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Topical Collection "Advances in Proteomic Research"

Editors

Prof. Dr. Stuart Maudsley
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Collection Editor
1. Vice-Chair, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium
2. Adjunct Director, VIB Center for Molecular Neurology, University of Antwerp, Belgium
Interests: cell signaling; pharmacology; G protein-coupled receptors; gerontology; energy metabolism; aging; cardiovascular disease; neurodegeneration; renal failure; schizophrenia; depression; bioinformatics; quantitative proteomics; interactomics
Prof. Dr. Paolo Iadarola
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Department of Biology and Biotechnology “L. Spallanzani”, Pavia, Italy
Tel. +39 0382 98 7264
Interests: Purification and characterization of enzymes and structural proteins; investigation of the proteome of different tissues/fluids by using the conventional methods of proteomics/metabolomics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. David Sheehan
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Proteomic Research Laboratory, Head of School of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University College Cork, Western Gateway Building, Western Rd, Cork, Ireland
Dean of College of Arts and Sciences, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Tel. 353 21 4904207; Fax: +35 321 427 4034
Interests: enzymology and evolution of glutathione transferases; application of proteomics to study of oxidative stress; implications of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species for kidney function; environmental toxicology; nanomaterials as emerging toxicological threats
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Proteins are the main agents of biological change. Their structural diversity is sufficient to accomplish the enormous array of chemical functionality required by living cells. Unlike the genome, the proteome (the complement of proteins under a given set of biological conditions) is a dynamic quantity which varies with variables such as cell cycle stage, cell specialization, pathology and nutritional status. Thus proteomics offers a robust set of high-throughput methods to explore changes in the quantity and status of specific proteins so as to reveal changes underlying key facets of biological functioning. Importantly, this is a discovery-driven, rather than a hypothesis-driven, approach with the potential to identify new processes not suspected a priori. This Topical Collection will contain articles describing new advances in the science of proteomics.

Topics of this Topical Collection include, but are not limited to:

  • Sample preparation for two dimensional electrophoresis
  • Sample preparation for protein mass spectrometry
  • Enrichment for sub-proteomes
  • Organelle proteomics
  • Clinical applications of proteomics, such as biomarker discovery
  • Environmental proteomics
  • Proteomics in food science
  • Proteomics of non-model organisms
  • Proteomics databases
  • New Bioinformatics approaches for proteomics datasets
  • Use of protein arrays

Prof. Dr. Stuart Maudsley
Prof. Dr. David Sheehan
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • proteomics
  • proteome
  • organelle
  • enrichment
  • two dimensional electrophoresis
  • protein arrays
  • protein mass spectrometry
  • bioinformatics
  • biomarker

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (125 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

Open AccessArticle
Optimization of Data-Independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry for Deep and Highly Sensitive Proteomic Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235932 - 26 Nov 2019
Abstract
Data-independent acquisition (DIA)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis overtop the existing data-dependent acquisition (DDA)-MS-based proteomic analysis to enable deep proteome coverage and precise relative quantitative analysis in single-shot liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. However, DIA-MS-based proteomic analysis has not yet been optimized in terms of system [...] Read more.
Data-independent acquisition (DIA)-mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis overtop the existing data-dependent acquisition (DDA)-MS-based proteomic analysis to enable deep proteome coverage and precise relative quantitative analysis in single-shot liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. However, DIA-MS-based proteomic analysis has not yet been optimized in terms of system robustness and throughput, particularly for its practical applications. We established a single-shot LC-MS/MS system with an MS measurement time of 90 min for a highly sensitive and deep proteomic analysis by optimizing the conditions of DIA and nanoLC. We identified 7020 and 4068 proteins from 200 ng and 10 ng, respectively, of tryptic floating human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293F) cell digest by performing the constructed LC-MS method with a protein sequence database search. The numbers of identified proteins from 200 ng and 10 ng of tryptic HEK293F increased to 8509 and 5706, respectively, by searching the chromatogram library created by gas-phase fractionated DIA. Moreover, DIA protein quantification was highly reproducible, with median coefficients of variation of 4.3% in eight replicate analyses. We could demonstrate the power of this system by applying the proteomic analysis to detect subtle changes in protein profiles between cerebrums in germ-free and specific pathogen-free mice, which successfully showed that >40 proteins were differentially produced between the cerebrums in the presence or absence of bacteria. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Goals and Challenges in Bacterial Phosphoproteomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225678 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
Reversible protein phosphorylation at serine, threonine and tyrosine is a well-known dynamic post-translational modification with stunning regulatory and signalling functions in eukaryotes. Shotgun phosphoproteomic analyses revealed that this post-translational modification is dramatically lower in bacteria than in eukaryotes. However, Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation is present [...] Read more.
Reversible protein phosphorylation at serine, threonine and tyrosine is a well-known dynamic post-translational modification with stunning regulatory and signalling functions in eukaryotes. Shotgun phosphoproteomic analyses revealed that this post-translational modification is dramatically lower in bacteria than in eukaryotes. However, Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation is present in all analysed bacteria (24 eubacteria and 1 archaea). It affects central processes, such as primary and secondary metabolism development, sporulation, pathogenicity, virulence or antibiotic resistance. Twenty-nine phosphoprotein orthologues were systematically identified in bacteria: ribosomal proteins, enzymes from glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, elongation factors, cell division proteins, RNA polymerases, ATP synthases and enzymes from the citrate cycle. While Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation exists in bacteria, there is a consensus that histidine phosphorylation is the most abundant protein phosphorylation in prokaryotes. Unfortunately, histidine shotgun phosphorproteomics is not possible due to the reduced phosphohistidine half-life under the acidic pH conditions used in standard LC-MS/MS analysis. However, considering the fast and continuous advances in LC-MS/MS-based phosphoproteomic methodologies, it is expected that further innovations will allow for the study of His phosphoproteomes and a better coverage of bacterial phosphoproteomes. The characterisation of the biological role of bacterial Ser/Thr/Tyr and His phosphorylations might revolutionise our understanding of prokaryotic physiology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Interpretation of Fiber Supplementation on Offspring Testicular Development in a Pregnant Sow Model from a Proteomics Perspective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4549; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184549 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
To study the effects of maternal fiber supplementation during pregnancy on the testicular development of male offspring and its possible mechanisms, 36 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated to either a control diet (n = 18) or a fiber diet (the control [...] Read more.
To study the effects of maternal fiber supplementation during pregnancy on the testicular development of male offspring and its possible mechanisms, 36 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated to either a control diet (n = 18) or a fiber diet (the control diet supplemented with 22.60 g/kg inulin and 181.60 g/kg cellulosic; n = 18) during pregnancy. The body and testes weight of the offspring, 7-day-old piglets, was recorded. Testes were collected for further analyses. Results showed that the testicular organ index and the number of spermatogonia in single seminiferous tubule were higher in piglets from the fiber group than from the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of glucose, lactate, and lipids in the testes was found in the fiber group (p < 0.05). Proteomic analysis suggested that there were notable differences in glucolipid transport and metabolism, oxidation, and male reproduction-related proteins expression between the two groups (p < 0.05). Results revealed that the most enriched signaling pathways in the fiber group testes included starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and the renin-angiotensin system. mRNA expression analyzes further confirmed the importance of some signaling pathways in maternal fiber nutrition regulating offspring testicular development. Our results shed new light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of maternal fiber nutrition on offspring testicular development and provided a valuable insight for future explorations of the effect of maternal fiber nutrition on man reproduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomics Approach for the Discovery of Rheumatoid Arthritis Biomarkers Using Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184368 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes serious functional loss in patients. Early and accurate diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis may attenuate its severity. Despite a diagnosis guideline in the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes serious functional loss in patients. Early and accurate diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis may attenuate its severity. Despite a diagnosis guideline in the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, the practical difficulties in its diagnosis highlight the need of developing new methods for diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis. The current study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis diagnostic biomarkers by using a proteomics approach. Serum protein profiling was conducted using mass spectrometry, and five distinguishable biomarkers were identified therefrom. In the validation study, the five biomarkers were quantitatively verified by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis. Two proteins, namely serum amyloid A4 and vitamin D binding protein, showed high performance in distinguishing patients with rheumatoid arthritis from healthy controls. Logistic analysis was conducted to evaluate how accurately the two biomarkers distinguish patients with rheumatoid arthritis from healthy controls. The classification accuracy was 86.0% and 81.4% in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in healthy controls, respectively. Serum amyloid A4 and vitamin D binding protein could be potential biomarkers related to the inflammatory response and joint destruction that accompany rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Insight into the Proteome of Uveal Melanoma-Derived Ectosomes Reveals the Presence of Potentially Useful Biomarkers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153789 - 02 Aug 2019
Abstract
Cancer cells are known to release extracellular vesicles that often promote disease development and progression. The present study investigated the protein content and glycosylation pattern of ectosomes released in vitro by a human primary uveal melanoma Mel202 cell line. Ectosomes released by Mel202 [...] Read more.
Cancer cells are known to release extracellular vesicles that often promote disease development and progression. The present study investigated the protein content and glycosylation pattern of ectosomes released in vitro by a human primary uveal melanoma Mel202 cell line. Ectosomes released by Mel202 cells were isolated from conditioned media using sequential centrifugation, and a nano-LC-MS/MS approach was used to determine their protein content. Subsequently, proteins from ectosomes, the whole cell extracts, and the membrane fractions were probed with a panel of lectins using Western blotting and flow cytometry to reveal characteristic glycan structures. As many as 2527 unique proteins were identified, and many of them are known to be involved in cancer cell proliferation and altered metabolism, tumor invasion, metastasis, or drug resistance. Lectin-based studies revealed a distinct glycosylation pattern between Mel202-derived ectosomes and the parental cell membranes. Selective enrichment of ectosomal proteins with bisected complex type N-glycans and α2,6-linked sialic acids may be significant for ectosome formation and sequestration. Differences in the surface glycosylation of Mel202 cells and ectosomes supports recent findings that the budding of ectosomes occurs within strictly determined fragments of the plasma membrane, and thus ectosomes contain a unique protein and glycan composition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Morphologically Changed Tissues after Prolonged Dexamethasone Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133122 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Prolonged dexamethasone (Dex) administration leads to serious adverse and decrease brain and heart size, muscular atrophy, hemorrhagic liver, and presence of kidney cysts. Herein, we used an untargeted proteomic approach using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneous identification of changes in proteomes [...] Read more.
Prolonged dexamethasone (Dex) administration leads to serious adverse and decrease brain and heart size, muscular atrophy, hemorrhagic liver, and presence of kidney cysts. Herein, we used an untargeted proteomic approach using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for simultaneous identification of changes in proteomes of the major organs in Sprague–Dawley (SD rats post Dex treatment. The comparative and quantitative proteomic analysis of the brain, heart, muscle, liver, and kidney tissues revealed differential expression of proteins (n = 190, 193, 39, 230, and 53, respectively) between Dex-treated and control rats. Functional network analysis using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA revealed significant differences in regulation of metabolic pathways within the morphologically changed organs that related to: (i) brain—cell morphology, nervous system development, and function and neurological disease; (ii) heart—cellular development, cellular function and maintenance, connective tissue development and function; (iii) skeletal muscle—nucleic acid metabolism, and small molecule biochemical pathways; (iv) liver—lipid metabolism, small molecular biochemistry, and nucleic acid metabolism; and (v) kidney—drug metabolism, organism injury and abnormalities, and renal damage. Our study provides a comprehensive description of the organ-specific proteomic profilesand differentially altered biochemical pathways, after prolonged Dex treatement to understand the molecular basis for development of side effects. Full article
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2018

Jump to: 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012

Open AccessReview
Current Status of Proteomic Technologies for Discovering and Identifying Gingival Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers for Periodontal Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010086 - 26 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Periodontal disease is caused by bacteria in dental biofilms. To eliminate the bacteria, immune system cells release substances that inflame and damage the gums, periodontal ligament, or alveolar bone, leading to swollen bleeding gums, which is a sign of gingivitis. Damage from periodontal [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is caused by bacteria in dental biofilms. To eliminate the bacteria, immune system cells release substances that inflame and damage the gums, periodontal ligament, or alveolar bone, leading to swollen bleeding gums, which is a sign of gingivitis. Damage from periodontal disease can cause teeth to loosen also. Studies have demonstrated the proteomic approach to be a promising tool for the discovery and identification of biochemical markers of periodontal diseases. Recently, many studies have applied expression proteomics to identify proteins whose expression levels are altered by disease. As a fluid lying in close proximity to the periodontal tissue, the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the principal target in the search for periodontal disease biomarkers because its protein composition may reflect the disease pathophysiology. Biochemical marker analysis of GCF is effective for objective diagnosis in the early and advanced stages of periodontal disease. Periodontal diseases are also promising targets for proteomics, and several groups, including ours, have applied proteomics in the search for GCF biomarkers of periodontal diseases. This search is of continuing interest in the field of experimental and clinical periodontal disease research. In this article, we summarize the current situation of proteomic technologies to discover and identify GCF biomarkers for periodontal diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Clinically Relevant Post-Translational Modification Analyses—Maturing Workflows and Bioinformatics Tools
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010016 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) can occur soon after translation or at any stage in the lifecycle of a given protein, and they may help regulate protein folding, stability, cellular localisation, activity, or the interactions proteins have with other proteins or biomolecular species. PTMs are [...] Read more.
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) can occur soon after translation or at any stage in the lifecycle of a given protein, and they may help regulate protein folding, stability, cellular localisation, activity, or the interactions proteins have with other proteins or biomolecular species. PTMs are crucial to our functional understanding of biology, and new quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics workflows are maturing both in labelled multiplexed and label-free techniques, offering increasing coverage and new opportunities to study human health and disease. Techniques such as Data Independent Acquisition (DIA) are emerging as promising approaches due to their re-mining capability. Many bioinformatics tools have been developed to support the analysis of PTMs by mass spectrometry, from prediction and identifying PTM site assignment, open searches enabling better mining of unassigned mass spectra—many of which likely harbour PTMs—through to understanding PTM associations and interactions. The remaining challenge lies in extracting functional information from clinically relevant PTM studies. This review focuses on canvassing the options and progress of PTM analysis for large quantitative studies, from choosing the platform, through to data analysis, with an emphasis on clinically relevant samples such as plasma and other body fluids, and well-established tools and options for data interpretation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Detection and Identification of Antimicrobial Peptide Fingerprints of Nasal Fluid by Mesoporous Silica Particles and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry: From the Analytical Approach to the Diagnostic Applicability in Precision Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124005 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) play a pivotal role in innate host defense and in immune response. The delineation of new MS-based profiling tools, which are able to produce panels of AMP of the nasal fluid (NF), may be attractive for the discovery of [...] Read more.
Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) play a pivotal role in innate host defense and in immune response. The delineation of new MS-based profiling tools, which are able to produce panels of AMP of the nasal fluid (NF), may be attractive for the discovery of new potential diagnostic markers of respiratory disorders. Methods: Swabs collected NF from healthy patients and from patients with respiratory disorders. We used a fast procedure based on mesoporous silica particles (MPS) to enrich NF in its AMP component in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as a key tool for rapidly analyzing clinical samples. Results: Reproducible MS peptide fingerprints were generated for each subject and several AMP were detected including (Human Neutrophil Peptides) HNPs, Statherin, Thymosin-β4, Peptide P-D, II-2, β-MSP, SLPI, Lysozyme-C, and their proteo-forms. In particular, Statherin, Thymosin-β4, and Peptide P-D were accurately identified by direct MS/MS sequencing. Examples of applicability of this tool are shown. AMP fingerprints were obtained before and after a nasal polypectomy as well as before and post-treatment with azelastine/fluticasone in one case of allergic rhinitis. Conclusion: The potential of our platform to be implemented by new mesoporous materials for capturing a wider picture of AMP might offer an amazing opportunity for diagnostic clinical studies on individual and population scales. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics in a Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase-Silenced Neuroblastoma Cell Line
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113580 - 13 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Methylmalonic acidemias (MMAs) are inborn errors of metabolism due to the deficient activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). MUT catalyzes the formation of succinyl-CoA from methylmalonyl-CoA, produced from propionyl-CoA catabolism and derived from odd chain fatty acids β-oxidation, cholesterol, and branched-chain amino acids degradation. [...] Read more.
Methylmalonic acidemias (MMAs) are inborn errors of metabolism due to the deficient activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT). MUT catalyzes the formation of succinyl-CoA from methylmalonyl-CoA, produced from propionyl-CoA catabolism and derived from odd chain fatty acids β-oxidation, cholesterol, and branched-chain amino acids degradation. Increased methylmalonyl-CoA levels allow for the presymptomatic diagnosis of the disease, even though no approved therapies exist. MMA patients show hyperammonemia, ketoacidosis, lethargy, respiratory distress, cognitive impairment, and hepatomegaly. The long-term consequences concern neurologic damage and terminal kidney failure, with little chance of survival. The cellular pathways affected by MUT deficiency were investigated using a quantitative proteomics approach on a cellular model of MUT knockdown. Currently, a consistent reduction of the MUT protein expression was obtained in the neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) by using small-interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against an MUT transcript (MUT siRNA). The MUT absence did not affect the cell viability and apoptotic process in SH-SY5Y. In the present study, we evaluate and quantify the alterations in the protein expression profile as a consequence of MUT-silencing by a mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative analysis, using two different quantitative strategies. Both quantitative methods allowed us to observe that the expression of the proteins involved in mitochondrial oxido-reductive homeostasis balance was affected by MUT deficiency. The alterated functional mitochondrial activity was observed in siRNA_MUT cells cultured with a propionate-supplemented medium. Finally, alterations in the levels of proteins involved in the metabolic pathways, like carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism, were found. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Plasma Membrane Proteins of Antler Stem Cells Using Label-Free LC–MS/MS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113477 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Deer antlers are unusual mammalian organs that can fully regenerate after annual shedding. Stem cells resident in the pedicle periosteum (PPCs) provide the main cell source for antler regeneration. Central to various cellular processes are plasma membrane proteins, but the expression of these [...] Read more.
Deer antlers are unusual mammalian organs that can fully regenerate after annual shedding. Stem cells resident in the pedicle periosteum (PPCs) provide the main cell source for antler regeneration. Central to various cellular processes are plasma membrane proteins, but the expression of these proteins has not been well documented in antler regeneration. In the present study, plasma membrane proteins of PPCs and facial periosteal cells (FPCs) were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography–mass spetrometry (LC–MS/MS). A total of 1739 proteins were identified. Of these proteins, 53 were found solely in the PPCs, 100 solely in the FPCs, and 1576 co-existed in both PPCs and FPCs; and 39 were significantly up-regulated in PPCs and 49 up-regulated in FPCs. In total, 226 gene ontology (GO) terms were significantly enriched from the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Five clusters of biological processes from these GO terms comprised responses to external stimuli, signal transduction, membrane transport, regulation of tissue regeneration, and protein modification processes. Further studies are required to demonstrate the relevancy of these DEPs in antler stem cell biology and antler regeneration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
IL-18 and S100A12 Are Upregulated in Experimental Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113328 - 25 Oct 2018
Abstract
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular disease. RVO may be complicated by pronounced ischemia that often leads to severe loss of visual function. The present work aimed at studying the retinal proteome of RVO complicated by ischemia. In six Danish [...] Read more.
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a common retinal vascular disease. RVO may be complicated by pronounced ischemia that often leads to severe loss of visual function. The present work aimed at studying the retinal proteome of RVO complicated by ischemia. In six Danish Landrace pigs RVO was induced with argon laser in the right eye of each animal. As four retinal veins were occluded, the RVO best corresponded to a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Left control eyes received a similar laser treatment without inducing occlusion. RVO and retinal ischemia were verified by angiography. The retinas were collected 15 days after RVO for proteomic analysis. RVO resulted in a downregulation of proteins involved in visual perception, including rhodopsin, transducin alpha chain, and peripherin-2. RVO also caused a downregulation of proteins involved in neurotransmitter transport, including glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), glutamate decarboxylase 2 (GAD2), and complexins 2–4. RVO lead to increased contents of proteins involved in inflammation, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), S100A12, and annexin A1 (ANXA1). Immunohistochemistry revealed a general retinal upregulation of IL-18 and ANXA1 while S100A12 was highly abundant in retinal ganglion cells in RVO. IL-18 and S100A12 are likely to be driving forces in the inflammatory response of RVO complicated by ischemia. Our findings also suggest that RVO results in compromised neurotransmission and a downregulation of proteins involved in visual perception. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1 (QSOX1) Secreted by Lung Cancer Cells Promotes Cancer Metastasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103213 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
As lung cancer shows the highest mortality in cancer-related death, serum biomarkers are demanded for lung cancer diagnosis and its treatment. To discover lung cancer protein biomarkers, secreted proteins from primary cultured lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues from patients were subjected to [...] Read more.
As lung cancer shows the highest mortality in cancer-related death, serum biomarkers are demanded for lung cancer diagnosis and its treatment. To discover lung cancer protein biomarkers, secreted proteins from primary cultured lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues from patients were subjected to LC/MS–MS proteomic analysis. Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX1) was selected as a biomarker candidate from the enriched proteins in the secretion of lung cancer cells. QSOX1 levels were higher in 82% (51 of 62 tissues) of lung cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. Importantly, QSOX1 serum levels were significantly higher in cancer patients (p < 0.05, Area Under curve (AUC) = 0.89) when measured by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Higher levels of QSOX1 were also uniquely detected in lung cancer tissues, among several other solid cancers, by immunohistochemistry. QSOX1-knock-downed Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells were less viable from oxidative stress and reduced migration and invasion. In addition, LLC mouse models with QSOX1 knock-down also proved that QSOX1 functions in promoting cancer metastasis. In conclusion, QSOX1 might be a lung cancer tissue-derived biomarker and be involved in the promotion of lung cancers, and thus can be a therapeutic target for lung cancers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Elucidating Functions of FleQ in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae by Comparative Proteomic and Phenotypic Analyses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103038 - 05 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
To acclimate to different environments, gene expression has to be controlled using diverse transcriptional activators. FleQ activates σ54-dependent transcription initiation and regulates flagellar biosynthesis and other mechanisms in several bacteria. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which is a causal [...] Read more.
To acclimate to different environments, gene expression has to be controlled using diverse transcriptional activators. FleQ activates σ54-dependent transcription initiation and regulates flagellar biosynthesis and other mechanisms in several bacteria. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which is a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight on rice, lacking FleQ loses swimming motility and virulence is not altered. However, other biological mechanisms related with FleQ in Xoo are unknown. In this study, we generated the FleQ-overexpressing strain, Xoo(FleQ), and knockout mutant, XooΔfleQ. To predict the mechanisms affected by FleQ, label-free shotgun comparative proteomics was carried out. Based on proteomic results, we performed diverse phenotypic assays. Xoo(FleQ) had reduced ability to elicit disease symptoms and exopolysaccharide production. Additionally, the ability of XooΔfleQ(EV) (empty vector) and Xoo(FleQ) to form biofilm was decreased. Swarming motility of XooΔfleQ(EV) was abolished, but was only reduced for Xoo(FleQ). Additionally, abnormal twitching motility was observed in both strains. Siderophore production of Xoo(FleQ) was enhanced in iron-rich conditions. The proteomic and phenotypic analyses revealed that FleQ is involved in flagellar-dependent motility and other mechanisms, including symptom development, twitching motility, exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, and siderophore production. Thus, this study provides fundamental information about a σ54-dependent transcription activator in Xoo. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Proteomics and Lipidomics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research: From Mechanistic Insights to Biomarker Identification
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(9), 2775; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092775 - 15 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of progressive disorders characterized by recurrent chronic inflammation of the gut. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease are the major manifestations of IBD. While our understanding of IBD has progressed in recent years, its etiology is far [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a group of progressive disorders characterized by recurrent chronic inflammation of the gut. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease are the major manifestations of IBD. While our understanding of IBD has progressed in recent years, its etiology is far from being fully understood, resulting in suboptimal treatment options. Complementing other biological endpoints, bioanalytical “omics” methods that quantify many biomolecules simultaneously have great potential in the dissection of the complex pathogenesis of IBD. In this review, we focus on the rapidly evolving proteomics and lipidomics technologies and their broad applicability to IBD studies; these range from investigations of immune-regulatory mechanisms and biomarker discovery to studies dissecting host–microbiome interactions and the role of intestinal epithelial cells. Future studies can leverage recent advances, including improved analytical methodologies, additional relevant sample types, and integrative multi-omics analyses. Proteomics and lipidomics could effectively accelerate the development of novel targeted treatments and the discovery of complementary biomarkers, enabling continuous monitoring of the treatment response of individual patients; this may allow further refinement of treatment and, ultimately, facilitate a personalized medicine approach to IBD. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Immune Checkpoints as the Immune System Regulators and Potential Biomarkers in HIV-1 Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072000 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Immune checkpoints are several co-stimulatory and inhibitory pathways that regulate T cell immune responses. Most of the discoveries about immune checkpoints were made in cancer research where inhibitory immune checkpoints cause immune exhaustion and down-regulate anti-tumor responses. In addition to cancer, immune checkpoints [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoints are several co-stimulatory and inhibitory pathways that regulate T cell immune responses. Most of the discoveries about immune checkpoints were made in cancer research where inhibitory immune checkpoints cause immune exhaustion and down-regulate anti-tumor responses. In addition to cancer, immune checkpoints are exploited in chronic infectious diseases. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the immune checkpoint molecule called programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) has been determined as being a major regulatory factor for T cell exhaustion. Recent studies with antibodies blocking either PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-1 show not only promising results in the enhancement of HIV-specific immune responses but even in reducing the latent HIV reservoir. Apart from the therapeutic target for a functional cure of HIV-1, immune checkpoint molecules might be used as biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules PD-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing-3 (TIM3) as well as the co-stimulatory molecules CD40L and CD70, including their role in immunity, with a particular focus on HIV infection, and being potential targets for a functional HIV cure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Use of TRIzol-Based Protein Extraction Approach for Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis of Dried Seafood Products and Chinese Tonic Foods
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071998 - 09 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although the emergence of gel-free approaches has greatly enhanced proteomic studies, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) remains one of the most widely used proteomic techniques for its high resolving power, relatively low cost, robustness, and high resolution. Preparation of high-quality protein samples remains the [...] Read more.
Although the emergence of gel-free approaches has greatly enhanced proteomic studies, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) remains one of the most widely used proteomic techniques for its high resolving power, relatively low cost, robustness, and high resolution. Preparation of high-quality protein samples remains the key in high-quality 2-DE for proteomic analysis. Samples with high endogenous levels of interfering molecules, such as salts, nucleic acids, lipids, and polysaccharides, would yield a low-quality 2-DE gel and hinder the analysis. Recently, a TRIzol-based protein extraction method has gained prominence and has attracted attention due to its promising performance in high-quality 2-DE. The authors evaluate the use of this approach for four valuable dried food products, namely two dried seafood products (abalone slices and whelk slices) and two traditional Chinese tonic foods (ganoderma and caterpillar fungus). The results indicate that 2-DE gels obtained through the TRIzol-based method are of high-quality and are comparable to those obtained through the trichloroacetic acid–acetone method in terms of spot number, spot intensity, and resolution. The TRIzol-based method is generally applicable to dried food samples and is simple and fast, which greatly streamlines the protein extraction procedure. Additionally, it enables the concurrent extraction and analysis of RNA, DNA, and protein from the same sample. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism of Salt-Induced Self-Compatibility Dissected by Comparative Proteomic Analysis in Brassica napus L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1652; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061652 - 03 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants genetically prevents self-fertilization to promote outcrossing and genetic diversity. Its hybrids in Brassica have been widely cultivated due to the propagation of SI lines by spraying a salt solution. We demonstrated that suppression of Brassica napus SI from edible [...] Read more.
Self-incompatibility (SI) in plants genetically prevents self-fertilization to promote outcrossing and genetic diversity. Its hybrids in Brassica have been widely cultivated due to the propagation of SI lines by spraying a salt solution. We demonstrated that suppression of Brassica napus SI from edible salt solution treatment was ascribed to sodium chloride and independent of S haplotypes, but it did not obviously change the expression of SI-related genes. Using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique, we identified 885 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) in Brassica napus stigmas of un-pollinated (UP), pollinated with compatible pollen (PC), pollinated with incompatible pollen (PI), and pollinated with incompatible pollen after edible salt solution treatment (NA). Of the 307 DAPs in NA/UP, 134 were unique and 94 were shared only with PC/UP. In PC and NA, some salt stress protein species, such as glyoxalase I, were induced, and these protein species were likely to participate in the self-compatibility (SC) pathway. Most of the identified protein species were related to metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, ribosome, and so on. A systematic analysis implied that salt treatment-overcoming SI in B. napus was likely conferred by at least five different physiological mechanisms: (i) the use of Ca2+ as signal molecule; (ii) loosening of the cell wall to allow pollen tube penetration; (iii) synthesis of compatibility factor protein species for pollen tube growth; (iv) depolymerization of microtubule networks to facilitate pollen tube movement; and (v) inhibition of protein degradation pathways to restrain the SI response. Full article
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2017

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Open AccessReview
The Use of “Omics” in Lactation Research in Dairy Cows
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050983 - 05 May 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
“Omics” is the application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in biological research. Over the years, tremendous amounts of biological information has been gathered regarding the changes in gene, mRNA and protein expressions as well as metabolites in different physiological conditions and regulations, [...] Read more.
“Omics” is the application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics in biological research. Over the years, tremendous amounts of biological information has been gathered regarding the changes in gene, mRNA and protein expressions as well as metabolites in different physiological conditions and regulations, which has greatly advanced our understanding of the regulation of many physiological and pathophysiological processes. The aim of this review is to comprehensively describe the advances in our knowledge regarding lactation mainly in dairy cows that were obtained from the “omics” studies. The “omics” technologies have continuously been preferred as the technical tools in lactation research aiming to develop new nutritional, genetic, and management strategies to improve milk production and milk quality in dairy cows. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review: Proteomics in Retinal Artery Occlusion, Retinal Vein Occlusion, Diabetic Retinopathy and Acquired Macular Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050907 - 28 Apr 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Retinal artery occlusion (RAO), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are frequent ocular diseases with potentially sight-threatening outcomes. In the present review we discuss major findings of proteomic studies of RAO, RVO, DR and AMD, including an [...] Read more.
Retinal artery occlusion (RAO), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are frequent ocular diseases with potentially sight-threatening outcomes. In the present review we discuss major findings of proteomic studies of RAO, RVO, DR and AMD, including an overview of ocular proteome changes associated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments. Despite the severe outcomes of RAO, the proteome of the disease remains largely unstudied. There is also limited knowledge about the proteome of RVO, but proteomic studies suggest that RVO is associated with remodeling of the extracellular matrix and adhesion processes. Proteomic studies of DR have resulted in the identification of potential therapeutic targets such as carbonic anhydrase-I. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the most intensively studied stage of DR. Proteomic studies have established VEGF, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and complement components as key factors associated with AMD. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in RAO, RVO, DR and AMD. Through large-scale protein analyses, proteomics is bringing new important insights into these complex pathological conditions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Redox Proteomics and Platelet Activation: Understanding the Redox Proteome to Improve Platelet Quality for Transfusion
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020387 - 11 Feb 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
Blood banks use pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies to increase the safety of platelet concentrates (PCs). The characteristics of PI-treated PCs slightly differ from those of untreated PCs, but the underlying reasons are not well understood. One possible cause is the generation of oxidative [...] Read more.
Blood banks use pathogen inactivation (PI) technologies to increase the safety of platelet concentrates (PCs). The characteristics of PI-treated PCs slightly differ from those of untreated PCs, but the underlying reasons are not well understood. One possible cause is the generation of oxidative stress during the PI process. This is of great interest since reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as second messengers in platelet functions. Furthermore, there are links between protein oxidation and phosphorylation, another mechanism that is critical for cell regulation. Current research efforts focus on understanding the underlying mechanisms and identifying new target proteins. Proteomics technologies represent powerful tools for investigating signaling pathways involving ROS and post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, while quantitative techniques enable the comparison of the platelet resting state versus the stimulated state. In particular, redox cysteine is a key player in platelet activation upon stimulation by different agonists. This review highlights the experiments that have provided insights into the roles of ROS in platelet function and the implications for platelet transfusion, and potentially in diseases such as inflammation and platelet hyperactivity. The review also describes the implication of redox mechanism in platelet storage considerations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Various Rat Ocular Tissues after Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury and Possible Relevance to Acute Glaucoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020334 - 05 Feb 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera) during ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury, this study performed a proteomic [...] Read more.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can cause vision loss and optical nerve damage. To investigate the protein expression alterations in various intraocular tissues (i.e., the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, retina, and sclera) during ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury, this study performed a proteomic analysis to qualitatively investigate such alterations resulting from acute glaucoma. The IR injury model combined with the proteomic analysis approach of two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to monitor the protein expression alterations in two groups of specimens (an IR injury group and a control group). The analysis results revealed 221 unique differentially expressed proteins of a total of 1481 proteins in the cornea between the two groups. In addition, 97 of 1206 conjunctival proteins, 90 of 1354 uveal proteins, 61 of 1180 scleral proteins, and 37 of 1204 retinal proteins were differentially expressed. These findings imply that different ocular tissues have different tolerances against IR injury. To sum up, this study utilized the acute glaucoma model combined with 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the IR injury affected protein expression on various ocular tissues, and based on the ratio of protein expression alterations, the alterations in the ocular tissues were in the following order: the cornea, conjunctiva, uvea, sclera, and retina. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
LC-MS/MS Analysis Unravels Deep Oxidation of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in Kidney Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020319 - 04 Feb 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MNSOD) is one of the major scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria with pivotal regulatory role in ischemic disorders, inflammation and cancer. Here we report oxidative modification of MNSOD in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the shotgun [...] Read more.
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MNSOD) is one of the major scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria with pivotal regulatory role in ischemic disorders, inflammation and cancer. Here we report oxidative modification of MNSOD in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by the shotgun method using data-dependent liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While 5816 and 5571 proteins were identified in cancer and adjacent tissues, respectively, 208 proteins were found to be up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05). Ontological category, interaction network and Western blotting suggested a close correlation between RCC-mediated proteins and oxidoreductases such as MNSOD. Markedly, oxidative modifications of MNSOD were identified at histidine (H54 and H55), tyrosine (Y58), tryptophan (W147, W149, W205 and W210) and asparagine (N206 and N209) residues additional to methionine. These oxidative insults were located at three hotspots near the hydrophobic pocket of the manganese binding site, of which the oxidation of Y58, W147 and W149 was up-regulated around three folds and the oxidation of H54 and H55 was detected in the cancer tissues only (p < 0.05). When normalized to MNSOD expression levels, relative MNSOD enzymatic activity was decreased in cancer tissues, suggesting impairment of MNSOD enzymatic activity in kidney cancer due to modifications. Thus, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed multiple oxidative modifications of MNSOD at different amino acid residues that might mediate the regulation of the superoxide radicals, mitochondrial ROS scavenging and MNSOD activity in kidney cancer. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Preface—Plant Proteomic Research
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010088 - 04 Jan 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to environmental challenges resulting in substantial yield loss[...] Full article

2016

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Open AccessArticle
Histone H3 Methyltransferase Suv39h1 Prevents Myogenic Terminal Differentiation by Repressing MEF2 Activity in Muscle Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1908; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17121908 - 28 Nov 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors have been extensively studied as key transcription factors that regulate myogenic gene expression. However, few reports on the molecular mechanism that modulates chromatin remodeling during skeletal muscle differentiation are available. [...] Read more.
The myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors have been extensively studied as key transcription factors that regulate myogenic gene expression. However, few reports on the molecular mechanism that modulates chromatin remodeling during skeletal muscle differentiation are available. We reported here that the expression of the H3-K9 methyltransferase Suv39h1 was decreased during myoblast differentiation. Ectopic expression of Suv39h1 could inhibit myoblast differentiation, increasing H3-K9 methylation levels, whereas knockdown of Suv39h1 stimulated myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, Suv39h1 interacted with MEF2C directly and inhibited MEF2 transcription activity in a dose-dependent manner. Together, our studies revealed a molecular mechanism wherein Suv39h1 modulated myogenic gene expression and activation during skeletal muscle differentiation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a Xantha Mutant of Ginkgo biloba L.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111794 - 27 Oct 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL) and green-colour leaves (GL) was identified in this study. [...] Read more.
Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL) and green-colour leaves (GL) was identified in this study. The chlorophyll content of YL was remarkably lower than that in GL. The chloroplast ultrastructure revealed that YL had less dense thylakoid lamellae, a looser structure and fewer starch grains than GL. Analysis of the photosynthetic characteristics revealed that YL had decreased photosynthetic activity with significantly high nonphotochemical quenching. To explain these phenomena, we analysed the proteomic differences in leaves and chloroplasts between YL and GL of ginkgo using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 89 differential proteins were successfully identified, 82 of which were assigned functions in nine metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein metabolism were greatly enriched, indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. The identifications of these differentially accumulated proteins indicates the presence of a specific different metabolic network in YL and suggests that YL possess slower chloroplast development, weaker photosynthesis, and a less abundant energy supply than GL. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of molecular regulation of leaf colour variation in YL mutants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Potentiated and Dormant Antler Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111778 - 25 Oct 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
As the only known organ that can completely regenerate in mammals, deer antler is of real significance in the field of regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that the regenerative capacity of the antlers comes from the pedicle periosteum and the cells resident [...] Read more.
As the only known organ that can completely regenerate in mammals, deer antler is of real significance in the field of regenerative medicine. Recent studies have shown that the regenerative capacity of the antlers comes from the pedicle periosteum and the cells resident in the periosteum possess the attributes of stem cells. Currently, the molecular mechanism of antler regeneration remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the potentiated and dormant antler stem cells using isobaric tags for the relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling of the peptides, coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to compare the proteome profiles. Proteins were identified by searching against the NCBI nr database and our own Cervine transcriptome database, and bioinformatics analysis was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Based on this searching strategy, we identified 169 differentially expressed proteins in total, consisting of 70 up- and 99 down-regulated in the potentiated vs. dormant antler stem cells. Reliability of the iTRAQ was confirmed via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to measure the expression of selected genes. We identified transduction pathways through the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, such as HIF-1 and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways that play important roles in regulating the regeneration of antlers. In summary, the initiation stage of antler regeneration, a process from dormant to potentiated states in antler stem cells, is regulated by multiple proteins and complicated signal networks. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Proteogenomic Approach to Understanding MYC Function in Metastatic Medulloblastoma Tumors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101744 - 19 Oct 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children, and medulloblastoma is the most prevalent malignant childhood/pediatric brain tumor. Providing effective treatment for these cancers, with minimal damage to the still-developing brain, remains one of the greatest challenges faced by clinicians. [...] Read more.
Brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in children, and medulloblastoma is the most prevalent malignant childhood/pediatric brain tumor. Providing effective treatment for these cancers, with minimal damage to the still-developing brain, remains one of the greatest challenges faced by clinicians. Understanding the diverse events driving tumor formation, maintenance, progression, and recurrence is necessary for identifying novel targeted therapeutics and improving survival of patients with this disease. Genomic copy number alteration data, together with clinical studies, identifies c-MYC amplification as an important risk factor associated with the most aggressive forms of medulloblastoma with marked metastatic potential. Yet despite this, very little is known regarding the impact of such genomic abnormalities upon the functional biology of the tumor cell. We discuss here how recent advances in quantitative proteomic techniques are now providing new insights into the functional biology of these aggressive tumors, as illustrated by the use of proteomics to bridge the gap between the genotype and phenotype in the case of c-MYC-amplified/associated medulloblastoma. These integrated proteogenomic approaches now provide a new platform for understanding cancer biology by providing a functional context to frame genomic abnormalities. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Drought-Responsive Mechanisms in Plant Leaves Revealed by Proteomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101706 - 18 Oct 2016
Cited by 42
Abstract
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies [...] Read more.
Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. In combination with physiological and molecular results, proteomic studies in leaves have helped to discover some potential proteins and/or metabolic pathways for drought tolerance. These findings provide new clues for understanding the molecular basis of plant drought tolerance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analysis of Serum Proteins in Wistar Rats Treated with Sodium Fluoride: Insight into the Potential Mechanism and Candidate Biomarkers of Fluorosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101644 - 28 Sep 2016
Cited by 11
Abstract
Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore [...] Read more.
Fluorosis induced by exposure to high level fluoride is quite widespread in the world. The manifestations of fluorosis include dental mottling, bone damage, and impaired malfunction of soft tissues. However, the molecular mechanism of fluorosis has not been clarified until now. To explore the underlying mechanisms of fluorosis and screen out serum biomarkers, we carried out a quantitative proteomics study to identify differentially expressed serum proteins in Wistar rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) by using a proteomics approach of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). We fed Wistar rats drinking water that had 50, 150, and 250 mg/L of dissolved NaF for 24 weeks. For the experimental duration, each rat was given an examination of the lower incisors to check for the condition of dental fluorosis (DF). By the end of the treatment, fluoride ion concentration in serum and lower incisors were detected. The results showed that NaF treatment can induce rat fluorosis. By iTRAQ analysis, a total of 37 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified between NaF-treated and control rats. These proteins were further analyzed by bioinformatics, out of which two proteins were validated by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assays (ELISA). The major proteins were involved in complement and coagulation cascade, inflammatory response, complement activation, defense response, and wound response, suggesting that inflammation and immune reactions may play a key role in fluorosis pathogenesis. These proteins may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of fluoride toxicity, and may serve as potential biomarkers for fluorosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Hylocereus polyrhizus Reveals Metabolic Pathway Changes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101606 - 28 Sep 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing [...] Read more.
Red dragon fruit or red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is the only edible fruit that contains betalains. The color of betalains ranges from red and violet to yellow in plants. Betalains may also serve as an important component of health-promoting and disease-preventing functional food. Currently, the biosynthetic and regulatory pathways for betalain production remain to be fully deciphered. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses were used to reveal the molecular mechanism of betalain biosynthesis in H. polyrhizus fruits at white and red pulp stages, respectively. A total of 1946 proteins were identified as the differentially expressed between the two samples, and 936 of them were significantly highly expressed at the red pulp stage of H. polyrhizus. RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses showed that some transcripts and proteins were positively correlated; they belonged to “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis”, “tyrosine metabolism”, “flavonoid biosynthesis”, “ascorbate and aldarate metabolism”, “betalains biosynthesis” and “anthocyanin biosynthesis”. In betalains biosynthesis pathway, several proteins/enzymes such as polyphenol oxidase, CYP76AD3 and 4,5-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenase extradiol-like protein were identified. The present study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanism of the betalain biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ)-Based Comparative Proteome Analysis of the Response of Ramie under Drought Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101607 - 27 Sep 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought [...] Read more.
In this study, we conducted the first isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ))-based comparative proteomic analysis of ramie plantlets after 0 (minor drought stress), 24 (moderate drought stress), and 72 h (severe drought stress) of treatment with 15% (w/v) poly (ethylene glycol)6000 (PEG6000) to simulate drought stress. In our study, the association analysis of proteins and transcript expression revealed 1244 and 968 associated proteins identified in leaves and roots, respectively. L1, L2, and L3 are leaf samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups, a total of 118, 216, and 433 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during L1 vs. L2, L2 vs. L3, and L1 vs. L3, respectively. R1, R2, and R3 are root samples which were harvested at 0, 24, and 72 h after being treated with 15% PEG6000, respectively. Among those treatment groups,a total of 124, 27, and 240 unique proteins were identified as differentially expressed during R1 vs. R2, R2 vs. R3, and R1 vs. R3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis was significantly upregulated in roots in response to drought stress. This enhancement may result in more glycolytically generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in roots to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. To obtain complementary information related to iTRAQ data, the mRNA levels of 12 proteins related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis in leaves and 7 in roots were further analyzed by qPCR. Most of their expression levels were higher in R3 than R1 and R2, suggesting that these compounds may promote drought tolerance by modulating the production of available energy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature Pollen in Triploid and Diploid Populus deltoides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091475 - 03 Sep 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Ploidy affects plant growth vigor and cell size, but the relative effects of pollen fertility and allergenicity between triploid and diploid have not been systematically examined. Here we performed comparative analyses of fertility, proteome, and abundances of putative allergenic proteins of pollen in [...] Read more.
Ploidy affects plant growth vigor and cell size, but the relative effects of pollen fertility and allergenicity between triploid and diploid have not been systematically examined. Here we performed comparative analyses of fertility, proteome, and abundances of putative allergenic proteins of pollen in triploid poplar ‘ZhongHuai1’ (‘ZH1’, triploid) and ‘ZhongHuai2’ (‘ZH2’, diploid) generated from the same parents. The mature pollen was sterile in triploid poplar ‘ZH1’. By applying two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), a total of 72 differentially expressed protein spots (DEPs) were detected in triploid poplar pollen. Among them, 24 upregulated and 43 downregulated proteins were identified in triploid poplar pollen using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation coupled with time of-flight tandem mass spectrometer analysis (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). The main functions of these DEPs were related with “S-adenosylmethionine metabolism”, “actin cytoskeleton organization”, or “translational elongation”. The infertility of triploid poplar pollen might be related to its abnormal cytoskeletal system. In addition, the abundances of previously identified 28 putative allergenic proteins were compared among three poplar varieties (‘ZH1’, ‘ZH2’, and ‘2KEN8‘). Most putative allergenic proteins were downregulated in triploid poplar pollen. This work provides an insight into understanding the protein regulation mechanism of pollen infertility and low allergenicity in triploid poplar, and gives a clue to improving poplar polyploidy breeding and decreasing the pollen allergenicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin B Subunit (LTB) with Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Subunit VP1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091419 - 27 Aug 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
The nontoxic heat-labile toxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) was used as mucosal adjuvant experimentally. However, the mechanism of LTB adjuvant was still unclear. The LTB and enterovirus 71 (EV71) VP1 subunit (EVP1) were constructed in pET32 and expressed in E. coli BL21, respectively. [...] Read more.
The nontoxic heat-labile toxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) was used as mucosal adjuvant experimentally. However, the mechanism of LTB adjuvant was still unclear. The LTB and enterovirus 71 (EV71) VP1 subunit (EVP1) were constructed in pET32 and expressed in E. coli BL21, respectively. The immunogenicity of purified EVP1 and the adjuvanticity of LTB were evaluated via intranasal immunization EVP1 plus LTB in Balb/c mice. In order to elucidate the proteome change triggered by the adjuvant of LTB, the proteomic profiles of LTB, EVP1, and LTB plus EVP1 were quantitatively analyzed by iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) in murine macrophage RAW264.7. The proteomic data were analyzed by bioinformatics and validated by western blot analysis. The predicted protein interactions were confirmed using LTB pull-down and the LTB processing pathway was validated by confocal microscopy. The results showed that LTB significantly boosted EVP1 specific systematic and mucosal antibodies. A total of 3666 differential proteins were identified in the three groups. Pathway enrichment of proteomic data predicted that LTB upregulated the specific and dominant MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling pathway and the protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum (PPER) pathway, whereas LTB or EVP1 did not significantly upregulate these two signaling pathways. Confocal microscopy and LTB pull-down assays confirmed that the LTB adjuvant was endocytosed and processed through endocytosis (ENS)-lysosomal-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) system. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Using Proteomics to Understand How Leishmania Parasites Survive inside the Host and Establish Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081270 - 19 Aug 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes a wide range of different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. It is a major public health risk on different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Due to the high toxicity of the [...] Read more.
Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that causes a wide range of different clinical manifestations in mammalian hosts. It is a major public health risk on different continents and represents one of the most important neglected diseases. Due to the high toxicity of the drugs currently used, and in the light of increasing drug resistance, there is a critical need to develop new drugs and vaccines to control Leishmania infection. Over the past few years, proteomics has become an important tool to understand the underlying biology of Leishmania parasites and host interaction. The large-scale study of proteins, both in parasites and within the host in response to infection, can accelerate the discovery of new therapeutic targets. By studying the proteomes of host cells and tissues infected with Leishmania, as well as changes in protein profiles among promastigotes and amastigotes, scientists hope to better understand the biology involved in the parasite survival and the host-parasite interaction. This review demonstrates the feasibility of proteomics as an approach to identify new proteins involved in Leishmania differentiation and intracellular survival. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Environmental Microbial Community Proteomics: Status, Challenges and Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081275 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Microbial community proteomics, also termed metaproteomics, is an emerging field within the area of microbiology, which studies the entire protein complement recovered directly from a complex environmental microbial community at a given point in time. Although it is still in its infancy, microbial [...] Read more.
Microbial community proteomics, also termed metaproteomics, is an emerging field within the area of microbiology, which studies the entire protein complement recovered directly from a complex environmental microbial community at a given point in time. Although it is still in its infancy, microbial community proteomics has shown its powerful potential in exploring microbial diversity, metabolic potential, ecological function and microbe-environment interactions. In this paper, we review recent advances achieved in microbial community proteomics conducted in diverse environments, such as marine and freshwater, sediment and soil, activated sludge, acid mine drainage biofilms and symbiotic communities. The challenges facing microbial community proteomics are also discussed, and we believe that microbial community proteomics will greatly enhance our understanding of the microbial world and its interactions with the environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Drought-Induced Leaf Proteome Changes in Switchgrass Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1251; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081251 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 8
Abstract
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating [...] Read more.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a perennial crop producing deep roots and thus highly tolerant to soil water deficit conditions. However, seedling establishment in the field is very susceptible to prolonged and periodic drought stress. In this study, a “sandwich” system simulating a gradual water deletion process was developed. Switchgrass seedlings were subjected to a 20-day gradual drought treatment process when soil water tension was increased to 0.05 MPa (moderate drought stress) and leaf physiological properties had expressed significant alteration. Drought-induced changes in leaf proteomes were identified using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling method followed by nano-scale liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) analysis. Additionally, total leaf proteins were processed using a combinatorial library of peptide ligands to enrich for lower abundance proteins. Both total proteins and those enriched samples were analyzed to increase the coverage of the quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 7006 leaf proteins were identified, and 257 (4% of the leaf proteome) expressed a significant difference (p < 0.05, fold change <0.6 or >1.7) from the non-treated control to drought-treated conditions. These proteins are involved in the regulation of transcription and translation, cell division, cell wall modification, phyto-hormone metabolism and signaling transduction pathways, and metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids, and fatty acids. A scheme of abscisic acid (ABA)-biosynthesis and ABA responsive signal transduction pathway was reconstructed using these drought-induced significant proteins, showing systemic regulation at protein level to deploy the respective mechanism. Results from this study, in addition to revealing molecular responses to drought stress, provide a large number of proteins (candidate genes) that can be employed to improve switchgrass seedling growth and establishment under soil drought conditions (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004675). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Aluminum Toxicity-Induced Alterations of Leaf Proteome in Two Citrus Species Differing in Aluminum Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071180 - 21 Jul 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant ‘sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of [...] Read more.
Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant ‘sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of total soluble protein only occurred in C. grandis leaves, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al tolerance than C. grandis. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we obtained more Al toxicity-responsive proteins from C. sinensis than from C. grandis leaves, which might be responsible for the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. The following aspects might contribute to the Al tolerance of C. sinensis: (a) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance via inducing photosynthesis and energy-related proteins; (b) less increased requirement for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds, such as aldehydes, and great improvement of the total ability of detoxification; and (c) upregulation of low-phosphorus-responsive proteins. Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to RNA regulation, protein metabolism, cellular transport and signal transduction might also play key roles in the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. We present the global picture of Al toxicity-induced alterations of protein profiles in citrus leaves, and identify some new Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to various biological processes. Our results provide some novel clues about plant Al tolerance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comprehensive and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Metamorphosis-Related Proteins in the Veined Rapa Whelk, Rapana venosa
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060924 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
Larval metamorphosis of the veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) is a pelagic to benthic transition that involves considerable structural and physiological changes. Because metamorphosis plays a pivotal role in R. venosa commercial breeding and natural populations, the endogenous proteins that drive [...] Read more.
Larval metamorphosis of the veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa) is a pelagic to benthic transition that involves considerable structural and physiological changes. Because metamorphosis plays a pivotal role in R. venosa commercial breeding and natural populations, the endogenous proteins that drive this transition attract considerable interest. This study is the first to perform a comprehensive and quantitative proteomic analysis related to metamorphosis in a marine gastropod. We analyzed the proteomes of competent R. venosa larvae and post-larvae, resulting in the identification of 5312 proteins, including 470 that were downregulated and 668 that were upregulated after metamorphosis. The differentially expressed proteins reflected multiple processes involved in metamorphosis, including cytoskeleton and cell adhesion, ingestion and digestion, stress response and immunity, as well as specific tissue development. Our data improve understanding of the physiological traits controlling R. venosa metamorphosis and provide a solid basis for further study. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060852 - 01 Jun 2016
Cited by 12
Abstract
The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for [...] Read more.
The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050393 - 11 May 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed [...] Read more.
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteome Profile and Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalusbubalis) Follicular Fluid during Follicle Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050618 - 29 Apr 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular [...] Read more.
Follicular fluid (FF) accumulates in the antrum of the ovarian follicle and provides the microenvironment for oocyte development. FF plays an important role in follicle growth and oocyte maturation. The FF provides a unique window to investigate the processes occurring during buffalo follicular development. The observed low quality of buffalo oocytes may arise from the poor follicular microenvironment. Investigating proteins found in buffalo FF (BFF) should provide insight into follicular development processes and provide further understanding of intra-follicular maturation and oocytes quality. Here, a proteomic-based approach was used to analyze the proteome of BFF. SDS-PAGE separation combined with mass spectrometry was used to generate the proteomic dataset. In total, 363 proteins were identified and classified by Gene Ontology terms. The proteins were assigned to 153 pathways, including signaling pathways. To evaluate difference in proteins expressed between BFF with different follicle size (small, <4 mm; and large, >8 mm), a quantitative proteomic analysis based on multi-dimensional liquid chromatography pre-fractionation tandem Orbitrap mass spectrometry identification was performed. Eleven differentially expressed proteins (six downregulated and five upregulated in large BFF) were identified and assigned to a variety of functional processes, including serine protease inhibition, oxidation protection and the complement cascade system. Three differentially expressed proteins, Vimentin, Peroxiredoxin-1 and SERPIND1, were verified by Western blotting, consistent with the quantitative proteomics results. Our datasets offers new information about proteins present in BFF and should facilitate the development of new biomarkers. These differentially expressed proteins illuminate the size-dependent protein changes in follicle microenvironment. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040581 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$) loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins [...] Read more.
Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$) loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Redox Proteomic Profiling of Specifically Carbonylated Proteins in the Serum of Triple Transgenic Alzheimer’s Disease Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040469 - 12 Apr 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Oxidative stress is a key event in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the role of oxidative stress in AD and to search for potential biomarkers in peripheral blood, serums were collected in this study from [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a key event in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To investigate the role of oxidative stress in AD and to search for potential biomarkers in peripheral blood, serums were collected in this study from the 3-, 6-, and 12-month-old triple transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice) and the age- and sex-matched non-transgenic (non-Tg) littermates. The serum oxidized proteins were quantified by slot-blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate the total levels of serum protein carbonyl groups. Western blotting, in conjunction with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-Oxyblot), was employed to identify and quantify the specifically-carbonylated proteins in the serum of 3×Tg-AD mice. The results showed that the levels of serum protein carbonyls were increased in the three month old 3×Tg-AD mice compared with the non-Tg control mice, whereas no significant differences were observed in the six and 12 months old AD mice, suggesting that oxidative stress is an early event in AD progression. With the application of 2D-Oxyblot analysis, (immunoglobin) Ig gamma-2B chain C region (IGH-3), Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2), Ig kappa chain C region (IGKC), and Ig kappa chain V-V region HP R16.7 were identified as significantly oxidized proteins compared with the control. Among them IGH-3 and IGKC were validated via immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. Identification of oxidized proteins in the serums of 3×Tg-AD mice can not only reveal potential roles of those proteins in the pathogenesis of AD but also provide potential biomarkers of AD at the early stage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Proteomic Approach for the Identification of Up-Regulated Proteins Involved in the Metabolic Process of the Leiomyoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040540 - 09 Apr 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor of the uterus. Proteomics is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex mixtures of proteins. In our study, we focused on proteins that were upregulated in the leiomyoma compared to the [...] Read more.
Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign smooth muscle cell tumor of the uterus. Proteomics is a powerful tool for the analysis of complex mixtures of proteins. In our study, we focused on proteins that were upregulated in the leiomyoma compared to the myometrium. Paired samples of eight leiomyomas and adjacent myometrium were obtained and submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry for protein identification and to Western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The comparison between the patterns revealed 24 significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) protein spots, 12 of which were found to be associated with the metabolic processes of the leiomyoma and not with the normal myometrium. The overexpression of seven proteins involved in the metabolic processes of the leiomyoma was further validated by Western blotting and 2D Western blotting. Four of these proteins have never been associated with the leiomyoma before. The 2-DE approach coupled with mass spectrometry, which is among the methods of choice for comparative proteomic studies, identified a number of proteins overexpressed in the leiomyoma and involved in several biological processes, including metabolic processes. A better understanding of the mechanism underlying the overexpression of these proteins may be important for therapeutic purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Expression Profile of Complement Components in Podocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040471 - 30 Mar 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Podocytes are critical for maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier and are injured in many renal diseases, especially proteinuric kidney diseases. Recently, reports suggested that podocytes are among the renal cells that synthesize complement components that mediate glomerular diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and extent [...] Read more.
Podocytes are critical for maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier and are injured in many renal diseases, especially proteinuric kidney diseases. Recently, reports suggested that podocytes are among the renal cells that synthesize complement components that mediate glomerular diseases. Nevertheless, the profile and extent of complement component expression in podocytes remain unclear. This study examined the expression profile of complement in podocytes under physiological conditions and in abnormal podocytes induced by multiple stimuli. In total, 23/32 complement component components were detected in podocyte by conventional RT-PCR. Both primary cultured podocytes and immortalized podocytes expressed the complement factors C1q, C1r, C2, C3, C7, MASP, CFI, DAF, CD59, C4bp, CD46, Protein S, CR2, C1qR, C3aR, C5aR, and Crry (17/32), whereas C4, CFB, CFD, C5, C6, C8, C9, MBL1, and MBL2 (9/32) complement factors were not expressed. C3, Crry, and C1q-binding protein were detected by tandem mass spectrometry. Podocyte complement gene expression was affected by several factors (puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN), angiotensin II (Ang II), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)). Representative complement components were detected using fluorescence confocal microscopy. In conclusion, primary podocytes express various complement components at the mRNA and protein levels. The complement gene expressions were affected by several podocyte injury factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Species Identification of Bovine, Ovine and Porcine Type 1 Collagen; Comparing Peptide Mass Fingerprinting and LC-Based Proteomics Methods
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040445 - 24 Mar 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not [...] Read more.
Collagen is one of the most ubiquitous proteins in the animal kingdom and the dominant protein in extracellular tissues such as bone, skin and other connective tissues in which it acts primarily as a supporting scaffold. It has been widely investigated scientifically, not only as a biomedical material for regenerative medicine, but also for its role as a food source for both humans and livestock. Due to the long-term stability of collagen, as well as its abundance in bone, it has been proposed as a source of biomarkers for species identification not only for heat- and pressure-rendered animal feed but also in ancient archaeological and palaeontological specimens, typically carried out by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) as well as in-depth liquid chromatography (LC)-based tandem mass spectrometric methods. Through the analysis of the three most common domesticates species, cow, sheep, and pig, this research investigates the advantages of each approach over the other, investigating sites of sequence variation with known functional properties of the collagen molecule. Results indicate that the previously identified species biomarkers through PMF analysis are not among the most variable type 1 collagen peptides present in these tissues, the latter of which can be detected by LC-based methods. However, it is clear that the highly repetitive sequence motif of collagen throughout the molecule, combined with the variability of the sites and relative abundance levels of hydroxylation, can result in high scoring false positive peptide matches using these LC-based methods. Additionally, the greater alpha 2(I) chain sequence variation, in comparison to the alpha 1(I) chain, did not appear to be specific to any particular functional properties, implying that intra-chain functional constraints on sequence variation are not as great as inter-chain constraints. However, although some of the most variable peptides were only observed in LC-based methods, until the range of publicly available collagen sequences improves, the simplicity of the PMF approach and suitable range of peptide sequence variation observed makes it the ideal method for initial taxonomic identification prior to further analysis by LC-based methods only when required. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Proteomics-Based Analysis of Protein Complexes in Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cancer Biology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030432 - 22 Mar 2016
Cited by 2
Abstract
A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein–protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular [...] Read more.
A protein complex consists of two or more proteins that are linked together through protein–protein interactions. The proteins show stable/transient and direct/indirect interactions within the protein complex or between the protein complexes. Protein complexes are involved in regulation of most of the cellular processes and molecular functions. The delineation of protein complexes is important to expand our knowledge on proteins functional roles in physiological and pathological conditions. The genetic yeast-2-hybrid method has been extensively used to characterize protein-protein interactions. Alternatively, a biochemical-based affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach has been widely used to characterize the protein complexes. In the AP-MS method, a protein complex of a target protein of interest is purified using a specific antibody or an affinity tag (e.g., DYKDDDDK peptide (FLAG) and polyhistidine (His)) and is subsequently analyzed by means of MS. Tandem affinity purification, a two-step purification system, coupled with MS has been widely used mainly to reduce the contaminants. We review here a general principle for AP-MS-based characterization of protein complexes and we explore several protein complexes identified in pluripotent stem cell biology and cancer biology as examples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Leaf Color Regulation Mechanism in Chimera Hosta “Gold Standard” Leaves
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030346 - 08 Mar 2016
Cited by 6
Abstract
Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta “Gold Standard” is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this [...] Read more.
Leaf color change of variegated leaves from chimera species is regulated by fine-tuned molecular mechanisms. Hosta “Gold Standard” is a typical chimera Hosta species with golden-green variegated leaves, which is an ideal material to investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf variegation. In this study, the margin and center regions of young and mature leaves from Hosta “Gold Standard”, as well as the leaves from plants after excess nitrogen fertilization were studied using physiological and comparative proteomic approaches. We identified 31 differentially expressed proteins in various regions and development stages of variegated leaves. Some of them may be related to the leaf color regulation in Hosta “Gold Standard”. For example, cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), and chloroplastic elongation factor G (cpEF-G) were involved in pigment-related nitrogen synthesis as well as protein synthesis and processing. By integrating the proteomics data with physiological results, we revealed the metabolic patterns of nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis, energy supply, as well as chloroplast protein synthesis, import and processing in various leaf regions at different development stages. Additionally, chloroplast-localized proteoforms involved in nitrogen metabolism, photosynthesis and protein processing implied that post-translational modifications were crucial for leaf color regulation. These results provide new clues toward understanding the mechanisms of leaf color regulation in variegated leaves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Understanding the Heat Shock Response in the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, Using iTRAQ-Based Proteomics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17020150 - 04 Feb 2016
Cited by 22
Abstract
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is exploited as a commercial species owing to their high nutritive and medicinal value. Recent high summer temperatures have caused high mortality rates in A. japonicus. In this study, we applied the isobaric tag for relative and [...] Read more.
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is exploited as a commercial species owing to their high nutritive and medicinal value. Recent high summer temperatures have caused high mortality rates in A. japonicus. In this study, we applied the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the global protein expression profile under an acute short-term (48 h) heat stress. In total, 3432 proteins were identified, and 127 proteins showed significant heat stress responses, with 61 upregulated proteins and 66 downregulated proteins. Our results suggest that heat stress influenced the expression of proteins involved in various biological processes, such as tissue protection and detoxification, lipid and amino acid metabolism, energy production and usage, transcription and translation, cell apoptosis, and cell proliferation. These findings provide a better understanding about the response and thermo-tolerance mechanisms of A. japonicus under heat stress. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Mature and Immature Oocytes of the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010094 - 14 Jan 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Proteins [...] Read more.
Maternal protein components change markedly during mammalian oogenesis. Many of these proteins have yet to be characterized and verified. In this study, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate changes in proteins during oogenesis in the Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Proteins from 500 immature oocytes and 500 in vitro matured oocytes were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis, and more than 400 spots were detected. Image analysis indicated that 17 proteins were differentially expressed between the two groups. Eight proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. In mature oocytes, three proteins were down-regulated: major vault protein (MVP), N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (GCNT-2), and gem-associated protein (GEMIN)8, whereas five other proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)60, Ras-responsive element-binding protein 1 (RREB-1), heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein (HSC71), hemoglobin subunit α (HBA), and BMP-2-inducible protein kinase (BMP-2K), were up-regulated. The expression profiles of HSP60 and GEMIN8 were further verified by Western blotting. The changes in HSP60 protein expression demonstrate the increasing need for mitochondrial protein importation to facilitate macromolecular assembly during oocyte maturation. The down-regulation of GEMIN8 production implies that RNA splicing is impaired in mature oocytes. Full article
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2015

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Open AccessArticle
Stable Expression of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor in Chloroplasts of Tobacco
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010019 - 23 Dec 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional factor in acceleration of cell proliferation, differentiation and transference, and therefore widely used in clinical applications. In this study, expression vector pWX-Nt03 harboring a codon-optimized bFGF gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplasts [...] Read more.
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a multifunctional factor in acceleration of cell proliferation, differentiation and transference, and therefore widely used in clinical applications. In this study, expression vector pWX-Nt03 harboring a codon-optimized bFGF gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplasts by particle bombardment. After four rounds of selection, bFGF was proved to integrate into the chloroplast genome of regenerated plants and two of four transgenic plants were confirmed to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. ELISA assay indicated that bFGF represented approximately 0.1% of total soluble protein in the leaves of transplastomic tobacco plants. This is the first report of bFGF expression via chloroplast transformation in model plant, providing an additional option for the production of chloroplast-produced therapeutic proteins. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Combined Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 30034-30045; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226133 - 16 Dec 2015
Cited by 11
Abstract
The aim of this pilot study was to apply a novel combined metabolomic and proteomic approach in analysis of gestational diabetes mellitus. The investigation was performed with plasma samples derived from pregnant women with diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 18) and [...] Read more.
The aim of this pilot study was to apply a novel combined metabolomic and proteomic approach in analysis of gestational diabetes mellitus. The investigation was performed with plasma samples derived from pregnant women with diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (n = 18) and a matched control group (n = 13). The mass spectrometry-based analyses allowed to determine 42 free amino acids and low molecular-weight peptide profiles. Different expressions of several peptides and altered amino acid profiles were observed in the analyzed groups. The combination of proteomic and metabolomic data allowed obtaining the model with a high discriminatory power, where amino acids ethanolamine, l-citrulline, l-asparagine, and peptide ions with m/z 1488.59; 4111.89 and 2913.15 had the highest contribution to the model. The sensitivity (94.44%) and specificity (84.62%), as well as the total group membership classification value (90.32%) calculated from the post hoc classification matrix of a joint model were the highest when compared with a single analysis of either amino acid levels or peptide ion intensities. The obtained results indicated a high potential of integration of proteomic and metabolomics analysis regardless the sample size. This promising approach together with clinical evaluation of the subjects can also be used in the study of other diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microtubule-Associated Protein SBgLR Facilitates Storage Protein Deposition and Its Expression Leads to Lysine Content Increase in Transgenic Maize Endosperm
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29772-29786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226199 - 12 Dec 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays) seed is deficient in protein and lysine content. Many studies have been made to improve the nutritional quality of maize seeds. Previously, we reported the role of a natural lysine-rich protein gene SBgLR in increasing protein and lysine [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays) seed is deficient in protein and lysine content. Many studies have been made to improve the nutritional quality of maize seeds. Previously, we reported the role of a natural lysine-rich protein gene SBgLR in increasing protein and lysine content. However, how the SBgLR improves lysine and protein content remains unclear. Here, the reasons and possible mechanism for SBgLR in protein and lysine improvement have been analyzed and discussed. Through seed-specific expression of SBgLR, we obtained transgenic maize with the simultaneously increased lysine and protein contents. High-protein and high-lysine characters were stably inherited across generations. The expression of SBgLR in maize kernels increased the accumulation of both zeins and non-zein proteins. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the number of protein bodies (PBs) was increased obviously in SBgLR transgenic immature endosperms with the morphology and structure of PBs unchanged. The proteinaceous matrix was more abundant in transgenic mature endosperms under scanning electron microscopy. The stabilities of zein and lysine-rich non-zein genes were also increased in transgenic endosperms. Finally, the potential application of SBgLR in maize nutrient improvement was evaluated. This study shows that a cytoskeleton-associated protein has potential applicable value in crop nutrient improving, and provided a feasible strategy for improvement of maize grain quality. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Proteomic Investigations into Hemodialysis Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 29508-29521; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226189 - 10 Dec 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate [...] Read more.
The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane’s bio(in)compatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic investigations have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight investigations in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Maize-Pathogen Interactions: An Ongoing Combat from a Proteomics Perspective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28429-28448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226106 - 30 Nov 2015
Cited by 28
Abstract
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate [...] Read more.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a host to numerous pathogenic species that impose serious diseases to its ear and foliage, negatively affecting the yield and the quality of the maize crop. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to elucidate mechanisms of maize-pathogen interactions with a major goal to identify defense-associated proteins. In this review, we summarize interactions of maize with its agriculturally important pathogens that were assessed at the proteome level. Employing differential analyses, such as the comparison of pathogen-resistant and susceptible maize varieties, as well as changes in maize proteomes after pathogen challenge, numerous proteins were identified as possible candidates in maize resistance. We describe findings of various research groups that used mainly mass spectrometry-based, high through-put proteomic tools to investigate maize interactions with fungal pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., and Curvularia lunata, and viral agents Rice Black-streaked Dwarf Virus and Sugarcane Mosaic Virus. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26644-26653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125980 - 06 Nov 2015
Cited by 56
Abstract
With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed [...] Read more.
With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomics Analysis of Cellular Proteins Co-Immunoprecipitated with Nucleoprotein of Influenza A Virus (H7N9)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 25982-25998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161125934 - 30 Oct 2015
Cited by 24
Abstract
Avian influenza A viruses are serious veterinary pathogens that normally circulate among avian populations, causing substantial economic impacts. Some strains of avian influenza A viruses, such as H5N1, H9N2, and recently reported H7N9, have been occasionally found to adapt to humans from other [...] Read more.
Avian influenza A viruses are serious veterinary pathogens that normally circulate among avian populations, causing substantial economic impacts. Some strains of avian influenza A viruses, such as H5N1, H9N2, and recently reported H7N9, have been occasionally found to adapt to humans from other species. In order to replicate efficiently in the new host, influenza viruses have to interact with a variety of host factors. In the present study, H7N9 nucleoprotein was transfected into human HEK293T cells, followed by immunoprecipitated and analyzed by proteomics approaches. A series of host proteins co-immunoprecipitated were identified with high confidence, some of which were found to be acetylated at their lysine residues. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that spliceosome might be the most relevant pathway involved in host response to nucleoprotein expression, increasing our emerging knowledge of host proteins that might be involved in influenza virus replication activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24332-24352; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161024332 - 14 Oct 2015
Cited by 6
Abstract
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to [...] Read more.
Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Proteome Profiles of the Cerebellum of Juvenile, Adult and Aged Rats—An Ontogenetic Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21454-21485; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160921454 - 07 Sep 2015
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this study, we searched for proteins that change their expression in the cerebellum (Ce) of rats during ontogenesis. This study focuses on the question of whether specific proteins exist which are differentially expressed with regard to postnatal stages of development. A better [...] Read more.
In this study, we searched for proteins that change their expression in the cerebellum (Ce) of rats during ontogenesis. This study focuses on the question of whether specific proteins exist which are differentially expressed with regard to postnatal stages of development. A better characterization of the microenvironment and its development may result from these study findings. A differential two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the samples revealed that the number of proteins of the functional classes differed depending on the developmental stages. Especially members of the functional classes of biosynthesis, regulatory proteins, chaperones and structural proteins show the highest differential expression within the analyzed stages of development. Therefore, members of these functional protein groups seem to be involved in the development and differentiation of the Ce within the analyzed development stages. In this study, changes in the expression of proteins in the Ce at different postnatal developmental stages (postnatal days (P) 7, 90, and 637) could be observed. At the same time, an identification of proteins which are involved in cell migration and differentiation was possible. Especially proteins involved in processes of the biosynthesis and regulation, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton as well as chaperones showed a high amount of differentially expressed proteins between the analyzed dates. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Common Amino Acid Subsequences in a Universal Proteome—Relevance for Food Science
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20748-20773; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920748 - 01 Sep 2015
Cited by 11
Abstract
A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. [...] Read more.
A common subsequence is a fragment of the amino acid chain that occurs in more than one protein. Common subsequences may be an object of interest for food scientists as biologically active peptides, epitopes, and/or protein markers that are used in comparative proteomics. An individual bioactive fragment, in particular the shortest fragment containing two or three amino acid residues, may occur in many protein sequences. An individual linear epitope may also be present in multiple sequences of precursor proteins. Although recent recommendations for prediction of allergenicity and cross-reactivity include not only sequence identity, but also similarities in secondary and tertiary structures surrounding the common fragment, local sequence identity may be used to screen protein sequence databases for potential allergens in silico. The main weakness of the screening process is that it overlooks allergens and cross-reactivity cases without identical fragments corresponding to linear epitopes. A single peptide may also serve as a marker of a group of allergens that belong to the same family and, possibly, reveal cross-reactivity. This review article discusses the benefits for food scientists that follow from the common subsequences concept. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Abiotic Stresses: Insight into Gene Regulation and Protein Expression in Photosynthetic Pathways of Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 20392-20416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160920392 - 28 Aug 2015
Cited by 44
Abstract
Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as [...] Read more.
Global warming and climate change intensified the occurrence and severity of abiotic stresses that seriously affect the growth and development of plants,especially, plant photosynthesis. The direct impact of abiotic stress on the activity of photosynthesis is disruption of all photosynthesis components such as photosystem I and II, electron transport, carbon fixation, ATP generating system and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic system of plants reacts to the stress differently, according to the plant type, photosynthetic systems (C3 or C4), type of the stress, time and duration of the occurrence and several other factors. The plant responds to the stresses by a coordinate chloroplast and nuclear gene expression. Chloroplast, thylakoid membrane, and nucleus are the main targets of regulated proteins and metabolites associated with photosynthetic pathways. Rapid responses of plant cell metabolism and adaptation to photosynthetic machinery are key factors for survival of plants in a fluctuating environment. This review gives a comprehensive view of photosynthesis-related alterations at the gene and protein levels for plant adaptation or reaction in response to abiotic stress. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(8), 19326-19346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160819326 - 17 Aug 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides [...] Read more.
A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. Full article
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Open AccessReview
A Review: Proteomics in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 15497-15530; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160715497 - 08 Jul 2015
Cited by 23
Abstract
Although radiotherapy is generally effective in the treatment of major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), this treatment still makes approximately 20% of patients radioresistant. Therefore, the identification of blood or biopsy biomarkers that can predict the treatment response to radioresistance and that can diagnosis early [...] Read more.
Although radiotherapy is generally effective in the treatment of major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), this treatment still makes approximately 20% of patients radioresistant. Therefore, the identification of blood or biopsy biomarkers that can predict the treatment response to radioresistance and that can diagnosis early stages of NPC would be highly useful to improve this situation. Proteomics is widely used in NPC for searching biomarkers and comparing differentially expressed proteins. In this review, an overview of proteomics with different samples related to NPC and common proteomics methods was made. In conclusion, identical proteins are sorted as follows: Keratin is ranked the highest followed by such proteins as annexin, heat shock protein, 14-3-3σ, nm-23 protein, cathepsin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, stathmin, prohibitin, and vimentin. This ranking indicates that these proteins may be NPC-related proteins and have potential value for further studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Identification of Target Proteins of Thiodigalactoside in White Adipose Tissue from Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 14441-14463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160714441 - 25 Jun 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
Previously, galectin-1 (GAL1) was found to be up-regulated in obesity-prone subjects, suggesting that use of a GAL1 inhibitor could be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of obesity. We evaluated thiodigalactoside (TDG) as a potent inhibitor of GAL1 and identified target proteins of [...] Read more.
Previously, galectin-1 (GAL1) was found to be up-regulated in obesity-prone subjects, suggesting that use of a GAL1 inhibitor could be a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of obesity. We evaluated thiodigalactoside (TDG) as a potent inhibitor of GAL1 and identified target proteins of TDG by performing comparative proteome analysis of white adipose tissue (WAT) from control and TDG-treated rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-two spots from a total of 356 matched spots showed differential expression between control and TDG-treated rats, as identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. These proteins were categorized into groups such as carbohydrate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, signal transduction, cytoskeletal, and mitochondrial proteins based on functional analysis using Protein Annotation Through Evolutionary Relationship (PANTHER) and Database for Annotation, Visualization, Integrated Discovery (DAVID) classification. One of the most striking findings of this study was significant changes in Carbonic anhydrase 3 (CA3), Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1), annexin A2 (ANXA2) and lactate dehydrogenase A chain (LDHA) protein levels between WAT from control and TDG-treated groups. In addition, we confirmed increased expression of thermogenic proteins as well as reduced expression of lipogenic proteins in response to TDG treatment. These results suggest that TDG may effectively prevent obesity, and TDG-responsive proteins can be used as novel target proteins for obesity treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(7), 14353-14368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160714353 - 24 Jun 2015
Cited by 10
Abstract
Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of [...] Read more.
Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 14007-14038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160614007 - 18 Jun 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant [...] Read more.
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial woody plant that is widely cultivated to produce a popular non-alcoholic beverage; this beverage has received much attention due to its pleasant flavor and bioactive ingredients, particularly several important secondary metabolites. Due to the significant changes in the metabolite contents of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis were performed. A total of 233 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among these, 116 proteins were up-regulated and 117 proteins were down-regulated in the young expanding leaves compared with the buds. A large array of diverse functions was revealed, including roles in energy and carbohydrate metabolism, secondary metabolite metabolism, nucleic acid and protein metabolism, and photosynthesis- and defense-related processes. These results suggest that polyphenol biosynthesis- and photosynthesis-related proteins regulate the secondary metabolite content of tea plants. The energy and antioxidant metabolism-related proteins may promote tea leaf development. However, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the protein expression levels were not well correlated with the gene expression levels. These findings improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the changes in the metabolite content of the buds and the young expanding leaves of tea plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Immature Fraxinus mandshurica Cotyledon Tissues during Somatic Embryogenesis: Effects of Explant Browning on Somatic Embryogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13692-13713; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160613692 - 15 Jun 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) is a valuable hardwood species in Northeast China. In cultures of F. mandshurica, somatic embryos were produced mainly on browned explants. Therefore, we studied the mechanism of explant browning and its relationship with somatic embryogenesis (SE). [...] Read more.
Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr.) is a valuable hardwood species in Northeast China. In cultures of F. mandshurica, somatic embryos were produced mainly on browned explants. Therefore, we studied the mechanism of explant browning and its relationship with somatic embryogenesis (SE). We used explants derived from F. mandshurica immature zygotic embryo cotyledons as materials. Proteins were extracted from browned embryogenic explants, browned non-embryogenic explants, and non-brown explants, and then separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Differentially and specifically expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify proteins involved in the browning of explants and SE. Some stress response and defense proteins such as chitinases, peroxidases, aspartic proteinases, and an osmotin-like protein played important roles during SE of F. mandshurica. Our results indicated that explant browning might not be caused by the accumulation and oxidation of polyphenols only, but also by some stress-related processes, which were involved in programmed cell death (PCD), and then induced SE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of Site-Specific Stroke Biomarker Candidates by Laser Capture Microdissection and Labeled Reference Peptide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(6), 13427-13441; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160613427 - 11 Jun 2015
Cited by 13
Abstract
The search to date for accurate protein biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke has taken into consideration the stage and/or the size of infarction, but has not accounted for the site of stroke. In the present study, multiple reaction monitoring using labeled reference peptide [...] Read more.