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Mechanisms Underlying Metabolic Syndrome-Related Sarcopenia and Possible Therapeutic Measures

1
Department of Physiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
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Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
3
Department of Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030647
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
Although there are several reviews that report the interrelationship between sarcopenia and obesity and insulin resistance, the relation between sarcopenia and the other signs that compose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been extensively revised. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying MetS-related sarcopenia and discuss the possible therapeutic measures proposed. A vicious cycle between the loss of muscle and the accumulation of intramuscular fat might be associated with MetS via a complex interplay of factors including nutritional intake, physical activity, body fat, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hormonal changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The enormous differences in lipid storage capacities between the two genders and elevated amounts of endogenous fat having lipotoxic effects that lead to the loss of muscle mass are discussed. The important repercussions of MetS-related sarcopenia on other illnesses that lead to increased disability, morbidity, and mortality are also addressed. Additional research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of MetS-related sarcopenia and its consequences. Although there is currently no consensus on the treatment, lifestyle changes including diet and power exercise seem to be the best options. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; metabolic syndrome; skeletal muscle; obesity; sarcopenia treatment sarcopenia; metabolic syndrome; skeletal muscle; obesity; sarcopenia treatment
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Rubio-Ruiz, M.E.; Guarner-Lans, V.; Pérez-Torres, I.; Soto, M.E. Mechanisms Underlying Metabolic Syndrome-Related Sarcopenia and Possible Therapeutic Measures. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 647.

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