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Open AccessArticle

Association of Oral Status and Early Primary Hypertension Biomarkers among Children and Adolescents

1
Department of Integrated Dentistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-812 Poznan, Poland
2
Psychiatric Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-806 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Pediatric Nephrology and Hypertension, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-572 Poznan, Poland
4
Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 60-781 Poznan, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Elzbieta Paszynska and Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz are both the first authors, these authors contributed equally to this work as the first authors.
Danuta Ostalska-Nowicka and Michal Nowicki are both the second authors, these authors contributed equally to this work as the second authors.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217981
Received: 28 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 30 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Prevention and Management of Oral Healthcare)
The aim of this case–control study was the evaluation of the association between biomarkers of early primary arterial hypertension (HA) and oral diseases among children and adolescents. Material and methods. Subjects suspected of primary HA (n = 180) underwent a complex evaluation of their vascular status: blood pressure, heart rate, vascular stiffness, sympathetic activity in a 24 h ambulatory examination, followed by measurement of serum uric acid (UA), cystatin C, and creatinine. This procedure allowed the identification of children with primary (n = 58) and secondary HA (n = 74), as well as of children with normal arterial blood pressure, who served as a control group (n = 48). All subjects with secondary HA were excluded from further investigation. Oral examination included the measurement of caries intensity (using the decayed, missing, filled index for permanent teeth DMFT /primary teeth dmft), bacterial plaque (by the plaque control record index, PCR%), and gingivitis (by the bleeding on probing index, BOP%). For statistical analysis, a linear regression model and Spearman rank correlation were used. Results. UA, cystatin C, and creatinine were not altered in the HA group. However, the number of decayed permanent teeth (DT) and the DMFT, PCR%, and BOP% indexes were significantly higher in the primary HA group compared to the control group (p = 0.0006; p = 0.02; p = 0.0009; p = 0.003). Our results are not sufficient to prove the important role of caries and gingival inflammation in the modulation of HA symptoms, although they prove the association of oral diseases with primary HA symptoms. This may indicate future strategies for preventive measures for hypertensive children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: caries; oral health; hypertension; uric acid; creatinine; cystatin C caries; oral health; hypertension; uric acid; creatinine; cystatin C
MDPI and ACS Style

Paszynska, E.; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M.; Ostalska-Nowicka, D.; Nowicki, M.; Gawriolek, M.; Zachwieja, J. Association of Oral Status and Early Primary Hypertension Biomarkers among Children and Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7981. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217981

AMA Style

Paszynska E, Dmitrzak-Weglarz M, Ostalska-Nowicka D, Nowicki M, Gawriolek M, Zachwieja J. Association of Oral Status and Early Primary Hypertension Biomarkers among Children and Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(21):7981. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217981

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paszynska, Elzbieta; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Ostalska-Nowicka, Danuta; Nowicki, Michal; Gawriolek, Maria; Zachwieja, Jacek. 2020. "Association of Oral Status and Early Primary Hypertension Biomarkers among Children and Adolescents" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 21: 7981. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217981

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