Special Issue "Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Oral Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to invite you to submit a contribution to a Special Issue on Prevention and Oral Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

Oral health is an important factor in the maintenance of general health, wellbeing, and overall quality of life. Envisioning a transformational change in the management of oral healthcare, this Special Issue welcomes manuscripts that can contribute the knowledge necessary to effectively manage oral prevention and oral healthcare.

This Special Issue will focus on oral health and prevention and their impact on clinical practice current oral health literacy and policies. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Preventive strategies should be implemented to reduce oral problems, due to the negative consequences on individuals and communities in terms of pain and suffering, functional impairments, and reduced quality of life. Psychosocial factors, such as improved awareness, knowledge, and attitudes toward dental health care in both children and adult patients, healthy or special needs ones, are included in general health status improvements.

Adopting multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinary perspectives and a systems approach, expected submissions will cover the following topics:

  1. Oral prevention and oral healthcare management;
  2. Systems management for sustainability in oral healthcare organizations;
  3. Knowledge management in oral healthcare organizations;
  4. Education for oral healthcare sustainability;
  5. New technologies for oral healthcare sustainability;
  6. Oral prevention project for improving awareness and knowkedge of oral health.

All original articles, case reports, and review articles will be welcome.

Prof. Iole Vozza
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral health
  • oral prevention
  • healthcare management
  • oral education
  • primary prevention
  • secondary prevention

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Factors Associated with Dental Plaque, Gingivitis, and Caries in a Pediatric Population: A Records-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228595 - 19 Nov 2020
Abstract
This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated dental records of 1000 healthy children to determine factors associated with plaque, gingivitis, and caries. A logistic model for plaque and gingivitis (mild versus moderate/severe) and caries (yes/no) was carried out separately for each variable using the following [...] Read more.
This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated dental records of 1000 healthy children to determine factors associated with plaque, gingivitis, and caries. A logistic model for plaque and gingivitis (mild versus moderate/severe) and caries (yes/no) was carried out separately for each variable using the following potential factors: Age, Gender, Brush Type, Starting Age of Brushing, Brushing Frequency, and Bite Type. Data from 998 children (median age: 4 years, 10 months (range: 2.5–7 years)) were analyzed. Sixty-four percent were manual toothbrush users; 36% were oscillating-rotating electric toothbrush users. For plaque and gingivitis, but not caries, Brush Type was more impactful than Brushing Frequency. Age influenced the severity of plaque and gingivitis, with increases in the odds of having moderate/severe plaque or gingivitis associated with increasing age. The probability of caries increased until approximately age 5 and then decreased until age 7. Oscillating-rotating brush users were more likely to present with less plaque, gingivitis, and caries, with 6.0, 5.1, and 1.4 times greater odds of having mild (versus moderate/severe) plaque, less severe gingivitis, and being caries-free, respectively, than manual brush users. Similarly, brushing twice daily and starting brushing at an earlier age were associated with better oral health outcomes. Children with anterior bite abnormalities had increased odds of developing moderate/severe plaque and gingivitis than children with normal anterior bites. Gender was not a statistically significant factor associated with plaque, gingivitis, or caries. Children’s oral health is influenced by toothbrush type, starting age of brushing, compliance with twice-daily brushing, and bite abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children Referring for First Dental Examination. A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study Using Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8460; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228460 - 16 Nov 2020
Abstract
Background: Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRDB) are a group of pathological conditions characterized by a dysfunction of the upper airways. The value of SRDB’s prevalence, in the pediatric population, ranges from 2 to 11% depending on the different methodologies used in measure and [...] Read more.
Background: Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRDB) are a group of pathological conditions characterized by a dysfunction of the upper airways. The value of SRDB’s prevalence, in the pediatric population, ranges from 2 to 11% depending on the different methodologies used in measure and the difficulties in the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of SRDB using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). Methods: 668 patients were enrolled from the Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy and from the Unit of Integrated Pediatric Dentistry, University of Murcia, Spain. The questionnaires were administered to patients with no previous orthodontic and surgical treatment who attended on the first visit at the two units of pediatric dentistry. Data regarding general health status were extracted from the standard anamnestic module for first visit. Prevalence and logistic regression models were computed. Results: The ages ranged from 2 to 16 years old (average 7 years old). The prevalence of SRDB was 9.7% for the entire sample. The models showed a positive correlation between three variables (snoring, bad habits, and anxiety) and SRDB. Conclusions: The prevalence obtained demonstrates the relevance of sleep disorders in the pediatric population and highlights the central role of pediatric dentists in the earlier diagnosis of these disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle
Association of Oral Status and Early Primary Hypertension Biomarkers among Children and Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217981 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
The aim of this case–control study was the evaluation of the association between biomarkers of early primary arterial hypertension (HA) and oral diseases among children and adolescents. Material and methods. Subjects suspected of primary HA (n = 180) underwent a complex evaluation of [...] Read more.
The aim of this case–control study was the evaluation of the association between biomarkers of early primary arterial hypertension (HA) and oral diseases among children and adolescents. Material and methods. Subjects suspected of primary HA (n = 180) underwent a complex evaluation of their vascular status: blood pressure, heart rate, vascular stiffness, sympathetic activity in a 24 h ambulatory examination, followed by measurement of serum uric acid (UA), cystatin C, and creatinine. This procedure allowed the identification of children with primary (n = 58) and secondary HA (n = 74), as well as of children with normal arterial blood pressure, who served as a control group (n = 48). All subjects with secondary HA were excluded from further investigation. Oral examination included the measurement of caries intensity (using the decayed, missing, filled index for permanent teeth DMFT /primary teeth dmft), bacterial plaque (by the plaque control record index, PCR%), and gingivitis (by the bleeding on probing index, BOP%). For statistical analysis, a linear regression model and Spearman rank correlation were used. Results. UA, cystatin C, and creatinine were not altered in the HA group. However, the number of decayed permanent teeth (DT) and the DMFT, PCR%, and BOP% indexes were significantly higher in the primary HA group compared to the control group (p = 0.0006; p = 0.02; p = 0.0009; p = 0.003). Our results are not sufficient to prove the important role of caries and gingival inflammation in the modulation of HA symptoms, although they prove the association of oral diseases with primary HA symptoms. This may indicate future strategies for preventive measures for hypertensive children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle
Does the Registered Dentists’ Program Alleviate the Socioeconomic Gap in the Use of Dental Sealants?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7828; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217828 - 26 Oct 2020
Abstract
Many countries provide preventive dental care for children to reduce inequalities. In Korea, the registered dentists’ program was implemented to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases in primary school students. This study aimed to evaluate the registered dentist program through the sealant [...] Read more.
Many countries provide preventive dental care for children to reduce inequalities. In Korea, the registered dentists’ program was implemented to promote oral health and prevent oral diseases in primary school students. This study aimed to evaluate the registered dentist program through the sealant utilization rate using national cohort data and to compare the socioeconomic gap of the cohorts by participation. The sample cohort data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Sharing Service (NHISS) in South Korea. The utilization of dental sealants was analyzed using the chi-square test according to the independent variables of each year. To identify the independent effects of participation in the registered dentists’ program, a panel logistic regression analysis of the utilization of dental sealants was performed. The participants were 1.35 times more likely to have dental sealants than non-participants. The significance of income quintiles disappeared in the case groups. The gap became more obvious in the employees of the control group even after adjusting for all variables. Implementing oral health programs can alleviate inequality with a relative increase in utilization in vulnerable populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle
Diode versus CO2 Laser Therapy in the Treatment of High Labial Frenulum Attachment: A Pilot Randomized, Double-Blinded Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217708 - 22 Oct 2020
Abstract
Background: The labial frenula are triangular plicas departing from the alveolar mucosa and attaching themselves at different heights of the gingiva. Sometimes a high attachment can determine a gingival recession. The most suitable surgical resolution is the use of laser devices. The aim [...] Read more.
Background: The labial frenula are triangular plicas departing from the alveolar mucosa and attaching themselves at different heights of the gingiva. Sometimes a high attachment can determine a gingival recession. The most suitable surgical resolution is the use of laser devices. The aim of this study was to compare the labial frenulectomy through the use of Diode and CO2 laser techniques in pediatric patients with a high labial frenulum attachment, clarifying at the same time the preventive role of the surgical treatment to avoid further recession. Methods: A pilot randomized, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare both the surgical advantages and the preventive treatment of laser technology using two different wavelengths within a population of pediatric patients with a high labial frenulum attachment. Different parameters intra and post-surgery were taken into account (Bleeding, Wound Healing, Gingival Recession, Periodontal pocket and Numerical Scale Value for pain) to compare Diode versus CO2 laser therapy. Results: Although both the laser devices provide a good performance in the post-operative period, the Diode laser shows better results (p < 0.001) in three of the five parameters evaluated. Conclusions: From the results it was found that the Diode Laser device is more suitable compared to the CO2 device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Selected Behavioural Factors Affecting Oral Health in Schoolchildren: Results from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Slovak Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7516; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207516 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, affect as much as nine in 10 persons globally. Its development starts during childhood. Behavioural factors play an important role in its aetiology. The aim of the research was to analyse the prevalence of selected behavioural factors associated [...] Read more.
Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, affect as much as nine in 10 persons globally. Its development starts during childhood. Behavioural factors play an important role in its aetiology. The aim of the research was to analyse the prevalence of selected behavioural factors associated with dental caries in Slovak adolescents. Selected factors, such as toothbrushing less than once a day, consumption of sweets and sweetened soft drinks daily and their combination, were analysed using data from Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children surveys carried out in 2005/2006, 2009/2010, 2013/2014 and 2017/2018 in Slovakia. The target group consisted of 11- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. The results were analysed by sex and socioeconomic status. The consumption of sweets and sweetened soft drinks, despite declining, remains widespread (41.3% of boys and 39.6% of girls in 2017/2018). The absence of daily toothbrushing, similarly as a co-occurrence of factors, were more frequent in boys (10.6% and 5.0% in 2017/2018, respectively) than in girls (5.1% and 2.3% in 2017/2018, respectively). The absence of daily toothbrushing was associated with a lower socioeconomic situation. In conclusion, behavioural risk factors affecting oral health are widespread in Slovak adolescents. Despite the positive development of the epidemiological situation, effective interventions, as well as the improvement of oral hygiene in lower socioeconomic groups, are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Knowledge on Pre-Hospital Emergency Management of Tooth Avulsion among Croatian Students of the Faculty of Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7159; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197159 - 30 Sep 2020
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge regarding tooth avulsion and dental first aid response among Croatian students of the Faculty of Education. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students. Participants (N = 235) were female with an average age [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge regarding tooth avulsion and dental first aid response among Croatian students of the Faculty of Education. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students. Participants (N = 235) were female with an average age of 21.9 ± 2.7 years. The questionnaire contained 10 close-ended questions with two to eleven possible answers. Every participant chose one correct answer. Statistical significance was determined using a Chi-square test. Majority of participants had never received any kind of information on management of a knocked-out tooth. Questions in the nature of tooth injuries, a knocked-out tooth, tooth replantation and whether the knocked-out tooth should be placed back were answered confirmatively by 40.43%, 83.40%, 57.02% and 62.55% of participants, respectively. The questionnaire showed that 18.78% of participants were aware that replantation should be performed within 30 min. The appropriate cleaning and transport medium was chosen by 40.85% and 35.31% of participants, respectively. A nearby dentist would be visited by 66.38% of students. Only 8.08% of participants provided a correct answer to all of the knowledge-based questions. The “I do not know” answer was chosen by 18.30% of participants whenever it was offered. This indicates that the majority (89.78%) were not aware of the fact that the procedure they chose would be inappropriate. The current study confirmed that future primary school teachers have a lack of knowledge for immediate response to tooth avulsion, leaving small chances for a successful prognosis of tooth replantation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle
Parental Awareness of Oral Health and Nutritional Behavior in Children with Congenital Heart Diseases Compared to Healthy Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197057 - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
Parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) seem to underestimate the importance of optimized oral health. The low priority for a good oral hygiene and a healthy diet can be a risk factor for odontogenic bacteremia and infective endocarditis. The aim of [...] Read more.
Parents of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) seem to underestimate the importance of optimized oral health. The low priority for a good oral hygiene and a healthy diet can be a risk factor for odontogenic bacteremia and infective endocarditis. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the disease awareness and dental knowledge of the parents using a questionnaire. Therefore, parents from 107 children with CHD and a healthy control group (HCG) consisting of 101 children both aged 2 to 6 years were asked to complete a questionnaire containing items about the general health, oral hygiene behavior, preventive measures, dental visits and intake of potential drinks and cariogenic nutrition of their child. The results of the present study show that the CHD group had a poorer oral health behavior than the HCG. Healthy children brushed their teeth significantly more often (65.4%) than the CHD children (45.1%). Only 75% of CHD children used fluorides in their daily life in comparison to 86.6% of the healthy children, 8.7% of their parents neglected completely fluoride supplementation. Of all CHD children 23.1% in comparison to 8.1% of the controls had never visited a dentist before. Furthermore, the daily consumption of cariogenic food and drinks was generally higher in the CHD group. These findings demonstrate a need for improvement in parental knowledge of the efficiency of different measures to improve dental health. This important oral health for CHD children from the early stage of life is obvious, especially regarding their risk for odontogenic bacteria and infective endocarditis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Caries Prevalence, Oral Health Behavior and Sweets Nutritional Habits among 10 to 19-Year-Old Cluj-Napoca Romanian Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186923 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
Background and objectives: The primary oral disease during adolescence is dental caries. Less is known about the caries prevalence, oral health behavior, and sweets nutritional habits in Romanian adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the actual caries prevalence among [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The primary oral disease during adolescence is dental caries. Less is known about the caries prevalence, oral health behavior, and sweets nutritional habits in Romanian adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the actual caries prevalence among Romanian adolescents in a representative area of Romania, Cluj, and to correlate with oral hygiene behaviors and dietary sugary foods intake. Materials and methods: We have done a cross-sectional study of 650 adolescents aged 10 to 19-years-old (average age 15.3 ± 2.8). We performed the oral dental examination according to the WHO methodology, calculated the number of decayed, missing (due to caries), and filled teeth (DMFT index), assessed the oral hygiene and dietary behaviors using a two-section valid questionnaire and statistically analyzed the interrelation between DMFT, oral hygiene and eating behaviors by multivariate statistical analysis. Results: (a) The caries prevalence in the adolescent population enrolled in the study was 95.5%; (b) the mean DMFT was 3.13 ± 2.0, without significant differences between the urban and rural adolescents (p = 0.253); lower in females than males (p < 0.050), (c) more than one third (33.7%, n = 219) of teenagers are seldom or never brush their teeth in the evening; (c) 40.6% of adolescents are missing the regular annual dental check-ups leading to an increased DMFT as shown in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.038); and (d) there is an increased prevalence of caries with age (p = 0.020), and with sugary sweetened beverages consumption (p = 0.028). Conclusions: Our study evidenced a persistent high caries prevalence in Romanian teenagers. Their dietary habits and irregular dental check-up were associated with the occurrence of dental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
The Analysis of the Frequency of Leukoplakia in Reference of Tobacco Smoking among Northern Polish Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186919 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the study was an updated analysis of the frequency of leukoplakia in reference to tobacco smoking among the northern Polish population. Material and Methods: Medical records of 5720 patients who suffer from abnormalities and oral mucosa diseases between [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of the study was an updated analysis of the frequency of leukoplakia in reference to tobacco smoking among the northern Polish population. Material and Methods: Medical records of 5720 patients who suffer from abnormalities and oral mucosa diseases between January 2015–December 2018 were analyzed. Among them, 416 medical charts of patients with leukoplakia were selected. The study group consisted of 196 women and 220 men aged between 21–86 years (average 45.6 years). The analysis was conducted in terms of age, gender, and smoking tobacco. The basic criterion for inclusion in the study was the presence of oral leukoplakia confirmed by histopathological examination, recorded in the chart. Information about the patient’s active smoking was obtained from documented medical interviews. An active smoker was defined as a patient who smoked 10 or more cigarettes a day for at least the previous six months. The study used parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. Results: The highest incidence of leukoplakia was found in the age group 41–60 (46.6%), where the vast majority were active smokers (85.1%), and mostly men (86.2%). However, among patients with leukoplakia, the highest prevalence of smoking was found in the age group 21–40 years (86.8%) in women, where out of 38 patients with leukoplakia, 33 were active smokers. More patients with leukoplakia were observed in groups of smokers and it was statistically significant. Homogeneous form was the most commonly diagnosed form of leukoplakia in our study; it was found in almost 95% of cases. Leukoplakia was mainly observed on the cheeks. Changes on the gums, the alveolar process or the bottom of the tongue and mouth were rarely found. Conclusion: Our studies revealed that there is a statistically significant correlation between tobacco smoking and the presence of oral leukoplakia among the northern Polish population. It should be noted that dentists, in particular, are capable of early diagnosis and implementation of appropriate treatment of leukoplakia and, most often, crucial elimination of the main risk factor, which is smoking, and the implementation of effective tobacco control interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
The Association of Oral Function with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4863; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134863 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between oral function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in healthy university students. Oral functions and OHRQoL (General Oral Health Assessment Index; GOHAI) were investigated in 58 healthy university students. Oral [...] Read more.
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between oral function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in healthy university students. Oral functions and OHRQoL (General Oral Health Assessment Index; GOHAI) were investigated in 58 healthy university students. Oral functions, such as tongue pressure, tongue-lip motor function, occlusal force, and masticatory function, were examined. The participants were divided into two groups based on low and high GOHAI scores. Information about oral health, dental caries treatment history, insomnia, and personality and lifestyle was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire. Oral mucosal wetness scores and tongue-lip motor functions (oral diadochokinesis /ka/) were significantly decreased in the low GOHAI score group compared to the high GOHAI score group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.017, respectively). In the logistic regression model, the GOHAI score was independently associated with the oral mucosal wetness score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.622; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.411–0.941; p = 0.025) and oral diadochokinesis /ka/ (OR = 0.376; 95% CI, 0.170–0.832; p = 0.016). Our study demonstrated the presence of low oral function in university students and suggested its association to low OHRQoL in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle
Photobiomodulation Therapy on Orthodontic Movement: Analysis of Preliminary Studies with a New Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3547; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103547 - 19 May 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on the acceleration of orthodontic movements, deriving from its biostimulating and regenerative capacity on soft tissues, consequent to the increase in differentiation, proliferation, and activity of cells that are involved with alveolar [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on the acceleration of orthodontic movements, deriving from its biostimulating and regenerative capacity on soft tissues, consequent to the increase in differentiation, proliferation, and activity of cells that are involved with alveolar bone remodeling. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on six patients who required extractive orthodontic therapy because their ectopic canines had erupted. A total of eight canines were analyzed, four of which received laser irradiation (i.e., experimental group). Two weeks after the extractions, all canines of the experimental and placebo groups were distalized simultaneously and symmetrically with the laceback retraction technique. The PBMT protocol consisted of four cycles of laser applications, one each on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 of the study, with session treatment durations of 2–4 min. The results of the descriptive analysis on the distal displacement speed of the canines after 1 month of follow-up indicate an average displacement of 1.35 mm for the non-irradiated group and 1.98 mm for the irradiated group. Through inferential analysis, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the average speed of the irradiated canines and the control canines. The low energy density laser used in this study, with the parameters set, was found to be a tool capable of statistically significantly accelerating the distal displacement of canines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnostic Drama. Use of ICDAS II and Fluorescence-Based Intraoral Camera in Early Occlusal Caries Detection: A Clinical Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2937; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082937 - 24 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Early diagnosis of occlusal caries is of paramount importance for a minimally invasive approach in dentistry. The aim of the present in vivo clinical prospective study was to compare the diagnostic outcomes of visual subjective evaluation between the International Caries Detection and [...] Read more.
Background: Early diagnosis of occlusal caries is of paramount importance for a minimally invasive approach in dentistry. The aim of the present in vivo clinical prospective study was to compare the diagnostic outcomes of visual subjective evaluation between the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) and an intraoral fluorescence-based camera (VistaCam iX Proof, Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) for the detection of pits and fissures in early caries lesions of posterior teeth. Methods: The study included 1011 posterior teeth in 255 patients aged 13–20 years (mean age 16 ± 2.2 years). Two blinded operators evaluated all the occlusal surfaces and the first assigned an ICDAS-II code, while the second assessed the VistaCam score: sound enamel (score 0–1.2); initial enamel decay (score 1.2–1.5); dentine caries (score 1.5–3). Results: Some 283 (28%) of the assessed teeth were ICDAS-II code 0; 334 (33%) code 1; 189 (18.7%) code 2; 176 (17.4%) code 3; and 29 (2.9%) code 4. The level of agreement between the two procedures was expressed by using Cohen’s and Fleiss’ kappa statistics and performing McNemar’s test. VistaCam assessed in 513 (50.7%) sound enamel; in 292 (28.9%) initial enamel decay; and in 206 (20.4%) dentine caries. Conclusions: This comparative study showed a poor agreement between the two diagnostic methods, especially between ICDAS-II 0, 1 and 2 codes and fluorescence assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Application of Italian National Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Dental Injuries in Developmental Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082875 - 21 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the application of National guidelines for prevention and clinical management of traumatic dental injuries (NGPCMTDI) in developmental age published by the Italian Ministry of Health. Methods: In the present retrospective and multicenter [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the application of National guidelines for prevention and clinical management of traumatic dental injuries (NGPCMTDI) in developmental age published by the Italian Ministry of Health. Methods: In the present retrospective and multicenter study, 246 patients who underwent dental injury were selected to assess the management of the traumatic event compiled with the protocol provided by the National guidelines. Each health worker involved completed a form related to the dental injury in order to standardize the collected data. Two reference centers have been identified for data collection. Analyses for comparisons between groups were performed using the X2 test for categorical variables or by Fisher exact test as appropriate. Statistical significance was assumed at p < 0.05. Results: Evaluating the distribution by age we concluded that: 27.24% of the enrolled patients were aged 1–5 years, 51.63% 6–10 years, and 19.92% 11–17 years. The dental injuries occurred in 10.16% of the situations at home, 50.81% at school, 28.86% during recreation, and 9.35% at the gym. The deciduous dentition is involved in 34.96% of the traumas while the permanent dentition is involved in 69.51%. Conclusion: From the present study it emerged that the National guidelines are not uniformly applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Histological Effects of an Innovative 445 Nm Blue Laser During Oral Soft Tissue Biopsy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082651 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Continuously evolving laser devices can be used in various fields; they are an alternative to the traditional cold blade surgery to perform biopsies of oral soft tissues. The aspect focused on in this paper is the possibility to use the 445 nm diode [...] Read more.
Continuously evolving laser devices can be used in various fields; they are an alternative to the traditional cold blade surgery to perform biopsies of oral soft tissues. The aspect focused on in this paper is the possibility to use the 445 nm diode laser (Eltech K-Laser srl, Treviso, Italy) in complete safety, by evaluating its thermal effects during microscopy. A histological evaluation of the alteration of the peri-incisional edges on 10 samples was realized. All excisional biopsies were related to clinically unsuspected lesions and performed by the same expert operator. The surgical procedure was performed with the same laser parameters and the same pathologist evaluated the thermal effect on the samples. An average value of the detected tissue alteration was calculated; the average damage of the epithelium was 650.93 μm, while in the connective tissue it was 468.07 μm. In all the cases a clear diagnosis was possible, and no clinical complications were observed; so, the 445 nm diode laser proved to be a device that can be safely used for biopsies of clinically unsuspicious lesions. Due to the small number of cases, this in vivo preliminary experience needs to be extended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
The Prevention of Implant Surface Alterations in the Treatment of Peri-Implantitis: Comparison of Three Different Mechanical and Physical Treatments
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082624 - 11 Apr 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The surgical treatment of peri-implantitis is currently based on the removal of biofilms from the implant surface by primary means of mechanical and physical treatments. However, such approaches often determine some alterations of the implant surface with detrimental effects on re-osseointegration. This study [...] Read more.
The surgical treatment of peri-implantitis is currently based on the removal of biofilms from the implant surface by primary means of mechanical and physical treatments. However, such approaches often determine some alterations of the implant surface with detrimental effects on re-osseointegration. This study aims to evaluate the effects of four different mechanical and physical treatments on titanium samples with moderately rough surface. Air powder abrasion (AP) with glycine powder, a titanium brush (TB) and a diode laser at 3 W (L3) and 4 W (L4) were tested. Surface morphology, roughness and chemical composition were then assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), white light interferometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The microscopic analysis revealed significant alterations in surface morphology on TB samples, while AP and L3 had only a minor or null impact. L4 samples revealed signs of overheating due to the excessive power. Nevertheless, the overall roughness of the samples was not significantly altered in terms of roughness parameters. Similarly, surface chemical composition was not significantly affected by the treatments. Among the treatments tested in this study, air powder abrasion with glycine powder and 3 W diode laser had the lowest impact on surface physicochemical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Reasons for Tooth Extractions and Related Risk Factors in Adult Patients: A Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072575 - 09 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate oral status, the reasons for tooth extractions and related risk factors in adult patients attending a hospital dental practice. Methods: 120 consecutive patients ranging from 23 to 91 years in age (mean [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate oral status, the reasons for tooth extractions and related risk factors in adult patients attending a hospital dental practice. Methods: 120 consecutive patients ranging from 23 to 91 years in age (mean age of 63.3 ± 15.8) having a total of 554 teeth extracted were included. Surveys about general health status were conducted and potential risk factors such as smoking, diabetes and age were investigated. Results: a total of 1795 teeth were missing after extraction procedures and the mean number of remaining teeth after the extraction process was 16.8 ± 9.1 per patient. Caries (52.2%) was the most common reason for extraction along with periodontal disease (35.7%). Males were more prone to extractions, with 394 of the teeth extracted out of the total of 554 (71.1%). Male sex (β = 2.89; 95% CI 1.26, 4.53; p = 0.001) and smoking habit (β = 2.95; 95% CI 1.12, 4.79; p = 0.002) were related to a higher number of teeth extracted. Age (β = −0.24; 95% CI −0.31, −0.16; p < 0.001) and diabetes (β = −4.47; 95% CI −7.61, −1.33; p = 0.006) were related to a higher number of missing teeth at evaluation time. Moreover, periodontal disease was more common as a reason of extraction among diabetic patients than among non-diabetic ones (p = 0.04). Conclusions: caries and periodontal disease were the most common causes of extraction in a relatively old study population: further screening strategies might be required for the early interception of caries and periodontal disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Antibacterial Activity against Staphylococcus Aureus of Titanium Surfaces Coated with Graphene Nanoplatelets to Prevent Peri-Implant Diseases. An In-Vitro Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051568 - 29 Feb 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Dental implants are one of the most commonly used ways to replace missing teeth. Nevertheless, the close contact with hard and soft oral tissues expose these devices to infectious peri-implant diseases. To prevent such infection, several surface treatments have been developed in the [...] Read more.
Dental implants are one of the most commonly used ways to replace missing teeth. Nevertheless, the close contact with hard and soft oral tissues expose these devices to infectious peri-implant diseases. To prevent such infection, several surface treatments have been developed in the last few years to improve the antimicrobial properties of titanium dental implants. In this in-vitro pilot study, the antimicrobial activity of titanium surfaces coated with different types of graphene nanoplatelets are investigated. Six different colloidal suspensions of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were produced from graphite intercalated compounds, setting the temperature and duration of the thermal shock and varying the number of the exfoliation cycles. Titanium disks with sand-blasted and acid-etched surfaces were sprayed with 2 mL of colloidal GNPs suspensions. The size of the GNPs and the percentage of titanium disk surfaces coated by GNPs were evaluated through a field emission-scanning electron microscope. The antibacterial activity of the specimens against Staphylococcus aureus was estimated using a crystal violet assay. The dimension of GNPs decreased progressively after each sonication cycle. The two best mean percentages of titanium disk surfaces coated by GNPs were GNPs1050°/2 and GNPs1150°/2. The reduction of biofilm development was 14.4% in GNPs1150°/2, 20.1% in GNPs1150°/3, 30.3% in GNPs1050°/3, and 39.2% in GNPs1050°/2. The results of the study suggested that the surface treatment of titanium disks with GNPs represents a promising solution to improve the antibacterial activity of titanium implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Computing and Oral Health: Mobile Solution for Collecting, Data Analysis, Managing and Reproducing Epidemiological Research in Population Groups
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031076 - 08 Feb 2020
Abstract
Epidemiological inquiries study and evaluate the health status of the population. For dental caries, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the DMFT and DMFS indexes, which represent the sum of the decayed, missing and filled teeth, divided by the population studied. Traditionally these [...] Read more.
Epidemiological inquiries study and evaluate the health status of the population. For dental caries, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the DMFT and DMFS indexes, which represent the sum of the decayed, missing and filled teeth, divided by the population studied. Traditionally these surveys are conducted using cellulose paper sheet. This study describes the development and presents the field performance of NutriOdonto, a software created for an Oral Health Survey carried out in 2018 and 2019 involving 2578 students from the municipal schools of Palmas/TO, located in the Brazilian Amazon region. This is a descriptive, applied research on the development of a software for the collecting, analysis, management and reproducibility of oral health epidemiological research. A software applied to the collecting, analysis and formation of the database was developed through the information obtained from the questionnaires applied to the participants of the study and the completion of the electronic oral examination form. Recent Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are intelligently configured to create models and mobile applications (Apps) that can be useful to manage health issues, thus broadening the perspective of service provision in this sector. Some of these mobile devices, tablets and smartphones are being developed to generate information, for collection, recording, storage and analysis of oral health epidemiological research data. NutriOdonto contributed to the rapid collection, recording and storage of information, in the construction of the database and its analysis. Replacing paper forms with electronic forms minimized possible typos, reduced the use of cellulose paper and the financial costs, among other things. This software can contribute to decision making by managers and professionals and to improving the planning and implementation of actions in health promotion and oral disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Open AccessArticle
Piercing and Oral Health: A Study on the Knowledge of Risks and Complications
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020613 - 18 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to verify the knowledge of risks and complications of oral piercings, and to observe the main complications associated with piercings, using a sample from central Italy of patients wearing intraoral piercings. Through piercing and tattoo studios [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to verify the knowledge of risks and complications of oral piercings, and to observe the main complications associated with piercings, using a sample from central Italy of patients wearing intraoral piercings. Through piercing and tattoo studios selected randomly in Rome, Latina and Campobasso, and a tattoo and piercing convention in Latina, a group of 387 individuals with oral piercings were selected and asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. After filling in questionnaires, 70 individuals of the 387 selected agreed to be visited to allow the observation of the integrity of their teeth and gums (especially close to the oral piercing), oral hygiene conditions, piercing cleaning, bad habits and gingival recession. Among the respondents, 46.8% said they had not been informed about these risks, 48.5% claimed not to clean the piercing, 70.6% stated that they had not been made aware of gingival problems that can arise, 60.4% subjects stated that they were not informed about the complications of piercings concerning teeth, 52.8% had insufficient oral hygiene conditions, 42% showed signs of generalised gingivitis, 20% had 3–4 mm recessions and 22% had tooth fracture(s) due to piercing. From this study, it emerged that oral piercings can represent a risk to oral health and that there is a widespread lack of awareness of the complications and correct methods of maintaining oral piercings. Periodic checks by both dentists and dental hygienists, for patients with oral piercings, could play a decisive role in preventing, intercepting and treating the complications that they can cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Oral Health and Molecular Aspects of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Patients: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041426 - 23 Feb 2020
Abstract
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It occurs only occasionally in oral soft tissues, and knowledge about its characteristics is based on a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma belongs [...] Read more.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It occurs only occasionally in oral soft tissues, and knowledge about its characteristics is based on a limited number of cases reported in the literature. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma belongs to the group of soft tissue sarcomas and makes up less than 10% of soft tissue sarcomas. For therapeutic purposes, complete exeresis of the lesion (macroscopic and microscopic) is performed because they have frequent recurrences. As for complementary therapy in addition to surgery, neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy have been shown to reduce the risk of death related to the disease. Often patients complain of a swelling that grows in a short period of time. It is quite common for patients to report trauma in the area, which is not the cause, but rather the event that allows diagnosis. The mass usually does not cause pain unless it compresses an adjacent nerve structure. The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific literature in order to identify the most recent studies concerning malignant fibrous histiocytomas localized in oral soft tissues and report their main data. The main outcomes of this study concern the immunohistochemical, molecular, and clinical aspects of this pathology. A systematic review of articles in the electronic databases pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science was performed. After the selection process, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The mean age of the patients was 50.8 years old. The lesions affected various parts of the oral cavity, showing predominantly storiform–pleomorphic patterns. All cases except one were treated with surgical resection and radiation therapy. Although some data emerged from this review, they remain limited to a few case reports. Further studies are necessary in order to standardize the approach to patients affected by oral malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
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