dependent manner. Psammaplin-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were found to differentially inhibit HDAC activity, induce activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and disrupt organotropic metastatic TNBC subclone growth. Further, psammaplins distinctly suppressed the outgrowth of BoM1833 tumor spheroids in 3D-culture systems. Similar results were observed with the prototypical HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). These organotropic tumor cell-based studies suggest the potential application of HDAC inhibitors that may yield new directions for anti-metastatic breast tumor research and drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
New Sulfur-Containing Polyarsenicals from the New Caledonian Sponge Echinochalina bargibanti
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100382 - 11 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Arsenicin A (C3H6As4O3) was isolated from the New Caledonian poecilosclerid sponge Echinochalina bargibanti, and described as the first natural organic polyarsenic compound. Further bioguided fractionation of the extracts of this sponge led us to [...] Read more.
Arsenicin A (C3H6As4O3) was isolated from the New Caledonian poecilosclerid sponge Echinochalina bargibanti, and described as the first natural organic polyarsenic compound. Further bioguided fractionation of the extracts of this sponge led us to isolate the first sulfur-containing organic polyarsenicals ever found in Nature. These metabolites, called arsenicin B and arsenicin C, are built on a noradamantane-type framework that is characterized by an unusual As–As bonding. Extensive NMR measurements, in combination with mass spectra, enabled the assignment of the structure for arsenicin B (C3H6As4S2) as 2. The scarcity of arsenicin C and its intrinsic chemical instability only allowed the collection of partial spectral data, which prevented the full structural definition. After the extensive computational testing of several putative structures, structure 3 was inferred for arsenicin C (C3H6As4OS) by comparing the experimental and density functional theory (DFT)-calculated 1H and 13C NMR spectra. Finally, the absolute configurations of 2 and 3 were determined with a combined use of experimental and time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and observed specific rotations. These findings pose great challenges for the investigation of the biosynthesis of these metabolites and the cycle of arsenic in Nature. Arsenicins B and C showed strong antimicrobial activities, especially against S. aureus, which is comparable to the reference compound gentamycin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Aurantoside C Targets and Induces Apoptosis in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(10), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16100361 - 01 Oct 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancers that currently lacks effective targeted therapy. In this study, we found that aurantoside C (C828), isolated from the marine sponge Manihinea lynbeazleyae collected from Western Australia, exhibited higher cytotoxic activities in TNBC [...] Read more.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancers that currently lacks effective targeted therapy. In this study, we found that aurantoside C (C828), isolated from the marine sponge Manihinea lynbeazleyae collected from Western Australia, exhibited higher cytotoxic activities in TNBC cells compared with non-TNBC (luminal and normal-like) cells. The cytotoxic effect of C828 was associated to the accumulation of cell at S-phase, resulting in the decline of cyclin D1, cyclin E1, CDK4, and CDK6, and an increase in p21. We also found that C828 inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt/mTOR and NF-kB pathways and increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK pathways, leading to apoptosis in TNBC cells. These effects of C828 were not observed in non-TNBC cells at the concentrations that were cytotoxic to TNBC cells. When compared to the cytotoxic effect with the chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and cisplatin, C828 was found to be 20 times and 35 times more potent than doxorubicin and cisplatin, respectively. These results indicate that C828 could be a promising lead for developing new anticancer agents that target TNBC cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Sesterterpenoid and Steroid Metabolites from a Deep-Water Alaska Sponge Inhibit Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Colon Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090297 - 27 Aug 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is known to play critical roles in a wide range of cellular processes: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and embryonic development. Importantly, dysregulation of this pathway is tightly associated with pathogenesis in most human cancers. Therefore, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has [...] Read more.
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is known to play critical roles in a wide range of cellular processes: cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and embryonic development. Importantly, dysregulation of this pathway is tightly associated with pathogenesis in most human cancers. Therefore, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has emerged as a promising target in anticancer drug screening programs. In the present study, we have isolated three previously unreported metabolites from an undescribed sponge, a species of Monanchora (Order Poecilosclerida, Family Crambidae), closely related to the northeastern Pacific species Monanchora pulchra, collected from deep waters off the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Through an assortment of NMR, MS, ECD, computational chemical shifts calculation, and DP4, chemical structures of these metabolites have been characterized as spirocyclic ring-containing sesterterpenoid (1) and cholestane-type steroidal analogues (2 and 3). These compounds exhibited the inhibition of β-catenin response transcription (CRT) through the promotion of β-catenin degradation, which was in part implicated in the antiproliferative activity against two CRT-positive colon cancer cell lines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle
Crambescidin 800, Isolated from the Marine Sponge Monanchora viridis, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16020053 - 08 Feb 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the only group of breast cancers without an effective targeted therapy. Marine sponges have historically been a source of compounds with anticancer activity. In this study, we screened extracts from twenty marine sponges collected off the [...] Read more.
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the only group of breast cancers without an effective targeted therapy. Marine sponges have historically been a source of compounds with anticancer activity. In this study, we screened extracts from twenty marine sponges collected off the coast of Western Australia for cytotoxic activity against TNBC cells. One very active extract derived from the sponge Monanchora viridis was selected for bioactivity-guided fractionation. Through multiple steps of purification, we isolated a potent cytotoxic compound, which was identified as crambescidin 800 (C800). We found that C800 exhibited cytotoxic potency in a panel of breast cancer cells, of which TNBC and luminal cancer cell models were the most sensitive. In addition, C800 induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, resulting in a decline in the expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK6 in TNBC cells. This effect was associated with the inhibition of phosphorylation of Akt, NF-κB, and MAPK pathways, resulting in apoptosis in TNBC cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Chemical Diversity and Biological Activities of Marine Sponges of the Genus Suberea: A Systematic Review
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/md17020115 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Marine natural products (MNPs) continue to be in the spotlight in the global drug discovery endeavor. Currently, more than 30,000 structurally diverse secondary metabolites from marine sources have been isolated, making MNPs a profound, renewable source to investigate novel drug compounds. Marine sponges [...] Read more.
Marine natural products (MNPs) continue to be in the spotlight in the global drug discovery endeavor. Currently, more than 30,000 structurally diverse secondary metabolites from marine sources have been isolated, making MNPs a profound, renewable source to investigate novel drug compounds. Marine sponges of the genus Suberea (family: Aplysinellidae) are recognized as producers of bromotyrosine derivatives, which are considered distinct chemotaxonomic markers for the marine sponges belonging to the order Verongida. This class of compounds exhibits structural diversity, ranging from simple monomeric molecules to more complex molecular scaffolds, displaying a myriad of biological and pharmacological potentialities. In this review, a comprehensive literature survey covering the period of 1998–2018, focusing on the chemistry and biological/pharmacological activities of marine natural products from marine sponges of the genus Suberea, with special attention to the biogenesis of the different skeletons of halogenated compounds, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessReview
Chemistry and Biological Activities of the Marine Sponges of the Genera Mycale (Arenochalina), Biemna and Clathria
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(6), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16060214 - 18 Jun 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Over the past seven decades, particularly since the discovery of the first marine-derived nucleosides, spongothymidine and spongouridine, from the Caribbean sponge Cryptotethya crypta in the early 1950s, marine natural products have emerged as unique, renewable and yet under-investigated pools for discovery of new [...] Read more.
Over the past seven decades, particularly since the discovery of the first marine-derived nucleosides, spongothymidine and spongouridine, from the Caribbean sponge Cryptotethya crypta in the early 1950s, marine natural products have emerged as unique, renewable and yet under-investigated pools for discovery of new drug leads with distinct structural features, and myriad interesting biological activities. Marine sponges are the most primitive and simplest multicellular animals, with approximately 8900 known described species, although more than 15,000 species are thought to exist worldwide today. These marine organisms potentially represent the richest pipeline for novel drug leads. Mycale (Arenochalina) and Clathria are recognized marine sponge genera belonging to the order Poecilosclerida, whereas Biemna was more recently reclassified, based on molecular genetics, as a new order Biemnida. Together, these sponge genera contribute to the production of physiologically active molecular entities with diverse structural features and a wide range of medicinal and therapeutic potentialities. In this review, we provide a comprehensive insight and up-to-date literature survey over the period of 1976–2018, focusing on the chemistry of the isolated compounds from members of these three genera, as well as their biological and pharmacological activities, whenever available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessReview
Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Genus Agelas
Mar. Drugs 2017, 15(11), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/md15110351 - 08 Nov 2017
Cited by 17
Abstract
The marine sponge genus Agelas comprises a rich reservoir of species and natural products with diverse chemical structures and biological properties with potential application in new drug development. This review for the first time summarized secondary metabolites from Agelas sponges discovered in the [...] Read more.
The marine sponge genus Agelas comprises a rich reservoir of species and natural products with diverse chemical structures and biological properties with potential application in new drug development. This review for the first time summarized secondary metabolites from Agelas sponges discovered in the past 47 years together with their bioactive effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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