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Open AccessArticle

Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta “Gold Standard” Leaves

Development Center of Plant Germplasm Resources, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
Alkali Soil Natural Environmental Science Center, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Saline-alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration in Oil Field, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150040, China
Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Department of Biology, Genetics Institute, Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
Food Engineering College, Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150028, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Setsuko Komatsu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 346;
Received: 26 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research)
PDF [17102 KB, uploaded 8 March 2016]


Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta “Gold Standard” is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta “Gold Standard”, as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta “Gold Standard”. For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hosta “Gold Standard”; proteomics; variegated leaves; leaf color; excess nitrogen fertilization Hosta “Gold Standard”; proteomics; variegated leaves; leaf color; excess nitrogen fertilization

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Yu, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Chen, S.; Guo, H.; Shi, L.; Dai, S. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta “Gold Standard” Leaves. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 346.

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