Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials

A special issue of Magnetochemistry (ISSN 2312-7481). This special issue belongs to the section "Applications of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 October 2024 | Viewed by 12177

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Department of Physics, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17003 Girona, Spain
Interests: powder metallurgy; structural analysis; thermal analysis; mechanical alloying; nanocrystalline
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to include manuscripts regarding novel topics of magnetism. The optimization of the magnetic energy density of permanent magnets or the reduction in power losses in high-frequency soft magnetic materials are linked to energy. Likewise, novel compounds are continuously being designed and produced for specific applications. Regarding raw materials, existing research focuses on environmental sustainability through recycling, especially of magnetic elements such as rare earths.

Thus, we hope for manuscripts concerning the design, modeling, simulation, synthesis and/or characterization of magnetic materials, welcoming review articles as well.

Prof. Dr. Joan-Josep Suñol
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Magnetochemistry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy
  • recycling
  • magnetic composites
  • permanent magnets
  • soft magnetic
  • amorphous
  • nanocrystalline

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 4908 KiB  
Article
A Novel Two-Stage 3D-Printed Halbach Array-Based Device for Magneto-Mechanical Applications
by Antonios Makridis, Nikolaos Maniotis, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Pavlos Kyriazopoulos and Makis Angelakeris
Magnetochemistry 2024, 10(4), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry10040021 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 984
Abstract
This research unveils a versatile Halbach array magnetic device with promising biomedical applications, offering innovative solutions for targeted therapy and disease management in evolving biomedical engineering. This paper explores the potential of a novel Halbach array-based device for harnessing magneto-mechanical phenomena in biomedical [...] Read more.
This research unveils a versatile Halbach array magnetic device with promising biomedical applications, offering innovative solutions for targeted therapy and disease management in evolving biomedical engineering. This paper explores the potential of a novel Halbach array-based device for harnessing magneto-mechanical phenomena in biomedical applications. The study employs computational modeling using COMSOL Multiphysics to define the device’s magnetic properties and validate its operation within the theoretical prediction. The research catalogs the device’s operational modes and assesses crucial parameters related to magneto-mechanical biomedical modalities, including magnetic field strength, gradient, and force. Experimental validation of numerical findings through magnetic field measurements confirms the device’s multifaceted potential, particularly in targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Finally, the adaptability of the magnetic arrangements for various scenarios is also highlighted. This investigation provides valuable insights into integrating magneto-mechanical principles into biomedical engineering. It paves the way for further research and innovative approaches in theranostics, positioning the presented apparatus as a promising tool with untapped potential for future exploration and discovery in the evolving biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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18 pages, 8362 KiB  
Article
A Study of the Structure and Physicochemical Properties of the Mixed Basicity Iron Ore Sinter
by Andrey N. Dmitriev, Elena A. Vyaznikova, Galina Yu. Vitkina and Antonina I. Karlina
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(10), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9100212 - 22 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
To study the influence of sinter basicity on the microstructure, phase composition, and physicochemical and metallurgical properties, samples of agglomerates with different basicities were sintered and investigated. A comprehensive study of the structure, composition, chemical, and metallurgical properties of the sinter was conducted, [...] Read more.
To study the influence of sinter basicity on the microstructure, phase composition, and physicochemical and metallurgical properties, samples of agglomerates with different basicities were sintered and investigated. A comprehensive study of the structure, composition, chemical, and metallurgical properties of the sinter was conducted, and the optimum values for these properties were determined. The results of the mineralogical transformations that occurred during the sintering process are also presented. The magnetite contained in the concentrate partially dissolves in the silicate component and flux during agglomeration, forming a complex silicate SFCA with the general formula M14O20 (M–Ca, Si, Al, and Mg), which is the binder of the ore phases of the agglomerate. The proportion of ferrosilicates of calcium and aluminum in the sinter depends on the basicity of the sinter charge, and the morphology of the SFCA phase depends on the cooling rate of the sinter. The more CaO in the sinter charge, the more SFCA phase is formed in the sinter, and slow cooling results in the growth of large lamellar and dendritic SFCA phases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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19 pages, 4980 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Energy Recovery in Magnetic Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorbers Using Soft Magnetic Materials
by Susana Aberturas, José Luis Olazagoitia, Miguel Ángel García and Antonio Hernando
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(7), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9070189 - 20 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1395
Abstract
In the automobile sector, energy recovery and sustainability are becoming more and more important, and energy-harvesting suspension systems (EHSAs) have a lot of promise to improve vehicle efficiency. This investigation expands on prior work that investigated the viability of an EHSA that uses [...] Read more.
In the automobile sector, energy recovery and sustainability are becoming more and more important, and energy-harvesting suspension systems (EHSAs) have a lot of promise to improve vehicle efficiency. This investigation expands on prior work that investigated the viability of an EHSA that uses permanent magnets and amorphous core coils. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated and enhanced in the current study through the development and optimization of a prototype. A thorough testing of the prototype is performed to determine design improvements for boosting the system’s overall performance and to quantify the recovered energy. In previous work, a method was proposed to find the dependence of the magnetic flux with the relative position between the primary and secondary elements to obtain the optimal position for the system. This method is applied to optimize the energy harvesting coil by testing different configurations in terms of the placement and type of amorphous or nonamorphous core inside the energy harvesting coil. This is a crucial area of attention in order to maximize energy recovery while solving the low-frequency problem that suspension systems have (on the order of 10 Hz). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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15 pages, 5682 KiB  
Article
Magnetic Properties of CuCr1−xLaxS2 Thermoelectric Materials
by Evgeniy V. Korotaev, Mikhail M. Syrokvashin, Veronica S. Sulyaeva and Irina Yu. Filatova
Magnetochemistry 2023, 9(7), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry9070168 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
The magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, magnetic moment) and Weiss constant for lanthanum-doped CuCr1−xLaxS2 (x = 0; 0.005; 0.01; 0.015; 0.03) solid solutions were studied using static magnetochemistry at 80–750 K. The samples were characterized by both powder X-ray [...] Read more.
The magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, magnetic moment) and Weiss constant for lanthanum-doped CuCr1−xLaxS2 (x = 0; 0.005; 0.01; 0.015; 0.03) solid solutions were studied using static magnetochemistry at 80–750 K. The samples were characterized by both powder X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was shown that synthesized samples are single-phased up to x ≤ 0.01. The presence of the additional phase in the solid solutions with x > 0.015 caused deviation from the simple isovalent Cr3+→Ln3+ cationic substitution principle. It was found that magnetic susceptibility and the Weiss constant are significantly affected by both magnetic properties and lanthanum concentration for the solid solutions doped up to x = 0.01. The largest magnetic moment value of 3.88 µB was measured for the initial CuCrS2-matrix. The lowest value of 3.77 µB was measured for the CuCr0.99La0.01S2 solid solution. The lowest Weiss constant value of −147 K was observed for the initial matrix; the highest one was observed for CuCr0.99La0.01S2 (−139 K). The largest Seebeck coefficient value of 373 µV/K was measured for CuCr0.985La0.015S2 at 500 K; the obtained value was 3.3 times greater compared to the initial CuCrS2-matrix. The field dependence of the magnetic susceptibility allowed one to conclude the absence of ferromagnetic contributions in the total magnetic susceptibility of CuCr1−xLaxS2. The data on magnetic properties can be successfully utilized to investigate the limits of doping atom suitability and order–disorder phase transition temperature in CuCrS2-based solid solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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17 pages, 99925 KiB  
Article
Magnetorheological Finishing of Chemically Treated Electroless Nickel Plating
by Mayank Kumar, Tharra Bhavani, Sunil Rawal and Ajay Sidpara
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(12), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8120184 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3529
Abstract
Electroless nickel plating with a nanofinished surface is used in space mirrors, automobile parts, aircraft components, optical instruments, and electronic equipment. Finishing of these components using conventional finishing techniques is limited due to size, shape, material, and process constraints. This work reports the [...] Read more.
Electroless nickel plating with a nanofinished surface is used in space mirrors, automobile parts, aircraft components, optical instruments, and electronic equipment. Finishing of these components using conventional finishing techniques is limited due to size, shape, material, and process constraints. This work reports the nanofinishing of electroless nickel-plated surfaces using a magnetorheological finishing process where the surfaces are pre-treated with chemicals. The chemicals used in this work are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrofluoric acid (HF). The effect of exposure time and concentration on the microhardness and roughness is studied to understand the surface chemistry after chemical treatment. The hydrogen peroxide forms a passivated layer, and it helps in easy material removal. Hydrofluoric acid improves surface quality and also helps in the removal of contaminants. The finished surface is characterized to understand the effect of chemical treatment on the finishing rate and surface topography. Normal and tangential forces are mainly affected by the hardness and surface condition after the chemical treatment. The best combination of parameters (chemical treatment with 1% HF for 30 min) was obtained and finishing was carried out to obtain a nanofinished surface with its areal surface roughness (Sa) reduced to 10 nm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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16 pages, 6111 KiB  
Article
Microstructure, Critical Behavior and Magnetocaloric Properties of Melt-Spun Ni51.82Mn32.37In15.81
by Karima Dadda, Safia Alleg, Saida Souilah, Jason Daza, Joan Saurina, Joan-Josep Suñol, Lotfi Bessais and El-Kebir Hlil
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(12), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8120179 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Heusler alloy with an atomic composition of Ni51.82Mn32.37In15.81 was prepared by melt spinning from arc-melted ingots. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements were used to study the structural, microstructural and magnetic properties. The crystal structure consists [...] Read more.
Heusler alloy with an atomic composition of Ni51.82Mn32.37In15.81 was prepared by melt spinning from arc-melted ingots. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and magnetic measurements were used to study the structural, microstructural and magnetic properties. The crystal structure consists of a mixture of B2 austenite (~50%) and 14M martensite (~50%). The alloy undergoes a second order magnetic transition at a Curie temperature of TcA=194.2 K. The hysteresis loop reveals the occurrence of exchange bias phenomenon at room temperature. The critical exponents β, γ and δ were estimated using modified Arrott plots, Kouvel–Fisher curves and critical isothermal analysis. The respective values are β=0.500±0.015, γ=1.282±0.055 and δ=3.003±0.002. The critical behaviour in ribbons is governed by the mean field model with a dominated long-range order of ferromagnetic interactions. The maximum entropy change, SMmax, for an applied magnetic field of 5 T reaches an absolute value of 0.92 J/kg·K. The experimental results of entropy changes are in good agreement with those calculated using Landau theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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11 pages, 3919 KiB  
Article
Martensitic Transformation, Magnetic and Mechanical Characteristics in Unidirectional Ni–Mn–Sn Heusler Alloy
by Haodong Sun, Chao Jing, Hui Zeng, Yuan Su, Siyuan Yang, Yuanlei Zhang, Tarek Bachagha, Ting Zhou, Long Hou and Wei Ren
Magnetochemistry 2022, 8(10), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/magnetochemistry8100136 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1771
Abstract
A textured structure of Ni–Mn–Sn Heusler alloy with [001] preferred orientation has been grown by the directional solidification method. The crystal exhibits a single austenite phase L21 cubic structure (a = 5.997 Å) at room temperature. Magnetization and electronic transport [...] Read more.
A textured structure of Ni–Mn–Sn Heusler alloy with [001] preferred orientation has been grown by the directional solidification method. The crystal exhibits a single austenite phase L21 cubic structure (a = 5.997 Å) at room temperature. Magnetization and electronic transport measurements reveal the phase transformation characteristics. The maximum values of magnetic entropy change determined by Maxwell’s thermodynamic relation during the structural and magnetic phase transformations are 3.5 J/kg·K and −4.1 J/kg·K, and the total effective refrigerant capacity reaches about 314 J/kg (5 T). The evident reduction in hysteresis loss and broad operating temperature window provide a greater prospect for improving the cyclic stability of refrigeration and optimizing the application of such a magnetic refrigeration material. Both magnetoresistance (−18%, 5 T) and exchange bias field (302 Oe, 2 K) have also been investigated to understand the nature of phase transformations and exchange interactions. Furthermore, as the material exhibits excellent mechanical properties (1068 MPa, 9.0%), our experimental results provide a new reference for the application of Ni–Mn–Sn Heusler alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetism: Energy, Recycling, Novel Materials)
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